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Dynamic Behavior of

Closed-Loop Control
Systems
Chapter 11
Chapter 11
Next, we develop a transfer function for each of the five elements
in the feedback control loop. For the sake of simplicity, flow rate
w1 is assumed to be constant, and the system is initially operating
at the nominal steady rate.

Process
Chapter 11

In section 4.1 the approximate dynamic model of a stirred-tank


blending system was developed:

K1 K 2
X s
X1 s
W2 s (11-1)
s 1 s 1
where
V w1 1 x
, K1 , and K2 (11-2)
w w w
Chapter 11
The symbol x% t denotes the internal set-point composition
sp
expressed as an equivalent electrical current signal. x% t is
sp
related to the actual composition set point xsp t by the
composition sensor-transmitter gain Km:
Chapter 11

t K m xsp
x%
sp t (11-7)
Current-to-Pressure (I/P) Transducer
The transducer transfer function merely consists of a steady-state
gain KIP:

Pt s
Chapter 11

K IP (11-9)
P s
Control Valve
As discussed in Section 9.2, control valves are usually designed
so that the flow rate through the valve is a nearly linear function
of the signal to the valve actuator. Therefore, a first-order transfer
function is an adequate model

W2 s Kv
(11-10)
Pt s v s 1
Composition Sensor-Transmitter (Analyzer)
We assume that the dynamic behavior of the composition sensor-
transmitter can be approximated by a first-order transfer function,
but m is small so it can be neglected.
X m s
Km
Chapter 11

Controller X s

Suppose that an electronic proportional plus integral controller is


used.
P s 1
Kc 1 (11-4)
E s I s

where P s and E(s) are the Laplace transforms of the controller


output p t and the error signal e(t). Kc is dimensionless.
Chapter 11
1. Summer

2. Comparator
Chapter 11

3. Block

Y(s) G(s)X(s)

Blocks in Series

are equivalent to...


Chapter 11
Closed-Loop Transfer Functions
Indicate dynamic behavior of the controlled process
(i.e., process plus controller, transmitter, valve etc.)
Set-point Changes (Servo Problem)

Assume Ysp 0 and D = 0 (set-point change while disturbance


Chapter 11

change is zero)

Y ( s) K mGc Gv G p
(11-26)
Ysp ( s ) 1 GcGvG pGm
Disturbance Changes (Regulator Problem)

Assume D 0 and Ysp = 0 (constant set-point)

Y (s) Gd
(11-29)
D ( s ) 1 Gc Gv G p Gm

*Note same denominator for Y/D, Y/Ysp.


Chapter 11
Chapter 11
Chapter 11

Figure 11.16 Block diagram for level control system.


Chapter 11
Chapter 11
Chapter 11
Chapter 11 EXAMPLE 1: P.I. control of liquid level

Block Diagram:
Assumptions
1. q1, varies with time; q2 is constant.

2. Constant density and x-sectional area of tank, A.

3. q 3 f (h ) (for uncontrolled process)


Chapter 11

4. The transmitter and control valve have negligible dynamics


(compared with dynamics of tank).

5. Ideal PI controller is used (direct-acting).

For these assumptions, the transfer functions are:


1
G C (s) K C 1 G M (s) K M
Is
G V (s) K V
1
G P (s)
As
1
G L (s) KC 0
As
The closed-loop transfer function is:
Y H Gd (11-68)

D Q1 1 GC GV GP GM
Substitute,
1
Y As (2)
Chapter 11


D 1 1
1 K C 1 KV KM
Is As
Simplify,
Y Is (3)

D A I s 2 K C KV K M I s K C K P K M
Characteristic Equation:

A I s 2 K C KV K M I s K C K P K M 0 (4)

Recall the standard 2nd Order Transfer Function:


K (5)
G (s)
2s 2 2s 1
To place Eqn. (4) in the same form as the denominator of the
T.F. in Eqn. (5), divide by Kc, KV, KM :
A I
s 2 Is 1 0
K CK VK M
Comparing coefficients (5) and (6) gives:
A I A I
Chapter 11

2
KCK VK M KCK VK M
I
2 I
2 0 1
Substitute,
1 K C K V K M I

2 A
For 0 < < 1 , closed-loop response is oscillatory. Thus
decreased degree of oscillation by increasing Kc or I (for constant
Kv, KM, and A).
unusual property of PI control of integrating system
better to use P only
Stability of Closed-Loop
Control Systems
Chapter 11
Proportional Control of First-Order Process

Set-point change:
K C KV K P K M
Chapter 11

Y s 1 KP
GP
Ysp 1 K C KV K P K M s 1
s 1
Y K1 GV , GC , GM constant gains

Ysp 1s 1 (K V , K C , K m )
K OL
K1 1 K OL K C KV K P K M
1 K OL 1 K OL
Set-point change = M


y (t ) K1M 1 e t 1
Chapter 11

M
Offset = ysp y
1 K OL

See Section 11.3 for tank example


Closed-Loop Transfer function approach:

KK C
Y KK C 1 KK C

Chapter 11

Ysp s 1 KK C
s 1
1 KK C

First-order behavior

closed-loop time constant
1 KK C

(faster, depends on Kc)


Chapter 11
General Stability Criterion
Most industrial processes are stable without feedback control.
Thus, they are said to be open-loop stable or self-regulating. An
open-loop stable process will return to the original steady state
after a transient disturbance (one that is not sustained) occurs.
Chapter 11

By contrast there are a few processes, such as exothermic


chemical reactors, that can be open-loop unstable.
Definition of Stability. An unconstrained linear system is said to
be stable if the output response is bounded for all bounded
inputs. Otherwise it is said to be unstable.
Effect of PID Control on a Disturbance Change

For a regulator (disturbance change), we want the


disturbance effects to attenuate when control is applied.
Chapter 11

Consider the closed-loop transfer function for proportional


control of a third-order system (disturbance change).

8
Y ( s) 3 D( s) D(s ) is unspecified
s 6s 12 s 8 8 K C
2

8
GV 1 GM 1 GP Gd
s 2
3

Kc is the controller function, i.e., G C (s) K C .


Let ( s ) s 3 6s 2 12 s 8 8K C

If Kc = 1,


( s ) s 4 s 2 2s 4 s 4 s 1 3 j s 1 3 j
Chapter 11

1
Since all of the factors are positive, s a e at ,

the step response will be the sum of negative
exponentials, but will exhibit oscillation.
If Kc = 8,
( s ) s 3 6s 2 12 s 72 ( s 6)( s 2 12)
Corresponds to sine wave (undamped), so this case is
marginally stable.
If Kc = 27


( s ) s 3 6 s 2 12 s 224 s 8 s 2 2 s 28

s 8 s 1 3 3 j s 1 3 3 j
Since the sign of the real part of the root is negative, we
Chapter 11

obtain a positive exponential for the response. Inverse


transformation shows how the controller gain affects the
roots of the system.
Offset with proportional control (disturbance step-
response; D(s) =1/s )
8 1
Y (s)
s 3 6 s 2 12s 8 8 K C s
8 1
y (t ) lim sY ( s )
s 0 8 8K C 1 K C
Therefore, if Kc is made very large, y(t) approaches 0,
but does not equal zero. There is some offset with
proportional control, and it can be rather large when
large values of Kc create instability.
Chapter 11

Integral Control:
K KC KC
e t dt
t
P C
I 0
P(s)
Is
E(s) G C (s)
Is

For a unit step load-change and Kc=1,


8s 1
Y(s) lim sY(s) 0 y() no offset
s s 2 8
3
s s 0
I
(note 4th order polynomial)
PI Control:
1
G C (s) K C 1
Is
8s 1
Y(s) lim sY (s) 0
s(s 2)3 C
8K
8K Cs s
s 0 no offset
I
Chapter 11

adjust Kc and I to obtain satisfactory response (roots of


equation which is 4th order).
PID Control: (pure PID)
1
G C (s) K C 1 Ds
Is
No offset, adjust Kc, I , D to obtain satisfactory result
(requires solving for roots of 4th order characteristic
equation).
Analysis of roots of characteristic equation is one way to
analyze controller behavior 1 G CG V G PG M 0
Rule of Thumb:
Closed-loop response becomes less oscillatory and more stable by
decreasing Kc or increasing .

General Stability Criterion


Consider the characteristic equation,
1 G CG V G P G M 0
Chapter 11

Note that the left-hand side is merely the denominator of the


closed-loop transfer function.
The roots (poles) of the characteristic equation (s - pi) determine
the type of response that occurs:
Complex roots oscillatory response
All real roots no oscillations
***All roots in left half of complex plane = stable system
Chapter 11

Figure 11.25 Stability regions in the complex plane for roots of the
characteristic equation.
Stability Considerations

Feedback control can result in oscillatory or even


unstable closed-loop responses.
Chapter 11

Typical behavior (for different values of controller


gain, Kc).
Chapter 11

Roots of 1 + GcGvGpGm

(Each test is for different


value of Kc)

(Note complex roots


always occur in pairs)

Figure 11.26 Contributions of characteristic equation roots to closed-loop response.


Chapter 11

2KC
GOL ( s )
( s 1)( s 2)( s 3)
Routh Stability Criterion

Characteristic equation
Chapter 11

an s n an 1s n 1 a1s a0 0 (11-93)

Where an . According to the Routh criterion, if any of


the coefficients a0, a1, , an-1 are negative or zero, then
at least one root of the characteristic equation lies in the
RHP, and thus the system is unstable. On the other
hand, if all of the coefficients are positive, then one
must construct the Routh Array shown below:
Chapter 11

For stability, all elements in the first column must be


positive.
The first two rows of the Routh Array are comprised of the
coefficients in the characteristic equation. The elements in the
remaining rows are calculated from coefficients by using the
formulas:

a n-1a n-2 a n a n-3


b1 (11-94)
Chapter 11

a n-1
a n 1a n 4 a n a n 5
b2 (11-95)
a n 1
.
.
b1a n 3 a n 1b 2
c1 (11-96)
b1
b1a n 5 a n 1b 3
c2 (11-97)
b1

(n+1 rows must be constructed; n = order of the characteristic eqn.)


Application of the Routh Array:
8
GP GL GV GM 1 GC KC
(s 2) 3
Characteristic Eqn is 1 GC GV GPGM 0
8K C
1 0 (s 2)3 8K C 0
( s 2) 3
Chapter 11

s 3 6s 2 12s 8 8K C 0
We want to know what value of Kc causes instability, I.e., at least
one root of the above equation is positive. Using the Routh array,
1 12 n 3
6 8 8K C
6(12) 1 8 8K C
0
6
8 8K C 0
Conditions for Stability
72 8 8K C 0 K C 8
8 8K C 0 K C 1
The important constraint is Kc<8. Any Kc 8 will cause instability.
Figure 11.29
Flowchart for
Chapter 11

performing a
stability analysis.
Additional Stability Criteria

1. Bode Stability Criterion


Chapter 11

Ch. 14 - can handle time delays

2. Nyquist Stability Criterion


Ch. 14
Direct Substitution Method
Imaginary axis is the dividing line between stable and unstable systems.

1. Substitute s = j into characteristic equation


Chapter 11

2. Solve for Kcm and c

(a) one equation for real part


(b) one equation for imaginary part

Example (cf. Example 11.11)

characteristic equation: 1 + 5s + 2Kce-s = 0 (11-101)

set s = j 1 + 5j + 2Kce-j = 0

1 + 5j + 2Kc (cos( j sin() = 0


Direct Substitution Method (continued)

Re: 1 + 2Kc cos = 0 (1)

Im: 5 2Kc sin = 0 (2)


Chapter 11

solve for Kc in (1) and substitute into (2):


sin
5 5 tan 0
cos

Solve for : c = 1.69 rad/min (96.87/min)

from (1) Kcm = 4.25

(vs. 5.5 using Pade approximation in Example 11.11)


Chapter 11

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