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PROPERTIES OF OIL AND

FAT
Composition and Source

L/O/G/O
www.themegallery.com
Grup 4 :

1 Steven Wellington C (2314100003)

2 Uswatun Dasih P (2314100007)

3 Mahendra Puguh P (2314100082)

4 Hendiyansa Dwi N (2315100046)

5 Atika Tri Antari (2315100082)


Fats and Oils
FatsA nutrient that is essential for body
energy, insulation and protection
Oils fats that are liquid at room
temperature.
Characterization of oil
and fat
They are hydrophobic and immicible.
Their caloric value is twice as high as that
of protein and carbohydrate. The
molecular weights smaller than them. They
reversible phase.
NATURAL FAT

FATS solid
OIL LIQUID
Composition of oil and
fat
The major The minor
component components
Triglycerides (98%) Monoglyceride
Diglyceride (<0.5%)
Free Fatty Acid (0.1%)
Phosphatid
Sterols (0.3%)
Fat soluble vitamins
Tocopherols (0.1%)
Pigments
Waxes
Others.
Aglycerides
Glycerides, more correctly known as acylglycerols,
are esters formed from glycerol and fatty acids.

Glycerols

Consists of 3 types by the number of fatty acids it contains


- Monoglycerides
- Diglycerides
- Triglycerides
TRIGLYSERIDES (TAG)
The main constituent of vagatable and
animal fats.
Lower densities than water
At normal temperatures may be solid
(fats) and liquid (oils).
It formed from one molecule of glyserol
and 3 fatty acids.
DIGLYSERIDE (DAG)
and
MONOGLYSERIDE (MAG)

They formed from one molecule of glyserol and


fatty acids.
They are prepared commercially by the reaction
of glycerol and triglycerides or by the
esterification of glycerol and fatty acids.
They occur naturally in very minor amounts in
both animal fats and vegetable oils. Oil
composed mainly of diglycerides has also been
used as a replacement for oil composed of
triglycerides.
Fatty Acid
It devided by two: saturated and unsaturated fatty
acid

free fatty acids are the unattached fatty acids


present in a fat. Some unrefined oils may contain
as much as several percent free fatty acids.
The levels of free fatty acids are reduced in the
refining process.
Unsaturated fatty acids
Unsaturated fatty acids have one or
more double bonds between carbon
atoms.
The two carbon atoms in the chain that
are bound next to either side of the double
bond can occur in
a cis or trans configuration
Can be divided by two categories:
- Polyunsaturated Fats
- Monounsaturated fats
Polyunsaturated fatty
acids
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)
are fatty acids that contain more than
one double bond in chemical structure.
Can be found in plants and fish
Monounsaturated fatty
acids
Monounsaturated fatty acids are fatty
acids that have one double bond in the
fatty acid chain
Can be found in some plant based-liquid
oils
- Olive oil
- Canola oil
- Peanut oil
- etc.
Saturated fatty acids
Saturated fatty acids have no double
bonds between carbon atoms.
Because saturated fatty acids have only
single bonds, each carbon atom within the
chain has 2 hydrogen atoms (except for
the omega carbon at the end that has 3
hydrogens)
Fats that usually come from animal
sources, solid at room temperature
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.
Vegetables Oil
Soy bean oil Coconut Oil

Palm oil Cottonseed Oil


Safflower Oil
Rapeseed Oil Olive Oil
Corn Oil
Canola Oil Rice Bran Oil
Sesame Oil

Sunflower Oil
SOY BEAN OIL
Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted
from the seeds of the soybean (Glycine
max)
Palm Oil
Composition
Palm oil consists of Trigliserida in a
large amount. The other component of
Palm Oil exists in small amount, show in
table below.
RAPESEED OIL
Rapeseed is a name of plant from
Brassica family that extracted to get
the oil from the seed
Component Quantity
Triacylglycerols (%) 94.8 -99.0
Phospholipids (%)
Crude Oil Up to 3.5
Water-degummed Up to 0.8
Acid-degummed -
Free fatty acid (%) 0.5 1.8
Unsaponifiables (%) 0.5 1.2
Tocopherols (ppm) 700 1000
Chlorophyls (ppm) 5 55
Sulfur (ppm) 3 - 35
CANOLA OIL
Canola oil is low erucic acid and low-
glucosinolate repessed oil.
Oil seed rape species is used to produce
canola oil are from Brassica genus in the
Cruciferae family. They were cultivated in
India almost 4000 years ago . Large scale
planting of rape seed oil wa s first reported
in Europe in the thirteenth century.
Constituent of
Canola Oil

Adapted from Mag 1990 and Ying and DeMan 1989


Coconut oil
Coconut oil
from the
coconut palm
(Cocusnucifera)
COTTONSEED OIL
The cotton plant (Gossypium hirsutum or G.
barbadenseis) is grown for its
fibre
The oil is a by-product with about 12
percent of the gross value of the
total product.

The major triacylglycerols :


PLL (26%), LLL (16%), POL
(14%), LLO (13%) and PLP
(9%)
OLIVE OIL

Intro :
Olive oil is a major vegetable oil obtained from the mesocarp of the
fruits of the olive tree (Oleo europaea). Annual production is 2.52.8
million tonnes, with commercial growth of the tree confined almost
entirely to the
Mediterranean countries of Italy, Greece, Spain, Turkey and Tunisia
OLIVE OIL
The oil is characterised by a high
level of oleic acid with
Codex ranges of 820 percent for
palmitic acid, 5583 per cent for oleic
acid, and 421 per cent for linoleic
acid
The major
triacylglycerols are: OOO (4059%),
LOO (1220%), POO (1220%) and
POL (67%) and the oil is
characterised by a range of
unsaponifiable
constituents which confer high
oxidative stability
RICE BRAN OIL
Rice bran oil is
the oil extracted
from the hard outer
brown layer of rice
after chaff ( rice
husk)
RICE BRAN OIL

Rice bran oil with a low free fatty acid


content can be extracted with hexane from
extrusion stabilized bran
The color of crude rice bran oil is dark
greenish brown to light yellow depending
on the condition of the bran, extraction
method, and composition of the bran.
RICE BRAN OIL
SAFFLOWER OIL
Safflower seed oil
is obtained from
the seed of
Carthamus
tinctorius, grown
particularly in India
as a source of a
valuable red-yellow
or orange dye.
SAFFLOWER OIL

Composition :
linoleic-rich oil
(~75% linoleic acid)
with LLL (47%), LLO
(19%) and LLSt
(18%) as the major
triacylglycerols
Health benefits of safflower oil :
lower cholesterol levels, manage blood sugar, aid in
weight loss, improve hair health, boost skin health,
reduce the symptoms of PMS, control muscle
contractions, and improve the immune system.
SESAME OIL
Sesame oil comes from the
plant Sesamum indicum
Grown mainly in
India and China and also in
Myanmar, Sudan and Mexico
Total annual
production of oil of around
800000 tonnes
It may be added to other oils
to enhance
oxidative stability such as in
the preparation of frying oils
SUNFLOWER OIL
Sunflower seed oil
is obtained from
Helianthus annuus
grown mainly in
Russia and
Ukraine, Argentina,
Western and
Eastern Europe,
China and the
United States.
SUNFLOWER OIL
The oil normally contains 60
75 percent of linoleic acid
with >90 percent of oleic and
linoleic acids combined and
virtually no linolenic
acid
Its major triacylglycerols are
typically LLL (14%), LLO
(39%), LLS
(14%), LOO (19%), LOS
(11%) and others (3%).
CORN OIL
Corn oil, with an annual production
of around 2 million tonnes, is
obtained from corn or maize (Zea
mays) by wet milling, particularly in
the United
States.
Although all of the current
commercial corn oil is produced
from corn germ oil, considerable
research has been devoted to the
study of extracting the entire corn
kernel to produce corn kernel oil
and extracting corn fiber (a
byproduct of wet milling) to obtain
corn fiber oil.
Animal Fats

1 Butter Fat

2 Lard

3 Tallow

4 Fish Oil
Butter Fat
Butter Fat
Cow milk fat is consumed mainly as milk,
butter or cheese and is an important
source of dictary lipids.
Milk fat has acomplex fatty acid
composition with high levels of short and
medium chain acids and with many
uncommon fatty acids,including those with
trans unsaturation,present at low levels.
Lard
Lardis the body fat of pigs and is typically
rich in palmitic (26%) and oleic acid (44%)
with lower levels of linoleic (11%) and
palmitoleic acid(5%).
Tallow
Tallow
Tallow is mainlyfat from cattle. It may
contain some fat from sheep but Should
be free of pig fat (lard).
Tallow is used as a food in spreads and in
frying oils, as an energy-rich component of
animal feed and in the oleochemical
industry.
Fish Oil
Fish oil is produced mainly from fish
caught in open seas.
The whole fish is generaly used as raw
material though trimmings from the fish
processing industry provide an additional
source of both meal and oil.
Thank You!
L/O/G/O
www.themegallery.com