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Textbook:

J. D. Anderson, Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, Wiley, 1992

References:

Ira H. Abbott and Albert E. Von Doenhoff, Theory of Wing Sections,

Dover, 1959.

J. J. Bertin and M. L. Smith, Aerodynamics for Engineers, Prentice-Hall,

1998.

Arnold M. Kuethe and Chuen-Yen Chow, Foundations of Aerodynamics:

Bases of Aerodynamic Design, 5th edn., Wiley, 1998.

Barnes Warnock McCormick, Aerodynamics, Aeronautics and Flight

Mechanics, Wiley, 1995.

Course objectives

Course Objectives: It is the instructor's intention to...

teach students the fundamentals of potential flow.

teach students the fundamentals of wing theory in both 2D and 3D.

teach students some of the fundamentals of propeller theory.

convey to the students the notion that mathematics is the only language suitable to describe

the physics of aerodynamics.

show students the direct application and physical significance of the formalism of calculus

learned during the first years of their undergraduate education.

convey to the students a knowledge of the limits of analytical solutions and the necessity,

usefulness and accuracy of computational methods.

provide an opportunity for the students to improve their team-work and report-writing skills.

Course Outcomes: Students must be able to...

use superposition of the solutions to Laplace's equation for some simple, fundamental flows to

model more complicated ones.

explain the concept of circulation and its relationship to the lift on an airfoil.

use a vortex sheet and vortex filament to model a 2D airfoil and wings of finite span.

explain the concept of lift-induced drag.

Contribution of course to meeting the professional component

This course contributes primarily to the students' knowledge of engineering

topics, but does not provide design experience.

The following statement indicates which of the following considerations are

included in this course: economic, environmental, ethical, political, societal,

health and safety, manufacturability, sustainability.

Focuses primarily on the theory of wings and the lift and drag associated

with airflow over those structures. It is primarily a technical course and

does not cover any of supplemental topics (economics, environmental,

etc).

Silabus

1. Fundamental principles

Introduction

Fundamental principles and equation

2. Inviscid, incompressible flow

Fundamental of inviscid, incompresible flow

Incompressible flow over airfoils

Incompressible flow over finite wings

3-D incompressible flow

3. Inviscid, compressible flow

Preliminary aspects

Normal shock wave and related topic

Oblique shock and expansion waves

Compressible flow through nozzles, diffuses and wind tunnel

Subsonic compressible flow over air foil: linear theory

4. Viscous flow

Introduction to fundamental principles and equations of viscous flow

Some special cases

Introduction to boundary layers

Fundamental principles

Introduction

Aerodynamics ?

arising from flight and other topics involving the flow of air.

Ludwig Prandtl, 1949

atmosphere interaction with moving objects.

The American Heritage Dictionary

of the English Language, 1969

Fundamental principles

Introduction

1687: Principia by Isaac Newton.

Jean Le Rond dAlembert (1777) and Leonhard

Euler (1781): Invconsistency of Newtons model.

1901: Wilbur and Orville Wright

1939-1945: World War II

1951: H. Julian Allen , blunt reentry body.

Fundamental principles

Introduction

Classification

Hydrodynamics: flow of liquid

Gas dynamics : flow of gases

Aerodynamics : flow of air

Practical objectives:

The prediction of forces and moments on, and heat

transfer to, bodies moving through a fluid (usually

air) : external aerodynamics

Determine of flow moving internally throught duct.

We wish to calculate and measure the flow properties

inside rocket and air-breathing jet engines and to

calculate the engine thrust: internal aerodynamics.

Fundamental principles

Introduction

Fundamental principles

Introduction

Fundamental principles

Introduction

1. Pressure: normal force per unit area exerted on a surface

due to the time rate of change of momentum of the gas

molecules impacting on that surface.

Consider point B in volume of fluid, the pressure at

point B in the fluid is defined as

dF

p lim dA 0

dA

2. Density

dm

lim dv 0

dv

3. Temperature

3 KE: mean kinetic energy

KE kT k : Bolttzman constant

2

Fundamental principles

Introduction

Velocity

Stream line

Fundamental principles

Introduction

2 basic sources:

1. Pressure distribution over the body surface, p

2. Shear stress distribution over the body surface,

p act normal to the surface, and tangenttial to the surface.

complete body surface is resultan aerodynamic force R and

moment M on the body.

p

M R

s V

Fundamental principles

Introduction

stream)

D=drag= component of R parallel to V (free stream)

Or N=normal force=component of R perpendicular to c

A=axial force=component of R parallel

N to c

(1.1)

L R

L= N cos A sin (1.2)

D= N sin + A cos

V

D

A

c

Fundamental principles

p su

Introduction

y

s A su x

V Trailing edge (TE)

p sl sl

dN u' pu dsu cos u dsu sin (1.3) dN l' pl dsl cos l dsl sin (1.5)

dAu' pu dsu sin u dsu cos (1.4) dAl' pl dsl sin l dsl cos (1.6)

TE TE

N ' (1.7)

LE

TE TE

A

'

(1.8)

LE

Fundamental principles

Introduction

TE

M '

LE

LE

TE

(1.11)

LE

Fundamental principles

Introduction

1 L

q V2 Lift coefficient CL

q S

2 CD

D

Drag coefficient

q S

N

Normal force coefficient CN

q S

A

Axial force coefficient CA

q S

M

Moment coefficient CM

q S l

2 dimensional bodies, force and moment perunit span, reference area S=c(1)=c

cl ; cd ; cm

q c q c q c 2

p p

Pressure coefficient:

Cp

q

Skin friction coefficient: cf

q

dx

dx ds cos ; dy ds sin ; S c l ds

dy

and (1.11), dividing by q and S, we obtain

ds

1 dy

C dx

c c dyu x

cn p ,l C p ,u c f ,u c f ,l l dx

c 0 0

dx dx

c

1

dx 0 c f ,u c f ,l dx

c dyu dyl c

ca

c

0

C p ,u

dx

C p ,l

dx

1

c c p ,l xdx c f ,u

c c dyu dyl

c mLE 2 p ,u c f ,l xdx

c 0 0

dx dx

1 c dyu c dy

c 2

0

C p ,u

dx

c f ,u yu dx C p ,l l c f ,l yl dx

0

dx

cl cn cos ca sin

cd cn sin ca cos

Fundamental principles

Introduction

N'

Center of Pressure '

M LE

A'

'

M LE cp N ' sin 0

'

' cos 1 cp

MLE xcp

M '

cp LE L

N ' L' N ' Center for pressure for an airfoil

'

M LE M c'

A' 4

A' A'

c xcp

4

R at LE R at quarter chord point R at center of pressure

c '

M '

LE L M c' / 4 cp L'

4

Dimensional analysis

Buckingham pi theorem

R f , V , c, , a

Dimensional analysis is based on the obvious fact that in equation dealing with

the real physical world, each term must have the same dimensions.

1

K: number of fundamental dimension required to describe the physical variables

(mass, length, and time , hence K=3)

f1 p1 , p2 ,....., p N 0 f 2 1 , 2 ,......, N K 0

1 f 3 p1 , p2 ,...... pK , pK 1

2 f 4 p1 , p2 ,...... pK , pK 2

............................................

N K f 5 p1 , p2 ,...... pK , p N

g R, , V , c, , a 0

K=3; m = dimension of mass, l = dimension of length, and t = dimension of time

R mlt 2 N-K=6-3=3

ml 3 f 2 1 , 2 , 3 0

V lt 1

1 f 3 , V , c, R

c l N=6

ml 1t 1 2 f 4 , V , c,

a lt 1 3 f 5 , V , c, a

1 dVb c e R m : d+1=0

l : -3d+b+e+1=0

1 ml lt l e mlt 2

3 d 1 b

t : -b-2=0

d=-1, b=-2, and e=-2

1 R 1V2 c 2

R R R

R 1 CR

1 1 1 q S

V2 c 2 V2 c 2 V2 S

2 2

m : 1+j=0

2 Vh c i

j

l : -3+h+i-j=0

2 ml lt l ml

3 1 h i

t

1 1 j t : -h-j=0

j=-1, h=1, and i=1

V c

2 Free stream Reynolds number

3 V k c r a

s m : k=0

l : 1-3k+r+s=0

3 lt ml l lt

1 3 k r 1 s t : -1-s=0

k=0, s=-1, and r=0

V

3 Free stream Mach number

a

C R f 6 Re, M C R f 6 Re, M ,

V c V

f2

R

, , 0 C L f 7 Re, M C L f 7 Re, M ,

V 2 S a

1

C D f 8 Re, M C D f 8 Re, M ,

2

f 2 C R , Re, M 0 CM f 9 Re, M C M f 9 Re, M ,

Fundamental principles

Introduction

Flow Similarity

2 different flow fields over2 different bodies are dynamically

similar if:

1. The streamline pattern are geometrically similar

2. The distribution of V/V, p/p, T/T , etc throught the flow field are

the same when plotted against common nondimensional

coordinates.

3. The force coefficients are the same

1. The bodies and any other solid boundaries are geometrically

similar for both flows.

2. The similarity parameters are the same for both flow.

Non-Dimensional Number Definition Significance Application

Aerodynamics,Hydrodynamics

Pressure Coefficient, Cp

Lift Coefficient, CL

Aerodynamics,Hydrodynamics

Skin Friction, cf

Boundary layer flow

Fundamental principles

Introduction

Net pressure force

Fluid Static

dp

p dxdz p dy dxdz

dy

y

p

dp

dy dxdz 1 p1,h1

dy

dp

dz

dy

dxdydz

dx h dy

g dxdydz

dxdydz g

x

z

= constant

p2 h2

p1

dp g dy

h1

dp p2 p1 g h2 h1 gh

dxdydz g dxdydz 0

dy p2 gh2 p1 gh1

dp gdy

p gh c

Fundamental principles

Introduction

Buoyancy Force

Solid or Element of fluid

y hollow body p1

h1 dy

h2 1

l

p2

F p2 p1 l 1

p2 h2 h1

x p2 p1 dp gdy gdy

p1 h1 h2

F l 1 gdy

h1

z

h2

Fundamental principles

Introduction

Types of Flow

Molecule Flow

Inviscid versus Viscous Flow

Incompressible versus Compressible Flow

Mach Number Regimes

Subsonic if M<1

Sonic if M=1

Supersonic if M>1

GA(W)-1 Airfoil-Thicker For Better Structure and Lower Weight-Good Stall

Characterististics- Chamber Is Maintained Farther Rearward Which Increases Lifting Cap

More Of The Airfoil and Decreases Drag.

Racing aircraft, Fighters and Interceptor Planes.

Transport, Freighters and Bomber Planes.

Good For Transport, Freighter and Bomber Planes.

Low Lift-High Drag-Reflex Trailing Edge Wing Section.

Very Little Movement Of Center Pressure. Good Stability.

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