Ma. Estrella Lena M. Pusag R.N.

Module 3

(1988), wrote: "Everyone has a spiritual component, but not everyone is religious." € Religion is generally recognized to be the practical expression of spirituality; the organization, rituals and practice of one·s beliefs (Davis, 1995). € Religion includes specific beliefs and practices, while spirituality is far broader. (Ebersole & Hess, 1998)
€ Twycross

€ Spirituality € Public

Policy and Historical Background € Special Populations and Spirituality € Threats to Spirituality € Strategies to bring spirituality into older adult lives


system of beliefs that encompasses love, compassion and respect for life. € the dimension or function that integrates all other aspects of personhood«and is often seen as a search for meaning in life." (Twycross, 1988). € extends beyond the physical, material and self to a state called transcendence. (Thibault, 1991).

As a response to life changing occurrences transcendence appears in five ways
€ Creative

work € Religious beliefs € Children € Identification with nature € Mystical experiences

€ Committee

on Religion, part of the While House Conference on Aging in 1961 € 1972, National Interfaith Coalition of Aging (NICA) developed "the affirmation of life in a relationship with God, self, community and environment that nurtures and celebrates wholenessµ

€ 1981 White

House Conference on Aging did not include a section on spirituality, reportedly to avoid violating the relationship between church and state € Former President Bill Clinton called on religious and spiritual organizations and delegates of the 1995 White House Conference on Aging to address the religious needs of older adults and their spiritual well-being

"No racial ethnic group can flourish without remembering, reconnecting and using its distinct cultural and religious traditions." - L. L. Lee, 1992

Native Americans € follow their ancestors' two purposes of life: to know the self and be of help to others. € they vest many of their beliefs and spiritual powers in nature, the land, and animals € older adults do not simply relive their past, but reconnect with that which has created them and leads to healing the wounds of a lifetime

Japanese Americans € oldest group faced economic and racial prejudice when they settled here and suffered societal injustices with their children when interned in relocation camps during World War II

African Americans € women attend church more frequently, participate more in church related activities and score higher on measures of religiosity and commitment than African American Black men € Elderly African Americans score higher than other age groups.

Mexican Americans Women, especially, use their religious and cultural traditions to adjust to their new country, sustain their families and build more secure communities. Their religious practices often give them strength to cope with the stress in their lives.

€ Losses

(age changed mobility or skills, job loss or retirement) € Challenged value systems (forced retirement from long tenured job) € Separation from religion and/or culture (move from native country or church) € Death ( of a loved one) € Personal and Family disaster (bankruptcy or estrangement of family member) € Changes in environment, health or self concept ( move to nursing home or catastrophic illness)

€ Insecurity, lacking

self-esteem € Seeking out spiritual assistance € Questioning one·s existence or meaning of life € Depression € Doubts, despair € Guilt € Boredom € Anger

available and appropriate supports € · Identify a comforting environment € · Assess past coping abilities € · Identify changes needed to improve situation and abilities € · Refer to clergy, chaplain or appropriate professional € · Prayer
€ Assess

€· €· €· €· €· €· €·

Imagery Artistic expression Healing Memory, reminiscence Medication Relaxation Professional psychiatric therapy

adults may turn to spirituality and religion when they meet difficult life changing events and experience personal losses. € Their reaction to these events and losses may cause distress, temporary or chronic psychological conditions. € Mental health interventions may include or add to one·s faith or practice of spirituality in times of difficulty. € Coping patterns and skills develop over a lifetime.
€ Older