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# OPERATIONAL

AMPLIFIERS
HISTORICAL OF OPERATIONAL
AMPLIFIER
The OP AMP has
been used as a
amplifier since
it was first
introduced in
the 1940s as a
tube type
amplifier
WHAT OP AMP DO ??????

## An OP AMP is an active circuit element

designed to perform mathematical
operations of addition, substraction,
multiplication, division, differentiation,
and integration
BASIC OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

V -
in ve r tin g in p u t
o u tp u t
n o n in ve r tin g in p u t

V+
THE IDEAL OP AMP
An OP AMP is ideal if
it has the following
characteristics :
Infinite Gain A
Infinite Input
Resistance
Ri
Zero Output
Resistance
Ro 0
Non-ideal case (Inverting
Amplifier)
Rf Practical op-amp
Ra +
Zin Zout
V o Vin
~
Vout
Vin ~ + AVin

Equivalent Circuit
Rf 3 categories are considering
Ra Close-Loop Voltage Gain
V in Input impedance
R
V R V o Output impedance
+ +
-AV
.......
Close-Loop Gain
Applied KCL at V terminal, Rf
Vin V V Vo V Ra
0 V in
Ra R Rf R R V
V o

## By using the open loop gain, + +

-AV
Vo AV
Vin Vo V V V Ra Rf
o o o 0
Ra ARa AR R f AR f V in V o

Vin R R f Ra R f Ra R ARa R V R
Vo
Ra ARa R R f
The Close-Loop Gain, Av
Vo AR R f
Av
Vin R R f Ra R f Ra R ARa R
Close-Loop Gain
When the open loop gain is very large, the above equation become,

Rf
Av ~
Ra

## Note : The close-loop gain now reduce to the same form

as an ideal case
Input Impedance Rf
Input Impedance can be regarded as, Ra
Rin Ra R // R V
V R V
in
R o
where R is the equivalent impedance + +
of the red box circuit, that is -AV
V
R R'
if
However, with the below circuit,
V ( AV ) i f ( R f Ro ) if Rf

V R f Ro R
R
if 1 A V
+
-AV
Input Impedance
Finally, we find the input impedance as,
1
1 1 A R ( R f Ro )
Rin Ra Rin Ra
R
R f Ro R f Ro (1 A) R
Since, R R (1 A) R , Rin become,
f o

( R f Ro )
Rin ~ Ra
(1 A)
Again with R f Ro (1 A)

Rin ~ Ra

## Note: The op-amp can provide an impedance isolated from

input to output
Output Impedance
Only source-free output impedance would be considered,
.e. Vi is assumed to be 0
Rf
Firstly, with figure (a), Ra
V
Ra // R
Vo V
Ra R
Vo R R io
R f Ra // R Ra R f Ra R R f R V
V
o
+
By using KCL, io = i1+ i2 -AV
Vo V ( AV )
io o
R f Ra // R f Ro
By substitute the equation from Fig. (a),
The output impedance, Rout is
V
Rf i2 R i1
Vo Ro ( Ra R f Ra R R f R )
V V
io (1 Ro )( Ra R f Ra R R f R ) (1 A) Ra R +
Ra R -AV
R and A comparably large,
Ro ( Ra R f )
Rout ~
ARa (a) (b)
THE VOLTAGE
FOLLOWER
v+
vi +
v-
vo

Rf
Voltage follower

vo vi
INVERTING
AMPLIFIER
(1) Kirchhoff node equation at
V+ yields,
V 0
Rf
(2) Kirchhoff node equation at Ra
V yields,
Vin V_ Vo V V
o

Ra

Rf
0 V ~
in +

## (3) Setting V+ = V yields

Vo R f

Vin Ra
NON INVERTING
AMPLIFIER
(1) Kirchhoff node equation at
V+ yields,
V in +
V Vi V
o

(2) Kirchhoff node equation at
V yields, Ra Rf
V 0 V Vo
0
Ra Rf

## (3) Setting V+ = V yields

Vi Vi Vo Vo Rf
0 or 1
Ra Rf Vi Ra
SUMMING AMPLIFIER
(1) Kirchhoff node equation at
V+ yields,
V 0 Rf
(2) Kirchhoff node equation at
Va Ra
V yields,
Rb
V_ Vo V V V V V V
Vb
Rc V
o
a b c 0 Vc +
Rf Ra Rb Rc

## (3) Setting V+ = V yields

Va Vb Vc c V
Vo R f R f j
Ra Rb Rc j a R j
OP AMPS USED AS
DIFFERENTIATORS
OP AMPS USED AS INTEGRATORS
THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS
Thank YOU