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Periodic Table

(Shape of Molecule)
Learning Outcome :

Draw diagrams showing covalent bonds,


non-bonding pairs, and shapes of
molecules for two element ions
containing no more than 5 atoms.
Examples that involve valence shell
octet expansion are limited to PO4 3-
tetrahedra, SO2 and SO3.
Predict the shapes of covalent
compounds using VSEPR Theory.
Shape of molecules
Pairs of electrons Shape

1 or 2 Linear

3 Trigonal Planar

4 Tetrahedral

5 Trigonal bipyramidal

6 Octahedral
The shape of molecules

The spatial arrangement of atoms in


individual molecules can be determined
by techniques such as electron
diffraction.
These shapes can also be explained and
predicted by using Valence Shell
Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
(VSEPR).
Pairs of valence electrons in molecules repel
each other to positions as far apart as
possible.
Repulsion occurs between :
a) Bonding pairs of electrons
b) Bonding and Non-bonding pairs of electrons
c) Single, double and triple pairs of electrons.
VSEPR

Which is the central atom of the


molecule.
The number of bonding and non-bonding
pairs of electrons around the central
atom.
The repulsion pattern of these valence
electrons.
Shape of molecules
Pairs of electrons Shape

1 or 2 Linear

3 Trigonal Planar

4 Tetrahedral

5 Trigonal bipyramidal

6 Octahedral
Pairs of Bonding Non- Shape
electrons pair bonding
pair
3 3 0 Trigonal
planar
3 2 1 V-shape/
bent
4 4 0 Tetrahedral

4 3 1 Trigonal
pyramidal
4 2 2 V-shape/
bent
Example 1
Predict and explain the molecular shape of
methane by using VSEPR.

Step 1 : C is central atom


Step 2 : draw the Lewis structure of CH4
Step 3 : how many pairs of electrons - tetrahedral
Step 4 : Count how many bonding and non-
bonding pairs of electrons.
Step 5 : shape - tetrahedral
Explanation

The central C atom has ____ pairs of


electrons in its valence shell.
These ____pairs of electrons will
arrange in the shape of _________in
order to obtain maximum stability.
All these ____ pairs of electrons are
_______ pairs of electrons.
The molecular shape of methane is
_____________.
Example 2

Predict and explain the molecular shape


of ammonia NH3.

Step 1 : central atom = N


Step 2 : draw the Lewis structure of NH3
Step 3 : 4 pairs of electrons tetrahedral
Step 4 : 3 bonding & 1 non-bonding
Step 5 : Shape = Trigonal pyramidal
Explanation

The central N atom has ____pairs of


electrons in its valence shell.
These __ pairs of electrons will arrange
in the shape of ________ to obtain
maximum stability.
Since ___pairs of electrons are ______
and ___pair of electron is ________, the
molecular shape of ammonia is
__________.
Example 3
Predict and explain the shape of H2O by using
VSEPR.

Step 1 : Central atom = O


Step 2 : Draw the Lewis structure of H2O
Step 3 : How many pairs of electrons
Step 4 : Shape to obtain maximum stability
Step 5 : How many bonding and non-bonding pairs
of electrons
Step 6 : Shape ?
Explanation

The central O atom has 4 pairs of


electrons in its valence shell.
These 4 pairs of electrons will arrange in
tetrahedral in order to obtain maximum
stability.
Since 2 pairs of electrons are bonding
and 2 pairs are non-bonding electrons,
the molecular shape of water is V-shape/
bent.
Example 4

Predict and explain the shape of SO3 by


using VSEPR.
Step 1 : Central atom = S
Step 2 : Draw the Lewis structure of SO3
Step 3 : How many pairs of electrons
Step 4 : Shape to obtain maximum stability
Step 5 : How many bonding & non-bonding
Step 6 : Shape ?
Explanation

The central S atom has 3 regions of


electrons in its valence shell.
These 3 regions of electrons will arrange
in trigonal planar in order to obtain
maximum stability.
Since 3 regions of electrons are bonding
and, the molecular shape of SO3 is
trigonal planar.
How can Sulfur and
Phosphorus form
expanded octet
configuration ?
Electron configuration of

Phosphorus :
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3 3d0

Sulfur :
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4 3d0
Group V element

In their compounds, they either exhibit a


covalence of 3 such as nitrogen,
phosphorus and arsenic atoms share
only 3 electrons from p-orbital to form
covalent bonds with other non-metal
atoms.
They can also exhibit covalence of 5
such as phosphorus and arsenic share
all 5 electrons from s2 and p3 orbitals to
form covalent bonds with other non-
metal atoms.
Sharing 5 pairs of electrons with other
atoms will form expanded octet
configuration ( 10 electrons at outermost
shell)
Group VI elements

In their compounds, they exhibit


covalence of 2 such as oxygen, sulfur
and selenium by sharing 2 electrons
from s2p4 orbitals.
They can also exhibit covalence of 4
such as sulfur and selenium by sharing
4 electrons s2p4 orbitals with other non-
metal atoms.
Sulfur and selenium can also exhibit
covalence of 6 by sharing all 6
electrons from s2p4 orbitals to form
covalent bonds with other non-metal
atoms.
Sharing 6 pairs of electrons in a covalent
compounds will give expanded octet
configuration (12 electrons)