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FOLDED PLATES

Folded plates are assemblies of flat plates rigidly


connected together along their edges in such a way so as
to make the structural system capable of carrying loads
without the need for additional supporting beams along
mutual edges.

Types Of Folded Plates

1- Prismatic : if they consist of rectangular


plates.
2- Pyramidal : when non-rectangular plates
are used.
3- Prismoidal, triangular or trapezoidal.
Classification
single.
Multiple.
Symmetrical.
Unsymmetrical.
Simple.
Continuous.
Folded plates with simple joints.
Folded plates with multiple joints.
Folded plates with opened cross sectional.
Folded plates with closed cross sectional.
Folded Plate Behaviour :

Each plate is assumed to act as a beam


in its own plane, this assumption is
justified
when the ratio of the span "length" of the
plate to its height "width" is large
enough.
But when this ratio is small, the plate
behaves as a deep beam.
Principle
Folding system represent one category of plane
structural surfaces, alongside with plates and
slabs. Their special structural behavior is due
to their structural subdivision arrangement in
pairs which correlate with each other and so
they are connected through a shear
connection. The structural characteristics of a
folding structures depend on the shape of the
folding, on their geometrical basic shape, on
its material, on the connection of different
folding planes and on design of the bearings.
Structural Behaviour
The inner load transfer of a loading
structure happens through the twisted
plane, either through the structural
condition of the plate or through the
structural condition of the slab.
Roof Types
Gable
A very triangular roof, the gable allows rain and snow
to run off easily.

Cross Gable
This is like the gable roof, but has two parts that cross.
Flat
A flat roof is exactly that - flat. It is easy to build
and uses few materials.

Mansard
A French gable roof. The difference is that the
mansard has a flat area at the top instead of
being perfectly triangular. These are common in
French Chateau houses and Second Empire style
houses.
Hipped
A low-pitched roof that allows rain and snow to run
off easily, the hipped roof also allows for large eaves
on a building.

Cross Hipped
Similar to a hipped roof, but this roof has two parts that
cross .
Pyramidal
A hipped roof that forms a pyramid shape.

Shed
Similar to a gable roof, as it allows rain and snow to run
off easily. This is one of the easiest roofs to build.
Saltbox
Similar to a gable roof, but the two sides of it are not
symmetrical.

Gambrel
This roof looks more bell-like than triangular when
viewed from the side. It is like a flattened gable
roof. Many farms have gambrel roofs.
Pyramidal Roofs
Identifiable by its roof shape, the pyramidal-roof
house is a one-story building commonly of frame
construction. Its square-plan allows for a simple,
informal arrangement of rooms. The exterior of
the pyramidal-roof house is generally plain,
although additions such as ells, porches and
corner towers and applied ornamentation lend
variety to some examples.
The origins of the pyramidal-roof house are not
clear but have been attributed to Southern
building traditions. It appeared in the late-
nineteenth century and remained popular into
the early decades of the twentieth century.
Although a pyramid or hipped roof involves
more complex framing than a simple
pitched roof, it requires fewer long-
spanning rafters and therefore was less
expensive to build than other roof styles.

Pyramidal roof Hipped roof


The Advantages
Improved resistance to damaging winds.
Due to their aerodynamic shape, a pyramidal roof is
less likely to be damaged by high winds then most
other roof styles. This improves home safety in areas
where tornadoes, hurricanes, or other extreme wind
conditions are a concern.
Eaves on all sides.
Because the roof overhangs on all sides, the added
shade from the eaves helps keep the home cooler in
warm weather. This can lower energy bills by reducing
the amount of power the air conditioning needs to cool
the home.
Looks good.
With its even sides and overhanging eaves, the
pyramidal roof gives the home a striking and
distinctive appearance. This roof style looks good from
all angles.
The Disadvantages
Cost.
A pyramidal roof can cost more to install or replace then other
roof styles due to the increased surface area of the roof when
compared to other styles. This can require more roofing
materials and additional labour time.
Less space.
A pyramidal roof often created less usable interior attic space
then other roof styles for the same sized home. This can make
attic access more difficult and reduce the amount of usable
storage space.
Drainage and ventilation.
A pyramidal roof generally does not shed water as well as a
gable roof. This can make a pyramidal roof more likely to leak
than a gable roof. A pyramidal roof is also more difficult to
properly ventilate due to its basic design and construction
when compared to a gable roof. Both of these problems can be
partially overcome by careful construction and proper
inspection and maintenance.
Construction
A pyramid or square hip roof is shaped
like pyramid with four equal-sized
triangles rising to meet in the centre. On
a rectangular house, the roof will have
two rectangular sides and two trapezoidal
sides, all rising at the same pitch,
typically at 45 degrees.
ForcesinPyramidSurface
Under the effect of vertical loads stability is
maintained by bending and direct thrust in two
directions at right angels, as follows:
Meridian force T1 acting along the triangular sides of the
pyramid.
Horizontal force T2.
Bending moments in the inclined and horizontal directions.