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OPERATIONAL

AMPLIFIERS
HISTORICAL OF OPERATIONAL
AMPLIFIER
The OP AMP has
been used as a
amplifier since
it was first
introduced in
the 1940s as a
tube type
amplifier
WHAT OP AMP DO ??????

An OP AMP is an active circuit element


designed to perform mathematical
operations of addition, substraction,
multiplication, division, differentiation,
and integration
BASIC OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

V -
in ve r tin g in p u t
o u tp u t
n o n in ve r tin g in p u t

V+
THE IDEAL OP AMP
An OP AMP is ideal if
it has the following
characteristics :
Infinite Gain A
Infinite Input
Resistance
Ri
Zero Output
Resistance
Ro 0
Non-ideal case (Inverting
Amplifier)
Rf Practical op-amp
Ra +
Zin Zout
V o Vin
~
Vout
Vin ~ + AVin

Equivalent Circuit
Rf 3 categories are considering
Ra Close-Loop Voltage Gain
V in Input impedance
R
V R V o Output impedance
+ +
-AV
.......
Close-Loop Gain
Applied KCL at V terminal, Rf
Vin V V Vo V Ra
0 V in
Ra R Rf R R V
V o

By using the open loop gain, + +


-AV
Vo AV
Vin Vo V V V Ra Rf
o o o 0
Ra ARa AR R f AR f V in V o

Vin R R f Ra R f Ra R ARa R V R
Vo
Ra ARa R R f
The Close-Loop Gain, Av
Vo AR R f
Av
Vin R R f Ra R f Ra R ARa R
Close-Loop Gain
When the open loop gain is very large, the above equation become,

Rf
Av ~
Ra

Note : The close-loop gain now reduce to the same form


as an ideal case
Input Impedance Rf
Input Impedance can be regarded as, Ra
Rin Ra R // R V
V R V
in
R o
where R is the equivalent impedance + +
of the red box circuit, that is -AV
V
R R'
if
However, with the below circuit,
V ( AV ) i f ( R f Ro ) if Rf

V R f Ro R
R
if 1 A V
+
-AV
Input Impedance
Finally, we find the input impedance as,
1
1 1 A R ( R f Ro )
Rin Ra Rin Ra
R
R f Ro R f Ro (1 A) R
Since, R R (1 A) R , Rin become,
f o

( R f Ro )
Rin ~ Ra
(1 A)
Again with R f Ro (1 A)

Rin ~ Ra

Note: The op-amp can provide an impedance isolated from


input to output
Output Impedance
Only source-free output impedance would be considered,
.e. Vi is assumed to be 0
Rf
Firstly, with figure (a), Ra
V
Ra // R
Vo V
Ra R
Vo R R io
R f Ra // R Ra R f Ra R R f R V
V
o
+
By using KCL, io = i1+ i2 -AV
Vo V ( AV )
io o
R f Ra // R f Ro
By substitute the equation from Fig. (a),
The output impedance, Rout is
V
Rf i2 R i1
Vo Ro ( Ra R f Ra R R f R )
V V
io (1 Ro )( Ra R f Ra R R f R ) (1 A) Ra R +
Ra R -AV
R and A comparably large,
Ro ( Ra R f )
Rout ~
ARa (a) (b)
THE VOLTAGE
FOLLOWER
v+
vi +
v-
vo

Rf
Voltage follower

vo vi
INVERTING
AMPLIFIER
(1) Kirchhoff node equation at
V+ yields,
V 0
Rf
(2) Kirchhoff node equation at Ra
V yields,
Vin V_ Vo V V
o

Ra

Rf
0 V ~
in +

(3) Setting V+ = V yields

Vo R f

Vin Ra
NON INVERTING
AMPLIFIER
(1) Kirchhoff node equation at
V+ yields,
V in +
V Vi V
o

(2) Kirchhoff node equation at
V yields, Ra Rf
V 0 V Vo
0
Ra Rf

(3) Setting V+ = V yields

Vi Vi Vo Vo Rf
0 or 1
Ra Rf Vi Ra
SUMMING AMPLIFIER
(1) Kirchhoff node equation at
V+ yields,
V 0 Rf
(2) Kirchhoff node equation at
Va Ra
V yields,
Rb
V_ Vo V V V V V V
Vb
Rc V
o
a b c 0 Vc +
Rf Ra Rb Rc

(3) Setting V+ = V yields


Va Vb Vc c V
Vo R f R f j
Ra Rb Rc j a R j
OP AMPS USED AS
DIFFERENTIATORS
OP AMPS USED AS INTEGRATORS
THE DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER
INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIERS
Thank YOU