Physics Notes

Waves and Optics
Chapters 16-17, 24-26

Wave - the motion of a disturbance that transmits energy Comparing Types of Waves 1. Mechanical vs Electromagnetic Mechanical - requires a medium to transfer energy ie. slinky, water, sound, earthquake Electromagnetic - requires no medium ie. radio, micro, IR, visual, UV, X, gamma

3. Transverse vs Longitudinal Transverse ± Particles or disturbance vibrate perpendicularly to the direction of energy transfer ie. light, slinky Longitudinal - Particles vibrate parallel to the direction of the energy transfer (Pressure Wave) compression vs rarefraction ie. sound, slinky

Transverse Waves

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

Aspects of all SHM (including waves) Amplitude (A) - maximum displacement from equilibrium (m) Intensity or Energy Period (T) - time to complete 1 cycle of motion (sec) Frequency (f) - number of cycles per unit time (Hz)

T=1 f

f=1 T

More Characteristics of Waves Crest and Trough- the highest and lowest points from the equilibrium position Wavelength (P) - The distance between two adjacent similar points of a periodic wave (m) Node - Position on a standing wave that has no displacement Antinode ± Position on a standing wave that is displaced to its maximum displacement

Standing Wave ± when two waves traveling in opposite directions interfere
± The waves must have the same f, A, and P ± Points of complete constructive and destructive interference

Standing Waves

In Phase ± points on a wave in the same point in their cycle
Which points are in phase? C and F

How many degrees out of phase are these 2 waves? 90

The Speed of a Wave on a string or spring

V = [F/ (m/L)] ½

The Speed of a Wave

V=d t V !f P = P T f=1 T
The speed of sound in air is 331 m/s The speed of light in a vacuum is 3.00 x 108 m/s = c

*Notes from ³Activity: Waves and Springs´ What happens to a wave form when there is a disturbance in the medium through which it is traveling??? Standing Waves Wave interactions Interference: Constructive Destructive

Constructive Interference

Destructive Interference

Reflection of a Pulse

Sound waves are __________ and ___________. Pitch - how high or low we perceive sound to be, depending on the frequency of the sound wave The audible range for humans is 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. Ultrasonic waves: Medical applications, animal communication, others... Speed of sound depends on the medium in which it is traveling in. Speed generally increases with:
± denser phase ± higher temperature

Sound does not travel in a linear wave as we sometimes model it. It really travels in 3D. Wave fronts - the concentric spheres of compression radiating from the source of the sound

Doppler Effect - frequency shift that is the result of relative motion between the source of waves and an observer moving towards moving away f = emitted frequency f1 = perceived frequency

f1 = f / (1 - Vs/V) f1 = f / (1 + Vs/V)

V ± Velocity of Sound (331 m/s) Vs ± Relative velocity of the Source
Hear the Doppler Effect Great Physlet Click here to see the video of a plane breaking the sound barrier

Know Red Shift and Blue Shift

Doppler Effect

Intensity - rate at which energy flows through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of wave motion

intensity = P = P A 4Tr2
Decibel Level (dB) - relative intensity of sound (logarithmic relationship)

Natural frequency - certain frequency at which an object vibrates Resonance - a condition that exists when the frequency of a force applied to a system matches the natural frequency of vibration of the system. Disastrous effects from earthquakes or winds

Harmonics fundamental frequency - the lowest frequency of vibration of a standing wave harmonic series - series of frequencies that includes the fundamental frequency and integral multiples of the fundamental frequency (overtones) ‡ Standing wave on a vibrating string ‡ Pipe open at both ends ‡ Pipe closed at one end

Beat - interference of waves of slightly different frequencies traveling in the same direction, perceived as a variation in loudness interference: constructive and destructive f beat = (f1 - f2 ) or Create and Hear Beats: (f2 - f1 )

Light waves are __________ and __________.
Electromagnetic Waves ± a transverse wave consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields at right angles to each other

Radio, Micro, IR, light, UV, X, Gamma Range of P and f

Light Visible Spectrum (P = 700 nm to 400 nm) 700 nm = 700 x 10-9 m = 7.00 x 10-7 m Again, a range of colors: ROY G BV

Wave speed

v = f P !d/t
For light, (c = speed of light = 3.00 x 108 m/s)

All electromagnetic waves move at the speed of light and behave with the characteristics of light, but they can not be detected by the eye

Light Year ± the distance that light travels in a year d = V x t = 3 x 108 m/s x 1 year now convert 3 x 108 m x 1 year x 365 days x 24 hours x 3600 s s 1 year 1 day 1 hour d = 9.46 x 1015 m

Luminous Flux (P) - the rate at which visible light is emitted from a source. Unit = lumen (lm) or Watt Illuminance (E) - the rate at which light falls on a surface Unit = lux (lx) = lm/m2 or Watt/m2 or candela

E=P = P A 4Tr2


Luminous ±vs- Illuminated Luminous Intesity (l) ± the luminuous flux that falls on an area of 1 m2 Unit ± candela or candle power

LASER - a device that produces an intense, nearly parallel beam of coherent light
Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation

Applications: Diffraction - the spreading of a wave into a region behind an obstruction ± energy is dispersed ± may result in areas of constructive and destructive interference ± Spectral Emissions and Absorption

Double Slit Diffraction Maxima ± Constructive Interference d sin U!m P Minima ± Destructive Interference d sin U! m + ½) P m = order of the maxima (0, 1, 2, 3«) d = distance between slits

Single Slit Diffraction

P= d sin U
d = width of slit

What happens when waves interact with matter? Reflection - the turning back of waves at the surface of a substance angle of incidence = angle of reflection Ui !Ur both angles are relative to the normal at the point of contact virtual image - an image formed by light rays that only appear to intersect flat mirror-

Mirrors Convex/Concave Virtual/Real Upright/Inverted Radius of Curvature and Focal Length Object and Image Distance Magnification


1+1=1 so si f

M = h1 = - si h so

Mirror Notes and Equations * Given through ³Activity: Concave and Convex Mirrors´ Convex/Concave Virtual/Real Upright/Inverted Radius of Curvature and Focal Length Object and Image Distance Magnification
Great Physlet

Reflection: The color that we perceive an object to be is the color of the light which that object reflects

LASER - a device that produces an intense, nearly parallel beam of coherent light
Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation


Polarization: The alignment of transverse waves in such a way that their vibrations are parallel to each other -some crystals naturally polarize -polymers -double polarization -applications: reflected glare is generally horizontal

Refraction: The bending of wave disturbance as it passes at an angle from one medium into another different media result in different speeds of transmission

Index of Refraction (n): -ratio of speeds of light

n=c v

The degree of refraction is determined by: Snell¶s Law

n1 (sin U1) = n2(sin U2)
know bending towards or away As a wave travels from a medium to another velocity and wavelength change, but frequency does not.

n2 = V1 = P1 n1 V2 P2

Dispersion ± when white light separates into the spectrum of colors - results because different wavelengths travel at different speeds and refract differently

Total Internal Reflection - the complete reflection of light at the boundary of two transparent media; this effect occurs when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle Critical angle

sin Uc = nr ni
only when ni > nr

Lens - a transparent object that refracts light rays, causing them to converge or diverge to create an image converging lenses vs diverging lenses focal point (f) for a lens is the image distance for an object at an infinite distance f is: + for converging, - for diverging Ray Diagrams: 3 reference rays Is the Image: Real or Virtual Upright or Inverted Enlarged or Smaller

For lenses, the distance equation is similar to that of mirrors

1+1=1 so si f

M = h1 = - si h so
Lenses: ‡ the eye ‡ glasses - combination of lenses

Lens Power P =1 f Unit: diopter (D)