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You are on page 1of 46

Closed-Loop Control

Systems

Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Next, we develop a transfer function for each of the five elements

in the feedback control loop. For the sake of simplicity, flow rate

w1 is assumed to be constant, and the system is initially operating

at the nominal steady rate.

Process

Chapter 11

blending system was developed:

K1 K 2

X s

X1 s

W2 s (11-1)

s 1 s 1

where

V w1 1 x

, K1 , and K2 (11-2)

w w w

Chapter 11

The symbol x% t denotes the internal set-point composition

sp

expressed as an equivalent electrical current signal. x% t is

sp

related to the actual composition set point xsp t by the

composition sensor-transmitter gain Km:

Chapter 11

t K m xsp

x%

sp t (11-7)

Current-to-Pressure (I/P) Transducer

The transducer transfer function merely consists of a steady-state

gain KIP:

Pt s

Chapter 11

K IP (11-9)

P s

Control Valve

As discussed in Section 9.2, control valves are usually designed

so that the flow rate through the valve is a nearly linear function

of the signal to the valve actuator. Therefore, a first-order transfer

function is an adequate model

W2 s Kv

(11-10)

Pt s v s 1

Composition Sensor-Transmitter (Analyzer)

We assume that the dynamic behavior of the composition sensor-

transmitter can be approximated by a first-order transfer function,

but m is small so it can be neglected.

X m s

Km

Chapter 11

Controller X s

used.

P s 1

Kc 1 (11-4)

E s I s

output p t and the error signal e(t). Kc is dimensionless.

Chapter 11

1. Summer

2. Comparator

Chapter 11

3. Block

Y(s) G(s)X(s)

Blocks in Series

Chapter 11

Closed-Loop Transfer Functions

Indicate dynamic behavior of the controlled process

(i.e., process plus controller, transmitter, valve etc.)

Set-point Changes (Servo Problem)

Chapter 11

change is zero)

Y ( s) K mGc Gv G p

(11-26)

Ysp ( s ) 1 GcGvG pGm

Disturbance Changes (Regulator Problem)

Y (s) Gd

(11-29)

D ( s ) 1 Gc Gv G p Gm

Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 EXAMPLE 1: P.I. control of liquid level

Block Diagram:

Assumptions

1. q1, varies with time; q2 is constant.

Chapter 11

(compared with dynamics of tank).

1

G C (s) K C 1 G M (s) K M

Is

G V (s) K V

1

G P (s)

As

1

G L (s) KC 0

As

The closed-loop transfer function is:

Y H Gd (11-68)

D Q1 1 GC GV GP GM

Substitute,

1

Y As (2)

Chapter 11

D 1 1

1 K C 1 KV KM

Is As

Simplify,

Y Is (3)

D A I s 2 K C KV K M I s K C K P K M

Characteristic Equation:

A I s 2 K C KV K M I s K C K P K M 0 (4)

K (5)

G (s)

2s 2 2s 1

To place Eqn. (4) in the same form as the denominator of the

T.F. in Eqn. (5), divide by Kc, KV, KM :

A I

s 2 Is 1 0

K CK VK M

Comparing coefficients (5) and (6) gives:

A I A I

Chapter 11

2

KCK VK M KCK VK M

I

2 I

2 0 1

Substitute,

1 K C K V K M I

2 A

For 0 < < 1 , closed-loop response is oscillatory. Thus

decreased degree of oscillation by increasing Kc or I (for constant

Kv, KM, and A).

unusual property of PI control of integrating system

better to use P only

Stability of Closed-Loop

Control Systems

Chapter 11

Proportional Control of First-Order Process

Set-point change:

K C KV K P K M

Chapter 11

Y s 1 KP

GP

Ysp 1 K C KV K P K M s 1

s 1

Y K1 GV , GC , GM constant gains

Ysp 1s 1 (K V , K C , K m )

K OL

K1 1 K OL K C KV K P K M

1 K OL 1 K OL

Set-point change = M

y (t ) K1M 1 e t 1

Chapter 11

M

Offset = ysp y

1 K OL

Closed-Loop Transfer function approach:

KK C

Y KK C 1 KK C

Chapter 11

Ysp s 1 KK C

s 1

1 KK C

First-order behavior

closed-loop time constant

1 KK C

Chapter 11

General Stability Criterion

Most industrial processes are stable without feedback control.

Thus, they are said to be open-loop stable or self-regulating. An

open-loop stable process will return to the original steady state

after a transient disturbance (one that is not sustained) occurs.

Chapter 11

chemical reactors, that can be open-loop unstable.

Definition of Stability. An unconstrained linear system is said to

be stable if the output response is bounded for all bounded

inputs. Otherwise it is said to be unstable.

Effect of PID Control on a Disturbance Change

disturbance effects to attenuate when control is applied.

Chapter 11

control of a third-order system (disturbance change).

8

Y ( s) 3 D( s) D(s ) is unspecified

s 6s 12 s 8 8 K C

2

8

GV 1 GM 1 GP Gd

s 2

3

Let ( s ) s 3 6s 2 12 s 8 8K C

If Kc = 1,

( s ) s 4 s 2 2s 4 s 4 s 1 3 j s 1 3 j

Chapter 11

1

Since all of the factors are positive, s a e at ,

the step response will be the sum of negative

exponentials, but will exhibit oscillation.

If Kc = 8,

( s ) s 3 6s 2 12 s 72 ( s 6)( s 2 12)

Corresponds to sine wave (undamped), so this case is

marginally stable.

If Kc = 27

( s ) s 3 6 s 2 12 s 224 s 8 s 2 2 s 28

s 8 s 1 3 3 j s 1 3 3 j

Since the sign of the real part of the root is negative, we

Chapter 11

transformation shows how the controller gain affects the

roots of the system.

Offset with proportional control (disturbance step-

response; D(s) =1/s )

8 1

Y (s)

s 3 6 s 2 12s 8 8 K C s

8 1

y (t ) lim sY ( s )

s 0 8 8K C 1 K C

Therefore, if Kc is made very large, y(t) approaches 0,

but does not equal zero. There is some offset with

proportional control, and it can be rather large when

large values of Kc create instability.

Chapter 11

Integral Control:

K KC KC

e t dt

t

P C

I 0

P(s)

Is

E(s) G C (s)

Is

8s 1

Y(s) lim sY(s) 0 y() no offset

s s 2 8

3

s s 0

I

(note 4th order polynomial)

PI Control:

1

G C (s) K C 1

Is

8s 1

Y(s) lim sY (s) 0

s(s 2)3 C

8K

8K Cs s

s 0 no offset

I

Chapter 11

equation which is 4th order).

PID Control: (pure PID)

1

G C (s) K C 1 Ds

Is

No offset, adjust Kc, I , D to obtain satisfactory result

(requires solving for roots of 4th order characteristic

equation).

Analysis of roots of characteristic equation is one way to

analyze controller behavior 1 G CG V G PG M 0

Rule of Thumb:

Closed-loop response becomes less oscillatory and more stable by

decreasing Kc or increasing .

Consider the characteristic equation,

1 G CG V G P G M 0

Chapter 11

closed-loop transfer function.

The roots (poles) of the characteristic equation (s - pi) determine

the type of response that occurs:

Complex roots oscillatory response

All real roots no oscillations

***All roots in left half of complex plane = stable system

Chapter 11

Figure 11.25 Stability regions in the complex plane for roots of the

characteristic equation.

Stability Considerations

unstable closed-loop responses.

Chapter 11

gain, Kc).

Chapter 11

Roots of 1 + GcGvGpGm

value of Kc)

always occur in pairs)

Chapter 11

2KC

GOL ( s )

( s 1)( s 2)( s 3)

Routh Stability Criterion

Characteristic equation

Chapter 11

an s n an 1s n 1 a1s a0 0 (11-93)

the coefficients a0, a1, , an-1 are negative or zero, then

at least one root of the characteristic equation lies in the

RHP, and thus the system is unstable. On the other

hand, if all of the coefficients are positive, then one

must construct the Routh Array shown below:

Chapter 11

positive.

The first two rows of the Routh Array are comprised of the

coefficients in the characteristic equation. The elements in the

remaining rows are calculated from coefficients by using the

formulas:

b1 (11-94)

Chapter 11

a n-1

a n 1a n 4 a n a n 5

b2 (11-95)

a n 1

.

.

b1a n 3 a n 1b 2

c1 (11-96)

b1

b1a n 5 a n 1b 3

c2 (11-97)

b1

Application of the Routh Array:

8

GP GL GV GM 1 GC KC

(s 2) 3

Characteristic Eqn is 1 GC GV GPGM 0

8K C

1 0 (s 2)3 8K C 0

( s 2) 3

Chapter 11

s 3 6s 2 12s 8 8K C 0

We want to know what value of Kc causes instability, I.e., at least

one root of the above equation is positive. Using the Routh array,

1 12 n 3

6 8 8K C

6(12) 1 8 8K C

0

6

8 8K C 0

Conditions for Stability

72 8 8K C 0 K C 8

8 8K C 0 K C 1

The important constraint is Kc<8. Any Kc 8 will cause instability.

Figure 11.29

Flowchart for

Chapter 11

performing a

stability analysis.

Additional Stability Criteria

Chapter 11

Ch. 14

Direct Substitution Method

Imaginary axis is the dividing line between stable and unstable systems.

Chapter 11

(b) one equation for imaginary part

set s = j 1 + 5j + 2Kce-j = 0

Direct Substitution Method (continued)

Chapter 11

sin

5 5 tan 0

cos

Chapter 11

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