# Physics Notes

Waves and Optics
Chapters 16-17, 24-26

Wave - the motion of a disturbance that transmits energy Comparing Types of Waves 1. Mechanical vs Electromagnetic Mechanical - requires a medium to transfer energy ie. slinky, water, sound, earthquake Electromagnetic - requires no medium ie. radio, micro, IR, visual, UV, X, gamma

3. Transverse vs Longitudinal Transverse ± Particles or disturbance vibrate perpendicularly to the direction of energy transfer ie. light, slinky Longitudinal - Particles vibrate parallel to the direction of the energy transfer (Pressure Wave) compression vs rarefraction ie. sound, slinky
http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/~hwang/waveType/waveType.html http://www.explorescience.com/activities/Activity_page.cfm?ActivityID=50

Transverse Waves

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

Aspects of all SHM (including waves) Amplitude (A) - maximum displacement from equilibrium (m) Intensity or Energy Period (T) - time to complete 1 cycle of motion (sec) Frequency (f) - number of cycles per unit time (Hz)

T=1 f

f=1 T

More Characteristics of Waves Crest and Trough- the highest and lowest points from the equilibrium position Wavelength (P) - The distance between two adjacent similar points of a periodic wave (m) Node - Position on a standing wave that has no displacement Antinode ± Position on a standing wave that is displaced to its maximum displacement

Standing Wave ± when two waves traveling in opposite directions interfere
± The waves must have the same f, A, and P ± Points of complete constructive and destructive interference

http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/~hwang/waveType/waveType.html

Standing Waves

In Phase ± points on a wave in the same point in their cycle
Which points are in phase? C and F

How many degrees out of phase are these 2 waves? 90

The Speed of a Wave on a string or spring

V = [F/ (m/L)] ½

The Speed of a Wave

V=d t V !f P = P T f=1 T
The speed of sound in air is 331 m/s The speed of light in a vacuum is 3.00 x 108 m/s = c

*Notes from ³Activity: Waves and Springs´ What happens to a wave form when there is a disturbance in the medium through which it is traveling??? Standing Waves Wave interactions Interference: Constructive Destructive

Constructive Interference

Destructive Interference

Reflection of a Pulse

Sound
Sound waves are __________ and ___________. Pitch - how high or low we perceive sound to be, depending on the frequency of the sound wave The audible range for humans is 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. Ultrasonic waves: Medical applications, animal communication, others... Speed of sound depends on the medium in which it is traveling in. Speed generally increases with:
± denser phase ± higher temperature

Sound does not travel in a linear wave as we sometimes model it. It really travels in 3D. Wave fronts - the concentric spheres of compression radiating from the source of the sound

Doppler Effect - frequency shift that is the result of relative motion between the source of waves and an observer moving towards moving away f = emitted frequency f1 = perceived frequency

f1 = f / (1 - Vs/V) f1 = f / (1 + Vs/V)

V ± Velocity of Sound (331 m/s) Vs ± Relative velocity of the Source
Hear the Doppler Effect Great Physlet http://webphysics.davidson.edu/applets/applets.html Click here to see the video of a plane breaking the sound barrier http://www.brewsterschools.org/brewster/brewsterhigh/plamoreaux/assets/sonicboom.mpg

Know Red Shift and Blue Shift

Doppler Effect

Intensity - rate at which energy flows through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of wave motion

intensity = P = P A 4Tr2
Decibel Level (dB) - relative intensity of sound (logarithmic relationship)

Natural frequency - certain frequency at which an object vibrates Resonance - a condition that exists when the frequency of a force applied to a system matches the natural frequency of vibration of the system. Disastrous effects from earthquakes or winds
http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/physics/phys04/bresonan/default.htm

Harmonics fundamental frequency - the lowest frequency of vibration of a standing wave harmonic series - series of frequencies that includes the fundamental frequency and integral multiples of the fundamental frequency (overtones)  Standing wave on a vibrating string  Pipe open at both ends  Pipe closed at one end

Beat - interference of waves of slightly different frequencies traveling in the same direction, perceived as a variation in loudness interference: constructive and destructive f beat = (f1 - f2 ) or Create and Hear Beats: (f2 - f1 )

http://explorescience.com/activities/Activity_page.cfm?ActivityID=44

Light waves are __________ and __________.
Electromagnetic Waves ± a transverse wave consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields at right angles to each other

Radio, Micro, IR, light, UV, X, Gamma Range of P and f

Light Visible Spectrum (P = 700 nm to 400 nm) 700 nm = 700 x 10-9 m = 7.00 x 10-7 m Again, a range of colors: ROY G BV

Wave speed

v = f P !d/t
For light, (c = speed of light = 3.00 x 108 m/s)

c=fP
All electromagnetic waves move at the speed of light and behave with the characteristics of light, but they can not be detected by the eye

Light Year ± the distance that light travels in a year d = V x t = 3 x 108 m/s x 1 year now convert 3 x 108 m x 1 year x 365 days x 24 hours x 3600 s s 1 year 1 day 1 hour d = 9.46 x 1015 m

Luminous Flux (P) - the rate at which visible light is emitted from a source. Unit = lumen (lm) or Watt Illuminance (E) - the rate at which light falls on a surface Unit = lux (lx) = lm/m2 or Watt/m2 or candela

E=P = P A 4Tr2

(sphere)

Luminous ±vs- Illuminated Luminous Intesity (l) ± the luminuous flux that falls on an area of 1 m2 Unit ± candela or candle power

LASER - a device that produces an intense, nearly parallel beam of coherent light
Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation

Applications: Diffraction - the spreading of a wave into a region behind an obstruction ± energy is dispersed ± may result in areas of constructive and destructive interference ± Spectral Emissions and Absorption

Double Slit Diffraction Maxima ± Constructive Interference d sin U!m P Minima ± Destructive Interference d sin U! m + ½) P m = order of the maxima (0, 1, 2, 3«) d = distance between slits

Single Slit Diffraction

P= d sin U
d = width of slit

What happens when waves interact with matter? Reflection - the turning back of waves at the surface of a substance angle of incidence = angle of reflection Ui !Ur both angles are relative to the normal at the point of contact virtual image - an image formed by light rays that only appear to intersect flat mirror-

Mirrors Convex/Concave Virtual/Real Upright/Inverted Radius of Curvature and Focal Length Object and Image Distance Magnification

Mirrors

1+1=1 so si f
Magnification

M = h1 = - si h so

Mirror Notes and Equations * Given through ³Activity: Concave and Convex Mirrors´ Convex/Concave Virtual/Real Upright/Inverted Radius of Curvature and Focal Length Object and Image Distance Magnification
Great Physlet
http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/java/Lens/lens_e.html

Reflection: The color that we perceive an object to be is the color of the light which that object reflects

LASER - a device that produces an intense, nearly parallel beam of coherent light
Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation

Applications:

Polarization: The alignment of transverse waves in such a way that their vibrations are parallel to each other -some crystals naturally polarize -polymers -double polarization -applications: reflected glare is generally horizontal

Refraction: The bending of wave disturbance as it passes at an angle from one medium into another different media result in different speeds of transmission

Index of Refraction (n): -ratio of speeds of light

n=c v

The degree of refraction is determined by: Snell¶s Law

n1 (sin U1) = n2(sin U2)
know bending towards or away As a wave travels from a medium to another velocity and wavelength change, but frequency does not.

n2 = V1 = P1 n1 V2 P2

Dispersion ± when white light separates into the spectrum of colors - results because different wavelengths travel at different speeds and refract differently

Total Internal Reflection - the complete reflection of light at the boundary of two transparent media; this effect occurs when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle Critical angle

sin Uc = nr ni
only when ni > nr

Lens - a transparent object that refracts light rays, causing them to converge or diverge to create an image converging lenses vs diverging lenses focal point (f) for a lens is the image distance for an object at an infinite distance f is: + for converging, - for diverging Ray Diagrams: 3 reference rays Is the Image: Real or Virtual Upright or Inverted Enlarged or Smaller

For lenses, the distance equation is similar to that of mirrors

1+1=1 so si f
Magnification

M = h1 = - si h so
Lenses:  the eye  glasses - combination of lenses

Lens Power P =1 f Unit: diopter (D)