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WATER CHILLER

SYSTEM

SUBMITTED BY: GUIDED BY:


ALOK KUMAR MAHAPATRA DHARMENDRA KU SAHU
REGD NO:-1301301005
CONTENTS

CHILLER BASICS

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF CHILLER

REFRIGERATION CYCLE

CHILLER COMPONENTS

COMPONENTS FUNCTIONS & COMPARISON

LOAD TERMINAL CONTROL OPTIONS

CHILLER SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

TECHNICAL TERMINOLOGY

CHILLLER PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT


CHILLER BASICS
What is a Chiller?
The refrigeration machine that produces chilled water is referred to as a Chiller. A
chiller is a water-cooled air conditioning system that cools inside air, creating a more
comfortable and productive environment.

Basically, there are two types of chillers based upon the refrigeration cycle:
1. Vapour Compression Chiller
2. Absorption Refrigeration Chiller

Based upon the condensation process of working fluid , there are two types of chiller:
3. Air-Cooled Chiller
4. Water Cooled Chiller
WORKING OF CHILLER
SYSTEM
1. Chillers circulate chilled water to air-handlers(AHUs) in order to transfer heat from air
to water.
2. This water then returns to the evaporator side of the chiller where the heat is
passed from the water to a liquid (LP) refrigerant .
3. The refrigerant leaves the evaporator as a cold vapor (LP) and enters the
compressor where it is compressed into a hot vapor (HP).
4. Upon leaving the compressor, the vapor enters the condenser side of the chiller
where heat is transferred from the refrigerant to the air/water side of the
condenser where it is circulated to an ACC/open cooling tower for the final
removal of heat from the refrigerant as a liquid (HP).

(Water Cycle) (Air/Water Cycle)

AHU Evaporator Compressor Condenser C.Tower


(Refrigerant Cycle)
VAPOUR COMPRESSION
CYCLE
VAPOUR COMPRESSION
CYCLE
Vapour Compression Cycle
ABSORPTION
REFRIGERATION CYCLE
Vapour Compression
Absorption Water Chiller
Chiller
Use a Compressor to move Use heat to drive the refrigeration
refrigerant around the system. cycle. Energy sorce are steam,
Energy source for the compressor hot water or burning of oil or
is an electric motor. natural gas
Vary by type of compressor such
as reciprocating, scroll, screw, Use of absorption refrigeration
centrifugal. cycle.
Higher initial cost due to
additional cost of heat transfer
Lower initial cost tubes & absorbent.
In emergency situation, continous Minimal electricaity needed for
electricity required for electricity- generator during emergemcy
driven chillers. situations
Waste heat recovery - Wasted
energy can be used to fuel an
Not applicble absorption chiller
Application in Cogeneration
Not applicble system
CHILLER SYSTEM
COMPONENTS
CHILLED WATER SYTEM
COMPONENETS
Chiller (Evaporator)

Compressors

Chilled Water Pumps

ACC in Air Cooled Chiller

Cooling Tower in Water-cooled Chiller

Condensate water pumps in water-cooled chiller

Load Terminals (chilled water cooling coils)

Chilled and condenser-water distribution systems include


piping, expansion valve, control valve, check valves,
strainers etc.
COMPRESSORS
Used in small chiller
Available in capacity up to 100 tons
(350kw)
Multiple Compressor used in a single
chiller for capacities up to 200
Reciprocating Compressor tons(700kW)
Used in small water chiller less than
200 tons (700kw)
10 to 15% more efficienct than
reciprocating because of 60% fewer
moving parts
Available in hermetic configurations in
capacity up to 15 tons (53kW) for use in
water chiller
Multiple are used in single chiller to
Scroll Compressor meet larger capacities
Used in medium sized water chiller 50
to 500 tons (175 to 1750kw)
More reliable & better efficiency due to
Helical Rotary (Or Screw) fewer moving parts
Used in large water chiller
Available in prefabricated chiller from
100 to 3000 tons (350 to 10500kW) &
up to 8500 tons (30000kW) as built-up
machines
High efficiency, superior reliability,
reduced sound levels, relatively low
CONDENSER
Air Cooled Condensor Water Cooled Condensor
Available from 7.5 to 500tons (25 to Available from 10 to 3000tons (35 to
1580kW) 10500kW)

Packaged System - Reduced design time , Additional requirement of condenser-


simplified installation, higher reliability & water piping, pump, CT & associated
single source responsibility. controls.

Cooling tower require special control


sequences, basin heaters or even an
Better low-ambient operation (i.e. below indoor sump for safe operatin in freezing
frezing weather conditions) weather

Elimination of cooling tower Cooling tower in the system

Mainteance requirements associated with


water treatment, chiller condensor-tube
cleaning, tower mechanical
Lower Maintenace - Eliminates concers & maintenance , freeze protection &
maintenance requirements related to availability of make up water with its
cooling tower quality

Additional Costs of cooling tower &


Reduce Operating Costs of cooling tower condensor pump
Air Cooled Condensor Water Cooled Condensor
Refrigerant Condensing temperature
Refrigerant Condensing is lower due to dependent on
temperature is higher due to condensor-water temperature, which
dependent on DBT is dependent on WBT.
Higher condensing temperature
& therefore higher condensing
pressure means compressor to Greater Energy Efiiciency due to
do more work & consume more lower condensing temperature &
enrgy. pressure
More preferable at Part load
conditions because DBT tends to
drop faster than WBT in a day Less preferable to work at part load
(from day to night). conditions

Efficency advatage lessen at Efficiency advantage much less due


part load condition to additional cost of CT & pump.
Longer equipment life 20 to 30 yrs.
(Indoor Installation & water as
Life approx. 15 to 20 yrs. condensing fluid operate at lower
(Outdoor installation) pressures)
AIR COOLED v/s WATER
COOLED CONDENSER
AIR COOLED V/S WATER COOLED
CONDENSER
Questions or Comments?
THANK YOU