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# BMM 2613

CHAPTER 1:
Abbreviations, Symbols,
Geometric Dimensioning
and Tolerance
Abbreviation in Engineering
Drawing
Abbreviation Meaning
GDT Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
in Inch
mm Millimeter
m Meter
km Kilometer
DWG Drawing
ISO International Standard Organization
ANSI American National Standards Institute
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Technical Drawing Symbols

Civil
Engineering
Technical Drawing Symbols

Electrical
Engineering
Technical Drawing Symbols
Circuit breaker Steam roller

Horn Speaker
Escalator Gas
tank
Mechanical
Engineering
Propeller Cement mixer
Ramp stopper

Weighing balance
Bulldozer

## Oil tank Transformer

Tolerancing
Definition: Allowance for a specific variation in the size
and geometry of part.
Why is it needed?: No one or thing is perfect !
Hence, engineers have come up with a way to make
things close to perfect by specifying Tolerances !
Since variation from the drawing is inevitable, the
acceptable degree of variation must be specified.
Too large variation may affect the functionality of the part
Too small variation will effect the cost of the part for
examples,
i. requires precise manufacturing eg. high technology
machine
ii. requires inspection and the rejection of parts
When does Tolerances become
important
Assemblies: Parts will often not fit together
if their dimensions do not fall with in a
certain range of values.
Interchangeability: If a replacement part is
used, then it must be a duplicate from the
original part within certain limits of
deviation.
The relationship between functionality and
size or shape of an object varies from part
to another part.
Examples

Tolerances do not
affect its function.

Tolerances do
affect its function.
How are Tolerances
Specified
Direct limit
Geometric Tolerance
Notes specifying to specific conditions
A general tolerance note in the title block
Why we use GDT?
To describe the geometric requirements
for part and assembly geometry.

## To define the allowable variation in form

and possibly size of individual features.

## To define the allowable variation between

features.
For examples, a shaft which may be
within its diameter tolerance but if its
shape do not in acceptable
straightness, the shaft will be rejected.

## Therefore, the control of both size

dimensions and the geometrical shape
is very important.
Geometric Dimensioning & Tolerancing
Symbols
1. Form
Lets understand the first kind of
geometric control which is Form.
Form control the acceptable
variance in the shape of feature.
Form have four (4) types;
straightness, flatness, circularity,
cylindricity.
Form Straightness (1)

Straightness is a condition
where an element of a
surface or an axis is a
straight line.
Form Flatness (2)
Flatness symbol

## Flatness is the condition of a surface having all elements in one plane.

Form Circularity (3)

Circularity symbol
Form Cylindricity (4)

## Cylindricity describes a condition of a surface of revolution in which all

points of a surface are equidistant from a common axis.
2. Orientation
The second kind of geometric control
which is Orientation.
Orientation control the acceptable
variance in the direction of a feature.
Orientation have three (3) types;
parallelism, perpendicularity and
angularity.
Orientation Parallelism (1)
Parallelism
symbol

## Parallelism is the condition of a surface, line, or axis, which is equidistant at

all points from a datum plane or axis.
Orientation
Perpendicularity (2)

Perpendicularity is the condition of a surface, axis, or line, which is 90 deg. From a datum plane or
a datum axis.
Orientation Angularity (3)

## Angularity is the condition of a surface, axis, or center plane, which is at a specified

angle from a datum plane or axis.
3. Profile
Now lets study on the third kind of
geometric control which is Profile.
Profile control the acceptable
variance.
Profile have two (2) types; for 3-D
dimensional profile we called surface
profile and 2-D dimensional profile is
called line profile.
Profile Surface profile (1)

Surface profile is the condition permitting a uniform amount of profile variation, ether
unilaterally or bilaterally, on a surface.
Profile Line Profile (2)

Line profile is the condition permitting a uniform amount of profile variation, ether
unilaterally or bilaterally, along a line element of a feature.
4. Runout Controls
Lets continue looking at the fourth
kind of geometric control which is
Runout.
Runout control is the acceptable
variance in a revolved feature.
Runout control have two (2) types;
3-D dimensional runout known as total
runout and 2-D dimensional runout is
called circular runout.
Runout Control Total Runout (1)

Total runout is the simultaneous control of all elements of a surface at all circular and
profile measuring positions as the part is rotated through 360.
Runout Control Circular Runout
(2)

Circular runout is the component deviation from the desired form of a part surface of
revolution through on full rotation (360 deg) of the part on a datum axis.
5. Location Controls
The last kind of geometric control is the next
most complicated which is Location.
Location control is the acceptable variance
in the location of a feature.
There are three (3) kinds of Location
control; symmetry (two objects is
symmetry), concentricity (two objects have
the same center axis) and last one is position
(where a feature should be located).
Location Controls Concentricity
(1)
Location Controls Symmetry
(2)
Location Controls Position
(3)
Location Controls - Position
Terms Used in Geometry
Tolerancing
Feature is general term used to identify part of or a portion of a
component. Such as cylinders (shafts or holes), slots, etc.
Datum is a point, line, plane or other surface form which
dimensions are measured or to which geometry tolerances are
referenced.
Maximum material condition (MMC) occurs when a feature is at its
maximum material size as allowed by its drawing tolerance. (Fig.
4.24b) Symbol -
Least material condition (LMC) occurs when a feature is at its least
material size as allowed by its drawing tolerance. (Fig. 4.24c)
Symbol
Regardless of Feature Size (RFS) is the default modifier. If there is
no modifier symbol shown in feature control frame, it means RFSis
the default modifier. RFS is used when the size feature does not
affect the specified tolerance.Symbol -
Figure 4.24 Effect of
combining linear and
geometry tolerances

4-34
Virtual size refers to the dimension of the overall
envelope of perfect form which touches the
highest point of a feature.
1. For a shaft, it is the maximum measured size
plus the actual effect of form variations such
as flatness, straightness, roundness &
cylindricity.

## Figure 4.24: Virtual size of shaft

For a hole, it is the minimum measured size
minus the actual effect of form variations such as
flatness, straightness & cylindricity.

## Figure 4.25: Virtual size of holes.

Types of tolerances

Upper limit
Lower limit

## Limit Tolerances Plus/Minus Tolerances

Frame
Read everything left to right! Dont skip
anything!
FIRST BAR: The feature shall {be or have
a} BLANK {geometric characteristic}

## SECOND BAR: within a {total wide

tolerance zone of, cylindrical tolerance zone
of, or full indicator movement} BLANK
{geometric tolerance}[at {modifier}]

## THIRD BAR: with respect to datum {datum

name} BLANK
Example 1

mm
Example 2
Tolerance Zone
Symbology
Lets do the exercise!
TYPE OF TYPE OF CHARACTERIST SYMBOL
FEATURE TOLERANCE IC
FLATNESS
INDIVIDUAL STRAIGHTNESS
(No Datum FORM
Reference) CIRCULARITY
CYLINDRICITY
INDIVIDUAL or PROFILE LINE PROFILE
RELATED SURFACE
FEATURES PROFILE
RELATED ORIENTATION PERPENDICULAR
FEATURES ITY
(Datum ANGULARITY
Reference
Required) PARALLELISM
RUNOUT CIRCULAR
RUNOUT
TOTAL RUNOUT
LOCATION CONCENTRICITY
Verbal Test #1

## The feature shall be flat within a

total wide tolerance zone of .
002mm.
Verbal Test #2

## The feature shall be angular

within a total wide tolerance zone
of .008mm with respect to
datum D and F.
Verbal Test #3

## The feature shall have a surface

profile within a total wide
tolerance zone of .002mm.
Verbal Test #4

## The feature shall be symmetric

within a total wide tolerance zone
of .004mm with respect to
datum F.
Verbal Test #5

## The feature shall be straight

within a total wide tolerance zone
of .002mm.
Verbal Test #6

## The feature shall be positioned within a

cylindrical tolerance zone of .
001regardless of feature size with
respect to datum B.
Verbal Test #7

## The feature shall have a total

runout within a full indicator
movement of .005 with respect
to datum M.
Verbal Test #8

## The feature shall be perpendicular

within a total wide tolerance zone of .
007 at maximum material
condition with respect to datum C.
Verbal Test #9

## The feature shall have a line profile

within a total wide tolerance zone of .
003 with respect to datum C, B at
maximum material condition and D.
Verbal Test #10

## The feature shall be parallel within

a total wide tolerance zone of .
009 at maximum material
condition with respect to datum E.
Practical Example
The two inner
walls of the slot
are to be
parallel to
within total
wide tolerance
zone of .002mm
with respect to
datum A.
Do it yourself! Practice makes perfect
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