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UPEC 2016

51st International Universities Power

Engineering Conference
6-9 September 2016

Optimal Geographical Placement

of Phasor Measurement Units
based on Clustering Techniques

D. Carrin1, E. Inga1, J. W. Gonzlez2 and R. Hincapi2

1
Universidad Politcnica Salesiana (Quito
2
Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (Medelln Colombia)
Overview
Introduction
Clustering Techniques
K-Means
K-Mmedoids

Problem Formulation and Results

Conclusions

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Introduction
Why use PMUs in EPS?
How to locate PMUs?

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Clustering Techniques
Clustering Techniques belong to graph theory.
They are used to identify elements with
common characteristics within a universe of
elements.

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Clustering Techniques (k-means)

This technique can find the centroid for each

cluster and the centroid can or cant to belong to
initial universe of elements.
k-means is a technique in which all variables are
quantitative and the Euclidean square distance (1).

Where:
( , ); it represents the Euclidean square distance.
; it represents the starting point.
; it represents the ending point.
; it represents the number of elements in the universe to study.
(1)

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Clustering Techniques (k-means)

k-means Algorithm
Step 1: Initialization center clusters

element

Step 3: Establish the elements of each

cluster

Step
Step 4:
4: Repeat
Repeat from
from step
step 2
2 and
and 3
3 to
to
converge
converge

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Clustering Techniques (k-medoids)

This technique can find the medoid for each cluster

and the centroid belong to initial universe of
elements.
In this technique clustering not only can be used
Euclidean square distance but can use circle
distance by Haversine formula (2), (3), (4).
Where:
; it represents the change in latitude between two
locations.
(2)
; it represents the change in longitude between two
locations.
(3) ; it represents the latitude.
; it represents the longitude.
(4) ; it represnts radius of the earth (6371 km).
; it represents the distance between two georeferenced
locations.

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Clustering Techniques (k-medoids)

k-medoids Algorithm
Step 1: Initialization center clusters

Step 4: Repeat from step 2 and 3 to

Step 4: Repeat from step 2 and 3 to
converge
converge

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Problem Formulation and Results

In the formulation of the problem it is assumed that all

nodes in the system are feasible placement of PMUs, for
it takes the EPS of Ecuador.

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Problem Formulation and Results
For k-means and k-medois algorithms was consider the same
observability criteria.

Between k-means is obtained 22 Between k-medoids is obtained

centroids in which can be placed 21 medoids in which can be
PMUs. placed PMUs.

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Problem Formulation and Results
In addition to these considerations it arises minimize the amount
of PMUs in EPS using MILP, which is expressed in (5):

Where:
; it represents the nodes number to the
system.
; it is the weight according to the cost of
(5) installation by PMU on the bus i
X; it represents a binary variable

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Problem Formulation and Results

Optimization Algorithm
Step 1: Income EPS georeferenced data
Matrix link: Origin, end, destination
Step 2: Clustering method selection
k-means obtaining centroids
k-medoids obtaining medoids
Step 3: Objective Function Optimization

where:
; it represents the number of clusters
; it represents the possible locations of PMUs
(Centroids or Medoids)

Step 4: Observability restrictions

Step 5: GAMS through the optimal solution is found
Step 5: Plots the result of the optimization

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Problem Formulation and Results

Optimizing the location of PMUs Optimizing the location of PMUs

without affecting the observability of without affecting the observability of
EPS using the technique of k-means; EPS using the technique of k-
thus is reduced from 22 to 17 PMUs medoids; thus is reduced from 21 to
PMUs 17 PMUs PMUs

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Conclusions
The complexity of the EPS currently makes the measurement of all
electrical parameters in real time is needed and therefore the PMUs
are the best alternative because the amount of data they can
measure almost can be considered a measurement time real. It said
the placement of these devices deserves a specific study to keep
EPS observability.
Through analysis and clustering techniques use to locate elements of
an EPS it has been shown that they can be used to locate and
distribute the PMUs in EPS, by dividing the same in coverage areas
of each PMU; that in the end this area represents the area of
observability of the same.
K-medoids is the best alternative compared to k-means, because for
k -means of a location on a node EPS be applied any additional
algorithm by which the centroid moves to a feasible location.
As for optimizing the amount of PMUs it was verified that no matter
how many initial clusters to be made with any technique
clusterization, what is sought is to have a 100% EPS observable.

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THANK YOU
Mail:

dcarrion@ups.edu.ec

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