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op amp

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AMPLIFIERS

HISTORICAL OF OPERATIONAL

AMPLIFIER

The OP AMP has

been used as a

amplifier since

it was first

introduced in

the 1940s as a

tube type

amplifier

WHAT OP AMP DO ??????

designed to perform mathematical

operations of addition, substraction,

multiplication, division, differentiation,

and integration

BASIC OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

V -

in ve r tin g in p u t

o u tp u t

n o n in ve r tin g in p u t

V+

THE IDEAL OP AMP

An OP AMP is ideal if

it has the following

characteristics :

Infinite Gain A

Infinite Input

Resistance

Ri

Zero Output

Resistance

Ro 0

Non-ideal case (Inverting

Amplifier)

Rf Practical op-amp

Ra +

Zin Zout

V o Vin

~

Vout

Vin ~ + AVin

Equivalent Circuit

Rf 3 categories are considering

Ra Close-Loop Voltage Gain

V in Input impedance

R

V R V o Output impedance

+ +

-AV

.......

Close-Loop Gain

Applied KCL at V terminal, Rf

Vin V V Vo V Ra

0 V in

Ra R Rf R R V

V o

-AV

Vo AV

Vin Vo V V V Ra Rf

o o o 0

Ra ARa AR R f AR f V in V o

Vin R R f Ra R f Ra R ARa R V R

Vo

Ra ARa R R f

The Close-Loop Gain, Av

Vo AR R f

Av

Vin R R f Ra R f Ra R ARa R

Close-Loop Gain

When the open loop gain is very large, the above equation become,

Rf

Av ~

Ra

as an ideal case

Input Impedance Rf

Input Impedance can be regarded as, Ra

Rin Ra R // R V

V R V

in

R o

where R is the equivalent impedance + +

of the red box circuit, that is -AV

V

R R'

if

However, with the below circuit,

V ( AV ) i f ( R f Ro ) if Rf

V R f Ro R

R

if 1 A V

+

-AV

Input Impedance

Finally, we find the input impedance as,

1

1 1 A R ( R f Ro )

Rin Ra Rin Ra

R

R f Ro R f Ro (1 A) R

Since, R R (1 A) R , Rin become,

f o

( R f Ro )

Rin ~ Ra

(1 A)

Again with R f Ro (1 A)

Rin ~ Ra

input to output

Output Impedance

Only source-free output impedance would be considered,

.e. Vi is assumed to be 0

Rf

Firstly, with figure (a), Ra

V

Ra // R

Vo V

Ra R

Vo R R io

R f Ra // R Ra R f Ra R R f R V

V

o

+

By using KCL, io = i1+ i2 -AV

Vo V ( AV )

io o

R f Ra // R f Ro

By substitute the equation from Fig. (a),

The output impedance, Rout is

V

Rf i2 R i1

Vo Ro ( Ra R f Ra R R f R )

V V

io (1 Ro )( Ra R f Ra R R f R ) (1 A) Ra R +

Ra R -AV

R and A comparably large,

Ro ( Ra R f )

Rout ~

ARa (a) (b)

THE VOLTAGE

FOLLOWER

v+

vi +

v-

vo

Rf

Voltage follower

vo vi

INVERTING

AMPLIFIER

(1) Kirchhoff node equation at

V+ yields,

V 0

Rf

(2) Kirchhoff node equation at Ra

V yields,

Vin V_ Vo V V

o

Ra

Rf

0 V ~

in +

Vo R f

Vin Ra

NON INVERTING

AMPLIFIER

(1) Kirchhoff node equation at

V+ yields,

V in +

V Vi V

o

(2) Kirchhoff node equation at

V yields, Ra Rf

V 0 V Vo

0

Ra Rf

Vi Vi Vo Vo Rf

0 or 1

Ra Rf Vi Ra

SUMMING AMPLIFIER

(1) Kirchhoff node equation at

V+ yields,

V 0 Rf

(2) Kirchhoff node equation at

Va Ra

V yields,

Rb

V_ Vo V V V V V V

Vb

Rc V

o

a b c 0 Vc +

Rf Ra Rb Rc

Va Vb Vc c V

Vo R f R f j

Ra Rb Rc j a R j

OP AMPS USED AS

DIFFERENTIATORS

OP AMPS USED AS INTEGRATORS

THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS

Thank YOU

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