Power Transmission and Distribution

Power System Structure
No. 1 with Energy Automation

Generation Medium 24 kV Voltage 21 kV 15 kV 13.8 kV

Transmission / Sub transmission Extra High Voltage 765 kV 400 kV 220 kV 132 kV 110 kV 66 kV

Distribution Medium Voltage 33 kV 22 kV 11 kV

High Voltage

The purpose of an electrical power system is to generate and supply electrical energy to consumers. The system should be designed and managed to deliver this energy to the utilisation points with both reliability and economy. Many items of equipment are very expensive, and so the complete power system represents a very large capital investment. .
Energy Automation Badiya Page 1

Power Transmission and Distribution

System Disturbances
No. 1 with Energy Automation

Short Circuits in earthed systems Symmetrical (3 phase) Phase to Phase (and Earth) Phase to Earth Earth Faults in non effectively earthed systems Overload Conditions Underfrequency/Undervoltage Overvoltage

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Protective Relaying
No. 1 with Energy Automation

Role of Protection

Protective Relaying is the most important feature of power system design aimed at minimising the damage to equipment and interruption to service in the event of faults. of power system. It is therefore a co-factor among other factors resorted to improve reliability

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

The Purpose of Protection
No. 1 with Energy Automation

The protection can not prevent system faults, But it can:
Limit the damage caused by short circuits

While:
Protecting people and plant from damage Selectively clearing faults in miliseconds Protecting plant from overload conditions

Power system must operate in a safe manner at all times.
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Power Transmission and Distribution

Causes and Probability of System Disturbances
No. 1 with Energy Automation

Causes  Operator Mistakes  Pollution/Condensation  Equipment failures, e.g. P.T.'s, Isolators  Transient Overvoltages Probability  System faults (220/400 kV): 3p.a. and 100 km  10-20 kV metal clad switchgear: 10-3 p.a. and feeder  GIS switchgear: 5-10-2 p.a. and bus  outdoor switchgear: 110/132 kV 7*10-2 p.a. and bus 220/275 kV 10-1 p.a. and bus 400 kV 2*10-1 p.a. and bus

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Principles of Relaying
No. 1 with Energy Automation

Since protective relaying comes into action at the time of equipment distress, a certain safeguard is necessary in the unlikely event of its failure to act at the hour of need. Hence, two groups of protective schemes are generally employed a) b) Primary Protection Back-up Protection

Primary Protection is the first line of defense, whereas back-up relaying takes over the protection of equipment, should the primary protection fail.
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Power Transmission and Distribution

Primary Protection
No. 1 with Energy Automation

The Primary Protection has following characteristic features 1. 2. It has always a defined zone of operation. It should operate before any back-up protection could operate, therefore, it should be faster in operation. 3. It should be able to completely isolate the fault from all the current feeding sources. 4. It should be stable for all operating conditions.

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Back-up Protection
No. 1 with Energy Automation

1.

Back-up protection should provide sufficient time for the primary protection to perform its duty.

2.

Back-up protection covers a wider zone of protection. Therefore, there is always a possibility of large scale disturbance, when back-up relays operate.

3.

Under primary protection failure, several back-up relays may operate for complete isolation of fault.

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Reasons of Primary Protection Failure
No. 1 with Energy Automation

Primary protections failure could be due to any of the following reasons 1. Current or Potential Transformer failure 2. Loss of Auxiliary Control Voltage 3. Defective Primary Relays 4. Open Circuits in Control & Trip Coil 5. Failure of Breaker It is therefore logical that back-up relays should not utilise any of the above items as common with primary relays.

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Protection Concept
No. 1 with Energy Automation

Circuit Breaker

CT / VT

Cabling
D IS T A N C E R E L A Y

Protection

Battery 

The system is only as strong as the weakest link!

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Basic Protection Requirements
No. 1 with Energy Automation 

Reliability

dependability (availability) high dependability = low risk of failure to trip stable for all operating conditions , high security = low risk of over-trip high speed minimizes damage high speed reduces stability problems trip the minimum number of circuit breakers notice smallest fault value 

Security 

Speed 

Selectivity Sensitivity 

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Zones of Protection
No. 1 with Energy Automation 

   

To limit the extent of the power system that is disconnected when a fault occurs, protection is arranged in zones Zones of protection should overlap, so that no part of the power system is left unprotected Location of the CT connection to the protection usually defines the zone Unit type protections have clear zones reach e.g Diff. Relay, REF relay Zone reach depends on measurement of the system quantities e.g OC , EF, distance relays . The start will be defined but the extent (or µreach¶) is subject to variation, owing to changes in system conditions and measurement errors.

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Protection - One Out of Two Principle
No. 1 with Energy Automation

System 1 Battery 1

Trip Coil 1

Trip Coil 2

System 2 Battery 2

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Redundancy Concept of DC Circuits
No. 1 with Energy Automation

Battery 1 Battery 2 Main Protection 87T TR Back-up Protection 50/51 TR Busbar Protection 87BB TR BF

TC 1 LL-

TC 2

Trip remote infeed

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Factors that influence fault current magnitude
No. 1 with Energy Automation

Infeed

Line

Consumer

G
‡ Short circuit power of the infeed ‡ Voltage level ‡ Line impedance ‡ Fault resistance (arc) ‡ Treatment of star point

Estimate of short circuit currents:
Medium Voltage (10 kV upto 30kV) High Voltage (110 kV) Extra High Voltage (220kV + ) ISCmin > ILmax ISCmin >= ILmax ISCmin = 0,25 ILmax

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Earth faults: Star-point configuration
No. 1 with Energy Automation

R

L

earthed system
‡ Earth fault = short circuit is recognised by normal over-current protection. ‡ With low impedance earthing the residual current detection must be more sensitive.

Peterson Coil

isolated neutral

‡ Earth faults = no short circuit ‡ Supply is not disrupted ‡ Earth fault must be alarmed and removed as fast as possible ‡ Earth fault location is achieved with wattmetric earth fault detection

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Protection Criterion - Current
No. 1 with Energy Automation 

The overcurrent condition is evaluated I>  Suitable for:
I> ILmax ISCmin I 

Additional criterion - Time

(to ensure selectivity)

Protection: 
Fuses  inverse time protection  definite time protection

(IDMT) (DT)

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Protection Criterion - Current Difference
No. 1 with Energy Automation 

Evaluation of node I1 + I2 + I3 + ... In = 0; if the equation is not

satisfied the fault is internal  Security is increased by stabilisation |I1|+|I2|+ ... |In| = Istab  Characteristic:
Idiff Trip Istab 

definite distinction internal / external faults (no back-up)

Protection: 
Line differential protection  Generator-, motor-, transformer differential protection  Busbar protection

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Protection Criterion - Impedance
No. 1 with Energy Automation 

From the voltage and current signals the

impedance is calculated  The impedance is proportional to the fault distance  Characteristic:
X Z< R 

Additional criterion - Time

(Required for selectivity and back-up protection)

Protection: 
Multiple stage distance protection

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Measured signals and time grading principle
No. 1 with Energy Automation

A Protected object
Protection device

B

t t3 t2 t1 A

Example distance protection

Z1

B

Z2

l

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Comparison Protection Principle
No. 1 with Energy Automation

A Protected object
Protection device Protection device

B

communication
momentary values/ binary decisions

Protection device

t

A

B

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Typical Distance Zone Characteristics
No. 1 with Energy Automation

MHO-circle

X

5 N

internal fault

X
polarised MHO-circle polygonal tripping characteristic (quadrilateral)

S

=0

S

small

S

large
¢
S

Energy Automation

£

¡

¢

 

Z

e ternal fault

RF
¢
L

¡

 

ZA

Z '

combined circleand straight line characteristic

X starting zone one 3 one 2 one 1 R

R
¢

X XA ZL

setta le arc com ensation RL

RA

R

¢

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Further Typical Protection Criteria
No. 1 with Energy Automation 

Current increase  Under and over voltage  Directional comparison  Phase comparison  Power direction  Phase angle  Over and under frequency  Frequency gradient  Harmonics  Special criteria in machine protection

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Typical Protected Objects
No. 1 with Energy Automation 

Generators  Transformers  Busbars  Lines  Motors

G

< 1MVA upto 1500 MVA 0,1 MVA upto 1000 MVA from 110 kV up to 750kV from 1kV upto 750 kV

M

approx. 100 kVA upto 20 MVA 

Reactors, Capacitor etc.

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Redundancy Concepts
No. 1 with Energy Automation

Line Protection LP1 
u1

Busbar Protection 1 out of 2 principle trip line Section 1 Check Zone 1 out of n principle trip transformer 
u1

2 out of 2 principle & trip section 1

LP2 Transformer Protection Relay 1 . . . Relay n

Section 2

&

trip section 2

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Stability Limits in Transmission System
No. 1 with Energy Automation

7 6

stability limit

Protection Fault Clearing 4 Time ms

1

1

14

1

16

17

18

19

Line Load

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Failure Rate of Redundant Systems
No. 1 with Energy Automation

.1 .1
active failure (over trip) Failure rate

. . .
passive failure (under trip)

.

1
Energy Automation

number of relays

1
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Power Transmission and Distribution

Why Digital Protection?
No. 1 with Energy Automation

Integration of the protection functions for one feeder: Feeder protection device
Example: overhead line of extra high voltage 
    

Distance protection with I>> or u</i>-exitation Three-pole reclosure Directional earth fault detection Fault location Event log Fault recording

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Why Digital Protection?
No. 1 with Energy Automation

Self-supervision
Raising of the availability 
    Plausibility control of the input values Supervision of the a/d-conversion Internal testing of the computer systems (watch-dog) Supervision of the memory chips Testing the trip-relay-coil

Energy Automation

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Power Transmission and Distribution

Contact Terms
No. 1 with Energy Automation

Contacts provide electrical outputs for tripping and remote indication purposes

Self-reset 

The contacts remain in the operated condition only while the controlling quantity is applied, returning to their original condition when it is removed.

Hand or electrical reset 

These contacts remain in the operated condition after the controlling quantity is removed. They can be reset either by hand or electrically by an auxiliary electromagnetic element

A 'make' contact 

is one that closes when the relay picks up

A break contact 

is one that is closed when the relay is de-energised and opens when the relay picks up.

Energy Automation

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