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AERODINAMIKA TEKNIK

Textbook(s) and/or other required material

Textbook:
J. D. Anderson, Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, Wiley, 1992

References:
Ira H. Abbott and Albert E. Von Doenhoff, Theory of Wing Sections,
Dover, 1959.
J. J. Bertin and M. L. Smith, Aerodynamics for Engineers, Prentice-Hall,
1998.
Arnold M. Kuethe and Chuen-Yen Chow, Foundations of Aerodynamics:
Bases of Aerodynamic Design, 5th edn., Wiley, 1998.
Barnes Warnock McCormick, Aerodynamics, Aeronautics and Flight
Mechanics, Wiley, 1995.
Course objectives
Course Objectives: It is the instructor's intention to...
teach students the fundamentals of potential flow.
teach students the fundamentals of wing theory in both 2D and 3D.
teach students some of the fundamentals of propeller theory.
convey to the students the notion that mathematics is the only language suitable to describe
the physics of aerodynamics.
show students the direct application and physical significance of the formalism of calculus
learned during the first years of their undergraduate education.
convey to the students a knowledge of the limits of analytical solutions and the necessity,
usefulness and accuracy of computational methods.
provide an opportunity for the students to improve their team-work and report-writing skills.
Course Outcomes: Students must be able to...
use superposition of the solutions to Laplace's equation for some simple, fundamental flows to
model more complicated ones.
explain the concept of circulation and its relationship to the lift on an airfoil.
use a vortex sheet and vortex filament to model a 2D airfoil and wings of finite span.
explain the concept of lift-induced drag.
Contribution of course to meeting the professional component
This course contributes primarily to the students' knowledge of engineering
topics, but does not provide design experience.
The following statement indicates which of the following considerations are
included in this course: economic, environmental, ethical, political, societal,
health and safety, manufacturability, sustainability.
Focuses primarily on the theory of wings and the lift and drag associated
with airflow over those structures. It is primarily a technical course and
does not cover any of supplemental topics (economics, environmental,
etc).
Silabus
1. Fundamental principles
Introduction
Fundamental principles and equation
2. Inviscid, incompressible flow
Fundamental of inviscid, incompresible flow
Incompressible flow over airfoils
Incompressible flow over finite wings
3-D incompressible flow
3. Inviscid, compressible flow
Preliminary aspects
Normal shock wave and related topic
Oblique shock and expansion waves
Compressible flow through nozzles, diffuses and wind tunnel
Subsonic compressible flow over air foil: linear theory
4. Viscous flow
Introduction to fundamental principles and equations of viscous flow
Some special cases
Introduction to boundary layers
Fundamental principles
Introduction

Aerodynamics ?

The term of aerodynamics is generally used for problem


arising from flight and other topics involving the flow of air.
Ludwig Prandtl, 1949

Aerodynamics: the dynamics of gases, especially of


atmosphere interaction with moving objects.
The American Heritage Dictionary
of the English Language, 1969
Fundamental principles
Introduction

Aerodynamics , Historical examples:

August 8, 1588: Spanish armada vs English fleet.


1687: Principia by Isaac Newton.
Jean Le Rond dAlembert (1777) and Leonhard
Euler (1781): Invconsistency of Newtons model.
1901: Wilbur and Orville Wright
1939-1945: World War II
1951: H. Julian Allen , blunt reentry body.
Fundamental principles
Introduction

Classification
Hydrodynamics: flow of liquid
Gas dynamics : flow of gases
Aerodynamics : flow of air

Practical objectives:
The prediction of forces and moments on, and heat
transfer to, bodies moving through a fluid (usually
air) : external aerodynamics
Determine of flow moving internally throught duct.
We wish to calculate and measure the flow properties
inside rocket and air-breathing jet engines and to
calculate the engine thrust: internal aerodynamics.
Fundamental principles
Introduction
Fundamental principles
Introduction
Fundamental principles
Introduction

Fundamental aerodynamic variables


1. Pressure: normal force per unit area exerted on a surface
due to the time rate of change of momentum of the gas
molecules impacting on that surface.
Consider point B in volume of fluid, the pressure at
point B in the fluid is defined as
dF
p lim dA 0
dA
2. Density
dm
lim dv 0
dv
3. Temperature
3 KE: mean kinetic energy
KE kT k : Bolttzman constant
2
Fundamental principles
Introduction

Velocity

Fluid element velocity

Stream line
Fundamental principles
Introduction

Aerodynamics forces and moments


2 basic sources:
1. Pressure distribution over the body surface, p
2. Shear stress distribution over the body surface,
p act normal to the surface, and tangenttial to the surface.

The net effect of the p and distribution integrated over the


complete body surface is resultan aerodynamic force R and
moment M on the body.
p
M R
s V
Fundamental principles
Introduction

L= lift= component of R perpendicular to V (free


stream)
D=drag= component of R parallel to V (free stream)
Or N=normal force=component of R perpendicular to c
A=axial force=component of R parallel
N to c
(1.1)
L R
L= N cos A sin (1.2)
D= N sin + A cos
V
D
A
c
Fundamental principles
p su
Introduction
y

Leading edge (LE)


s A su x


V Trailing edge (TE)
p sl sl

dN u' pu dsu cos u dsu sin (1.3) dN l' pl dsl cos l dsl sin (1.5)

dAu' pu dsu sin u dsu cos (1.4) dAl' pl dsl sin l dsl cos (1.6)

pu cos u sin dsu LE pl cos l sin dsl


TE TE
N ' (1.7)
LE

pu sin u cos dsu LE pl sin l cos dsl


TE TE
A
'
(1.8)
LE
Fundamental principles
Introduction

dM u' pu cos u sin xdsu pu sin u cos ydsu (1.9)

dM l' pl cos l sin xdsl pl sin l cos ydsl (1.10)

pu cos u sin x pu sin u cos y dsu


TE
M '
LE
LE

pl cos l sin x pl sin l cos y ydsl


TE
(1.11)
LE
Fundamental principles
Introduction

Free stream dynamic pressure


1 L
q V2 Lift coefficient CL
q S
2 CD
D
Drag coefficient
q S
N
Normal force coefficient CN
q S
A
Axial force coefficient CA
q S
M
Moment coefficient CM
q S l
2 dimensional bodies, force and moment perunit span, reference area S=c(1)=c

L' D' M'


cl ; cd ; cm
q c q c q c 2

p p
Pressure coefficient:
Cp
q


Skin friction coefficient: cf
q
dx
dx ds cos ; dy ds sin ; S c l ds

dy

Substituting above equation into eqs. (1.7), (1.8) y


and (1.11), dividing by q and S, we obtain
ds
1 dy
C dx
c c dyu x
cn p ,l C p ,u c f ,u c f ,l l dx
c 0 0
dx dx
c
1
dx 0 c f ,u c f ,l dx
c dyu dyl c
ca
c
0
C p ,u
dx
C p ,l
dx

1
c c p ,l xdx c f ,u
c c dyu dyl
c mLE 2 p ,u c f ,l xdx
c 0 0
dx dx
1 c dyu c dy
c 2
0
C p ,u
dx
c f ,u yu dx C p ,l l c f ,l yl dx
0
dx

cl cn cos ca sin
cd cn sin ca cos
Fundamental principles
Introduction
N'
Center of Pressure '
M LE
A'
'
M LE cp N ' sin 0
'

' cos 1 cp
MLE xcp
M '
cp LE L
N ' L' N ' Center for pressure for an airfoil

N' N' N'


'
M LE M c'
A' 4
A' A'

c xcp
4
R at LE R at quarter chord point R at center of pressure

c '
M '
LE L M c' / 4 cp L'
4
Dimensional analysis
Buckingham pi theorem

R f , V , c, , a
Dimensional analysis is based on the obvious fact that in equation dealing with
the real physical world, each term must have the same dimensions.

1

K: number of fundamental dimension required to describe the physical variables
(mass, length, and time , hence K=3)

f1 p1 , p2 ,....., p N 0 f 2 1 , 2 ,......, N K 0

1 f 3 p1 , p2 ,...... pK , pK 1
2 f 4 p1 , p2 ,...... pK , pK 2
............................................
N K f 5 p1 , p2 ,...... pK , p N
g R, , V , c, , a 0
K=3; m = dimension of mass, l = dimension of length, and t = dimension of time
R mlt 2 N-K=6-3=3
ml 3 f 2 1 , 2 , 3 0
V lt 1
1 f 3 , V , c, R
c l N=6
ml 1t 1 2 f 4 , V , c,
a lt 1 3 f 5 , V , c, a

1 dVb c e R m : d+1=0
l : -3d+b+e+1=0
1 ml lt l e mlt 2
3 d 1 b
t : -b-2=0
d=-1, b=-2, and e=-2

1 R 1V2 c 2
R R R
R 1 CR
1 1 1 q S
V2 c 2 V2 c 2 V2 S
2 2
m : 1+j=0
2 Vh c i
j
l : -3+h+i-j=0
2 ml lt l ml
3 1 h i
t
1 1 j t : -h-j=0
j=-1, h=1, and i=1

V c
2 Free stream Reynolds number

3 V k c r a
s m : k=0
l : 1-3k+r+s=0
3 lt ml l lt
1 3 k r 1 s t : -1-s=0
k=0, s=-1, and r=0

V
3 Free stream Mach number
a

C R f 6 Re, M C R f 6 Re, M ,
V c V
f2
R
, , 0 C L f 7 Re, M C L f 7 Re, M ,
V 2 S a
1
C D f 8 Re, M C D f 8 Re, M ,
2
f 2 C R , Re, M 0 CM f 9 Re, M C M f 9 Re, M ,
Fundamental principles
Introduction

Flow Similarity
2 different flow fields over2 different bodies are dynamically
similar if:
1. The streamline pattern are geometrically similar
2. The distribution of V/V, p/p, T/T , etc throught the flow field are
the same when plotted against common nondimensional
coordinates.
3. The force coefficients are the same

The flow will be dynamically similar if:


1. The bodies and any other solid boundaries are geometrically
similar for both flows.
2. The similarity parameters are the same for both flow.
Non-Dimensional Number Definition Significance Application

Reynolds Number, Re All branches of fluid dynamics

Mach Number, M Compressible flow

Froude Number, Fr Free surface flow

Prandtl Number, Pr Heat transfer

Ratio of Specific Heats, k Compressible flow

Roughness Ratio Turbulent flow

Aerodynamics,Hydrodynamics
Pressure Coefficient, Cp

Drag Coefficient, CD Aerodynamics,Hydrodynamics

Lift Coefficient, CL
Aerodynamics,Hydrodynamics

Skin Friction, cf
Boundary layer flow
Fundamental principles
Introduction
Net pressure force
Fluid Static
dp
p dxdz p dy dxdz
dy
y
p
dp
dy dxdz 1 p1,h1
dy
dp
dz
dy
dxdydz
dx h dy

pdxdz 2 p2,h2 Gravity force


g dxdydz
dxdydz g
x

z
= constant
p2 h2

Fluid element is stationary (in equilibrium)


p1
dp g dy
h1

dp p2 p1 g h2 h1 gh
dxdydz g dxdydz 0
dy p2 gh2 p1 gh1
dp gdy
p gh c
Fundamental principles
Introduction

Buoyancy Force
Solid or Element of fluid
y hollow body p1

h1 dy

h2 1
l
p2
F p2 p1 l 1
p2 h2 h1
x p2 p1 dp gdy gdy
p1 h1 h2

F l 1 gdy
h1
z
h2

Buoyancy force on body = weight of fluid displaced by body


Fundamental principles
Introduction

Types of Flow

Continuum versus Free Types of Flow


Molecule Flow
Inviscid versus Viscous Flow
Incompressible versus Compressible Flow
Mach Number Regimes
Subsonic if M<1
Sonic if M=1
Supersonic if M>1
GA(W)-1 Airfoil-Thicker For Better Structure and Lower Weight-Good Stall
Characterististics- Chamber Is Maintained Farther Rearward Which Increases Lifting Cap
More Of The Airfoil and Decreases Drag.

Low Chamber -Low Drag-High Speed-Thin Wing Section-Good For


Racing aircraft, Fighters and Interceptor Planes.

Deep Chamber-High Lift-Low Speed-Thick Wing Section-Good For


Transport, Freighters and Bomber Planes.

Deep Chamber-High Lift-Low Speed-Thin Wing Section-


Good For Transport, Freighter and Bomber Planes.
Low Lift-High Drag-Reflex Trailing Edge Wing Section.
Very Little Movement Of Center Pressure. Good Stability.

Symmetrical (Cambered Top and Bottom) Wing Section-Similar To Above.