TRAINING WORKSHOP ON NON-WOVENS IN GEOTEXTILES AT SURAT

5TH MARCH 2008

BY S.K. PURI CHIEF GENERAL MANAGER - NHAI

National Highways
‡ Total Length of NHs : 65,569 km (2% of total road length) ‡ Roads carry 85% of Passenger and 70% of Freight Traffic ‡ NHs carry about 40% of traffic ‡ NHAI is entrusted with implementation of National Highways Development Project (NHDP)

Components of NHDP
Phase I Length (Km) Bal. 1738 Cost (Rs crore) Bal. 9071

Focus Golden quadrilateral (GQ)- connecting DelhiMumbai-Chennai- Kolkata-Delhi Total Length 5846 North South& East west Corridors (NS-EW)
Total Length 7300

II III

Bal. 6736 12,109

Bal. 43623 80,626

State capital connectivity,High traffic density, Imp.centers of tourism &economic activity Widening & Strengthening to 2-lane with Paved shoulders Six laning of high density corridors Expressway for connecting important places Ring roads to cities, flyovers, by-passes Special Accelerated Road Development Programme for NE International Container Transhipment Terminal

IV

20,000

27,800

V VI VII SARDPNE ICTT Cochin Total

6,500 1000 Km (Being identified) 588

41,210 16,680 16,680 5208

17 48,688

557 2,41,454

Definition, Type, Process and Properties

What is a Geotextile?
Any permeable textile natural or synthetic, used with foundation soil, rock, earth, or any other geotechnical engineering related material.

Types of Geotextile Non-woven

Woven

Nonwoven Geotextiles
Method of production Process Form of fibre Polymer PP/PE bi-component PP

Continuous filament Heat-bonded Staple fibre

PP PP/PE mix Nonwovens PP PET HDPE PP PET

Staple fibre Needle-punched Continuous filament

Nonwoven Geotextiles

Needle Punched nonwoven

Thermally bonded nonwoven

Woven Geotextiles
Method of production Process Form of fibre Slit-flat tape Fibrillated yarn Multi-filament yarn Medium mono filament with yarn Polymer PP (HDPE) PP PET (PA)

Wide loom (beam) Wide loom (creel) Woven <3.8m loom (beam)

PP HDPE PA

Woven Geotextiles

Slit film tape-on-slit film tape

Extruded tape-on-extruded tape

Woven Geotextiles

PET multifilament woven fabric

Monofil woven fabric

Knitted Geotextiles

Met

f r

t

Pr

ess

For

of f re

Polymer

St t Knitted

ed- onded

Nonwoven base wit multi- PP or PE nonwoven filament stit yarn PE stit ing filament yarn Multi-filament yarn PE PE

Weft insertion War knitted

Knitted Geotextiles

Knitted base

Upper surface

Physical Properties
Property Thickness Stiffness Value range 0.25 ± 7.5 mm Nil ± 25,000 mg-cm

Mechanical Properties
Property Compressibility Tensile strength (grab) Tensile strength ( wide width) Confined tensile strength Seam strength Cycle fatigue strength Burst strength Tear strength Impact strength Puncture strength Friction behavior Pullout behavior Nil to high 0.45-4.5 kN 9-180 kN/m 18-180 kN/m 50-100% of tensile 50-100% of tensile 350-5200 k Pa 90-1300 N 14-200 J 45-450 N 60-100% of soil friction 50-100% of geotextile strength Value Range

Hydraulic Properties
Property Porosity (non wovens) Present open area (wovens) Apparent opening size ( sieve size) Permittivity Permittivity under load Transmissivity Soil retention: silt fences Value Range 50-95% Nil to 36% 2.0 to 0.075 mm ( # 10 to # 200) 0.02-2.2s-1 0,01-3.0s-1 0.01 to 2.0 x10-3m2/min Must be evaluated

Soil retention: turbidity curtains Must be evaluated

Endurance Properties
Property Installation damage Creep response Confined creep response Stress relaxation Abrasion Long-term clogging Gradient ratio clogging Value Range 0.70% of fabric strength g.n.p.if <40% strength is being used g.n.p.if <50% strength is being used g.n.p.if <40% strength is being used 50-100% of geotextile strength m.b.e.for critical conditions m.b.e. for critical conditions

Hydraulic conductivity ratio 0.4-0.8 appear to be acceptable
g.n.p. ± generally no problem, m.b.e. ± must be evaluated

Degradation Properties
Property Temperature degradation Oxidative degradation Hydrolysis degradation Chemical degradation Radioactive degradation Biological degradation Sunlight ( UV) degradation Synergistic effects General aging Value Range High temperature accelerates degradation m.b.e. for long service lifetimes m.b.c. for long service lifetimes g.n.p.unless aggressive chemicals g.n.p. g.n.p. Major problem unless protected m.b.e. Actual record to date is excellent

TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GEOTEXTILES
Functi n Separati n Filtration Drainage Reinforcement Strength range k per 0.5 ± 5 0.3 ± 2 1±5 30 - 1000 Mass per unit area gm per sq m 70 - 500 70 - 250 500 - 2000 /A R ll i th Metre 3.8 to 5.5 (4.5) 2.5 to 4.5 1.5 to 5.5 3.8 to 5.5 or strips R ll length Metre 50 to100 50 to100 25 to 50 50 to100 or Define

The polymers used for Geotextile

DENSITY POLYMER PE, PP PET g/cm 0.90 to 0.95 1.38
3

MELTING STRAIN UNITS ºC % 110 to 170 >100 >240 10 to 15

CREEP CREEP HIGH LOW

Abbreviation:
PE: Polyethylene PP: Polypropylene PET: Polyester

Durability Test Methods for Geotextile
EN 12447 EN 12226 EN 14030 (ISO 12960) Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Screening test method for determining the resistance to hydrolysis in water Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - General tests for e alua tion following dura ility testing Geotextiles and geotextile-related products -Screening test method for determining the resistance to acid and a lk aline liquids

Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - Screening test EN ISO 13438 method for determining the resistance to oxidation at ele ated oxygen pressure Geotextiles and geotextile-related products - M ic robiological EN ISO 12225 resistance (soil burial)

Functions and properties of Geotextiles

The functions of Geotextiles 
Separator  Reinforcement  Drainage  Filter 

ontainer 

Energy absorber

APPLICATIONS FOR GEOTEXTILES

Roads

Railroads

Retaining walls

Reservoirs, dams

Liquid waste

Solid waste

Drainage systems Erosion protection

1 ROADS
1.1 APPLICATIONS IN FILTRATION AND DRAINAGE

applications
Pa ement drains Sub-horizontal drains Curtains Trenches Settlement acceleration

materials
Geotextiles Geocomposite drain (PVD)

1 ROADS
1.2 APPLICATIONS IN EROSION CONTROL SUPERFICIAL EROSION

silt fences
MATERIALS GEOTEXTILES

Detain carried particles: during construction, before vegetation or under wind effects

1 ROADS
1.3 APPLICATIONS AS BARRIER MEMBRANE-ENCAPSULATED SOILS - moisture barrier maintenance of base material properties for use in low cost pavements in: wet regions expansive clays good base soils (lateritic soils,..)

Materials asphalt impregnated geotextiles reinforced geomembranes geogrids (when hard cracking)

1 ROADS
1.4 SEPARATION AND REINFORCEMENT MATERIALS
SEPARATION GEOTEXTILES GEOCOMPOSITES REINFORCEMENT GEOGRIDS GEOTEXTILES GEOSTRIPS

2 BENEFITS OF GEOSYNTHETIC SEPARATORS
2.1 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
Located at the interface between soil and aggregate

-prevent contamination -avoid build-up of pore pressure -avoid loss of granular material

sub-base sub-grade interfaces

embankments

2 BENEFITS OF GEOSYNTHETIC SEPARATORS
2.2 MECHANISMS

Avoid granular material penetration Puncture resistance

Filtration Pore size and permeability

Interlock advantages Tensile resistance

3 BENEFITS OF GEOSYNTHETIC REINFORCEMENT

3.1 PAVEMENT SYSTEMS 3.1.1 ASPHALT OVERLAY 3.1.2 BASE/SUBGRADE 3.2 EMBANKMENTS OVER SOFT SOILS 3.3 SLOPES AND WALLS

3.1 PAVEMENT SYSTEMS 3.1.1 ASPHALT REINFORCEMENT

new roads

Increase in fatigue life Reduction in rutting

maintenance of existing roads

3.1 PAVEMENT SYSTEMS 3.1.1 ASPHALT REINFORCEMENT
MECHANISMS
GEOTEXTILE

GEOGRID

WITHOUT REINFORCEMENT

3.1 PAVEMENT SYSTEMS 3.1.1 ASPHALT REINFORCEMENT
Note:
thin nonwoven geotextiles can be used when cracking still keeps the aggregates interlocking
(tensile characteristics are not required)

The asphalt impregnated geotextile do not acts as a reinforcement, but as a protector layer and a moisture barrier.

protector layer - retards crack propagation by deviation moisture barrier ± increases life time after cracking

3.1 PAVEMENT SYSTEMS
3.1.2 SOIL STABILIZATION
³The use of a geosynthetic placed at the sub-grade/fill interface to increase the support of construction equipment over a weak or soft sub-grade´

Applications
Temporary roadways Initial construction lift of permanent ways or embankments Area constructions platforms

3.1 PAVEMENT SYSTEMS
3.1.3 BASE AND SUB-BASE REINFORCEMENT
The use of a geosynthetic placed as a tensile element at the bottom or within a flexible pavement base or sub-base to: -increase the service life -obtain equivalent performance with a reduced structural section -avoid subsidence problems (sinkholes)

Applications
Permanents ways Parking lots Airport taxiways Container loading facilities Railway tracks

3.1 PAVEMENT SYSTEMS
3.1.4 ADVANTAGES

-cost savings in construction and maintenance -increase of service life -decrease or eliminate over-excavation and required granular fill

³in pavements systems, life cycle cost analysis are important to show additional maintenance cost savings´

3.2 EMBANKMENTS OVER SOFT SOIL 3.2.1 Applications
-basal reinforcement -piled embankments with basal reinforcement -reinforcement over areas prone to subsidence

3.2 EMBANKMENTS OVER SOFT SOIL 3.2.2 Basal reinforcement mechanisms

rotational stability

bearing capacity

foundation extrusion

3.2 EMBANKMENTS OVER SOFT SOIL 3.2.3 Piled embankments basal reinforcement design Ultimate limit states Pile group capacity Pile group extent Vertical loading shedding Lateral sliding Overall stability Serviceability analysis Reinforcement strain Foundation settlement

3.2 EMBANKMENTS OVER SOFT SOIL 3.2.4 Construction

3.3 REINFORCED SLOPES AND WALLS 3.3.1 applications
landslide reparation bridge abutment increase working area reduce filled area reduce filling material

3.3 REINFORCED SLOPES AND WALLS 3.3.2 types
reinforcement spacing

Walls (angle of inclination larger than 80o) Steep slopes Block walls

.

3.3 REINFORCED SLOPES AND WALLS 3.3.2 types

3.3 REINFORCED SLOPES AND WALLS 3.3.3 benefits
Economical solutions Rapid and simple construction method Allows construction in difficult terrain Allows use of cheaper fill material Satisfactory appearance structures Environmental: reduce damaged areas and reduce natural material extracting

4. REQUIREMENTS AND TECHNICAL PROPERTIES

Mainly mechanical characteristics Tensile strength (ISO 10319) Seam tensile strength (ISO 10321) Puncture resistance (ISO 12236) Impact test (ISO 13433) Mainly hydraulic characteristics (for separation) Opening size (ISO 12959) Permeability normal to the plane (ISO 11058)

Technical Requirement as per MoSRTH Specifications for use in subsurface drains

‡ Breaking load not less than 10 kN/m ‡ Minimum Failure strain of 10% ‡ Apparent opening size 0.22mm ± 0.43 as soil properties ‡ Allow water flow @ not less than 10lit/sqm/sec ‡ Minimum puncture resistance of 200 N ‡ Minimum tear resistance of 150N

Technical Requirement as per MoSRTH Specifications for use in Highway Pavement

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Minimum Tensile strength 36.3 Kg Elongation 50% Asphalt Retention 10 kg/10sqm Melting Point 150C Surface Texture- heat Bonded on one side only

Technical Requirement as per MoSRTH Specifications for use in Protection Works

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Aperture : Rectangular, square or oval Colour : Black Strength : Min 10kN/m Elongation: Max 15% Form : GR1-GG3 standards Life : Min 8 years

Typical Specification of NHAI
Separation and drainage
Properties PHYSICAL Grab Tensile Strength Grab Tensile Elongation Mullen Burst Puncture Trapezoid Tear UV Resistance HYDRAULIC Apparent Opening Size (AOS) Permittivity Flow Rate Life Period Mm Sec 1/min/m2 Years MINIMUM AVERAGE ROLL VALUES 0.150 1.5 3225 120 KN % KPA KN KN %@hr 0.900 50 2750 0.575 0.355 70/500 Units Fabric

Typical Specification of NHAI
Soil Reinforcement
Sl. No. 1 Minimum Partial FOS for calculation of 100 Woven PP years long term design strength (TD) in based accordance with BS-8006:1995 requirements geotextiles Partial FOS for deformation (at 40 C to meet less than 0.5% post construction strain requirement for retaining wall cases) Partial FOS for variations in manufacture from control specimens (fm 11) Partial FOS for extrapolation of creep test data (fm 12) Partial FOS for construction/ installation damage (susceptibility to damage) [fm 21] 6.0 Woven PET based geotextiles 3.0

2 3 4 5

1.0 (use only 1.0 (use only MARV) MARV) 1.10 (10000 hours creep) 1.83 1.10 (10000 hours creep) 2.44 1.15

Partial FOS for potential chemical (at 40 C) and 1.10 biological degradation. (Environment) [fm 22]

Distribution of Geotextiles in the United Kingdom
Nonwovens Roads Rail Structures Drainage Erosion Dams Canals Tunnels Solid Waste Liquid Waste Embankments Other 55 5 2 10 3 1 1 2 6 6 4 5 Wovens 65 3 10 2 2 ~ 1 ~ 2 2 10 3 Knitted 10 ~ 15 15 5 ~ ~ ~ 5 5 45 ~ Extruded 35 10 20 5 2 ~ ~ ~ 5 5 15 3

Distribution of Geotextile Use in South Asia
Percentage distribution of Geotextile type in the South Asia Nonwovens Wovens Knitted Extruded 45% 35% 5% 15% Percentage distribution of Geotextile type per application Nonwovens Wovens Knitted Extruded Roads Rail Structures Drainage Erosion Dams Canals Tunnels Solid Waste Liquid Waste Embankments 55 5 2 10 3 1 1 2 6 6 4 35 8 25 2 2 ~ 1 ~ 2 2 10 10 ~ 15 15 5 ~ ~ ~ 5 5 45 35 10 20 5 2 ~ ~ ~ 5 5 15

History of Geotextiles in India
‡ Used commercially since early ¶80s ‡ However, during ¶80 ± ¶90 the use was restricted to separation, filtration and drainage application for both nonwoven and woven type ‡ Indian manufacturer like Hitkari, Tata Mills etc. participated in production of non-woven type for civil engineering application ‡ Major boost in usage came after 1995 with major ports and highway development projects. ‡ Application included marine protection below rip-raps and armour layers for separation and filtration for land reclamation projects.

History of Geotextiles in India
‡ Application in river Training works and erosion control also started ‡ National Highways saw the application in drainage, embankment protection, base course stabilization and separation below highway embankments, also protection against erosion. ‡ Growing usage for environmental projects such as landfills, waste storage etc. ‡ MSE block walls are also a major end user, specially for low ± medium heights using geogrids and high strength woven Geotextile ‡ Now there are 10-15 non-woven as well as woven Geotextile manufacturer besides several unorganized participations

Few Examples of NHAI Projects
Project
Visakhapatnam Vallarpadam, Cochin Tuticorin Paradip

Purpose
In Marshy/ Slushy Soils Geotextile (non woven) as separation/ filtration layer Below sub-grade (i) for high embankment over land drains (ii) below sub-grade Woven geotextile below embankment

Qty.
1,08,100 sqm 4,30,260 sqm 2,55,000 sqm 1,04,250 sqm 40,640 sqm 64,600 sqm

JNPT Package II (SH-54 & Aamra Marg)

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