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Atravel time study determines
the amount of time required to
travel from one point to another
on a given route. In conducting
such a study, information may
also be collected on the locations,
durations, and causes of delays.
When this is done, the study is
known as a travel time and delay
study. Data obtained from travel
time and delay studies give a
good indication of the level of
service on the study section.
These data also aid the traffic
engineer in identifying problem
locations, which may require
special attention in order to
improve the overall flow of traffic
on the route.
Applications of Travel Time
and Delay Data
Determination of the efficiency of a route
with respect to its ability to carry traffic
Identification of locations with relatively
high delays and the causes for those
Performance of before-and-after studies
to evaluate the effectiveness of traffic
operation improvements
Determination of relative efficiency of a
route by developing sufficiency ratings or
congestion indices
Applications of Travel Time
and Delay Data
Determination of travel times on
specific links for use in trip
assignment models
Compilation of travel time data that
may be used in trend studies to
evaluate the changes in efficiency
and level of service with time
Performance of economic studies in
the evaluation of traffic operation
alternatives that reduce travel time
Definition of Terms
Related to Time and
Delay Studies
Travel time
is the time taken by a vehicle to
traverse a given section of a
Running time
isthe time a vehicle is actually in
motion while traversing a given
section of a highway.
is the time lost by a vehicle due
to causes beyond the control of
the driver.
Operational delay
is that part of the delay caused by
the impedance of other traffic. This
impedance can occur either as side
friction, where the stream flow is
interfered with by other traffic (for
example, parking or unparking
vehicles), or as internal friction,
where the interference is within the
traffic stream (for example, reduction
in capacity of the highway).
Stopped-time delay
isthat part of the delay during
which the vehicle is at rest.
Fixed delay
is that part of the delay caused
by control devices such as traffic

This delay occurs regardless of

the traffic volume or the
impedance that may exist.
Travel-time delay
is the difference between the
actual travel time and the travel
time that will be obtained by
assuming that a vehicle traverses
the study section at an average
speed equal to that for an
uncongested traffic flow on the
section being studied.
Methods for Conducting
Travel Time and Delay Studies
Two general categories:
(1) those using a test vehicle
(2) those not requiring a test
Methods for Conducting
Travel Time and Delay Studies
The particular technique used for
any specific study depends on
the reason for conducting the
study and the available personnel
and equipment.
Methods Requiring a Test Vehicle
Three possible techniques:
(1) floating-car
(2) average-speed
(3) moving-vehicle techniques.
Floating-Car Technique
In this method, the test car is driven by an
observer along the test section so that the
test car floats with the traffic. The driver
of the test vehicle attempts to pass as
many vehicles as those that pass his test
vehicle. The time taken to traverse the
study section is recorded. This is repeated,
and the average time is recorded as the
travel time. The minimum number of test
runs can be determined using a certain
equation. The sample size for this type of
study is usually less than 30.
This technique involves driving the
test car along the length of the test
section at a speed that, in the
opinion of the driver, is the average
speed of the traffic stream. The
time required to traverse the test
section is noted. The test run is
repeated for the minimum number
of times and the average time is
recorded as the travel time.
In this technique, the observer
makes a round trip on a test section
like the one shown in the next
figure, where it is assumed that the
road runs east to west. The
observer starts collecting the
relevant data at section X-X, drives
the car eastward to section Y-Y, then
turns the vehicle around and drives
westward to section X-X again.
Methods Not Requiring a Test
interview method
The license-plate method requires
that observers be positioned at the
beginning and end of the test section.
Observers also can be positioned at
other locations if elapsed times to
those locations are required. Each
observer records the last three or four
digits of the license plate of each car
that passes, together with the time at
which the car passes.
The reduction of the data is
accomplished in the office by matching
the times of arrival at the beginning and
end of the test section for each license
plate recorded. The difference between
these times is the traveling time of each
vehicle. The average of these is the
average traveling time on the test
section. It has been suggested that a
sample size of 50 matched license plates
will give reasonably accurate results.
The interviewing method is
carried out by obtaining
information from people who
drive on the study site regarding
their travel times, their
experience of delays, and so
This method facilitates the
collection of a large amount of
data in a relatively short time.
However, it requires the
cooperation of the people
contacted, since the result
depends entirely on the
information given by them.
ITS Advanced
ITS, which is also referred to as
Telematics, generally can be
described as the process through
which data on the movement of
people and goods can be
collected, stored, analyzed, and
related information disseminated.
ITS Advanced
The process has been used in many
areas of transportation engineering
including the management of
traffic, public transportation,
traveler information, electronic
toll payment, and safety. The
onset of ITS has facilitated the
development of advanced
technologies to support the system.
ITS Advanced
The use of cell phones to collect travel
times on roadways is one such
technology. The cell phone network is
divided into several sectors known as
cells. The sizes of these cells range
from a radius of a few hundred feet in
a city to several hundred feet in rural
areas. Each cell has a base station
through which signals are received and
transmitted from and/or to cell phones
within it.
ITS Advanced
GPS can locate the position of a
cell phone with an accuracy of
between 15 and 90 ft. By probing
cell phones on highways, the
technology is used to determine
average speeds and travel times
along highways.
ITS Advanced
Another method used to obtain
the locations of cell phones is
triangulation, which uses the
computed distances of the cell
phone from three nearby stations
to obtain its position.
Any vehicle traveling on a
highway will at one time or
another be parked for either a
relatively short time or a much
longer time, depending on the
reason for parking.
The provision of parking facilities
is therefore an essential element
of the highway mode of
transportation. The need for
parking spaces is usually very
great in areas where land uses
include business, residential, or
commercial activities.
The growing use of the
automobile as a personal feeder
service to transit systems (park-
and-ride) has also increased the
demand for parking spaces at
transit stations.
Inareas of high density, where
space is very expensive, the
space provided for automobiles
usually has to be divided
between that allocated for their
movement and that allocated for
parking them.
Providing adequate parking
space to meet the demand for
parking in the Central Business
District (CBD) may necessitate
the provision of parking bays
along curbs which reduces the
capacity of the streets and may
affect the level of service.
This problem usually confronts a
city traffic engineer. The solution
is not simple, since the
allocation of available space
will depend on the goals of
the community which the traffic
engineer must take into
consideration when trying to
solve the problem.
Parking studies are therefore used to:
(1)determine the demand for
and the supply of parking
facilities in an area
(2)the projection of the demand
(3)the views of various interest
groups on how best to solve
the problem
Types of Parking
two main groups:
(1) on-street
(2) off-street
On-Street Parking Facilities
These are also known as
curb facilities. Parking
bays are provided
alongside the curb on one
or both sides of the street.
On-Street Parking Facilities
These bays can be unrestricted
parking facilities if the duration of
parking is unlimited and parking
is free, or they can be restricted
parking facilities if parking is
limited to specific times of the
day for a maximum duration.
On-Street Parking Facilities
Parking at restricted facilities
may or may not be free.
Restricted facilities also may be
provided for specific purposes,
such as to provide handicapped
parking or as bus stops or loading
Off-Street Parking Facilities
These facilities may be privately
or publicly owned; they include
surface lots and garages.

Self-parking garages require that

drivers park their own
automobiles; attendant-parking
garages maintain personnel to
park the automobiles.
Definitions of Parking
is a unit of parking that defines
the use of a single parking space
for a period of 1 hour.
Parking volume
isthe total number of vehicles
that park in a study area during a
specific length of time, usually a
Parking accumulation
is the number of parked vehicles
in a study area at any specified
These data can be plotted as a
curve of parking accumulation
against time, which shows the
variation of the parking
accumulation during the day.
Parking load
isthe area under the
accumulation curve between two
specific times.

Itis usually given as the number

of space-hours used during the
specified period of time.
Parking duration
isthe length of time a vehicle is
parked at a parking bay.

When the parking duration is

given as an average, it gives an
indication of how frequently a
parking space becomes
Parking turnover
isthe rate of use of a parking

Itis obtained by dividing the

parking volume for a specified
period by the number of parking
Methodology of Parking
A comprehensive parking study
usually involves
(1) inventory of existing parking
(2) collection of data on parking
accumulation, parking turnover and
parking duration,
(3) identification of parking generators
(4) collection of information on
parking demand
Methodology of Parking
Information on related factors,
such as financial, legal, and
administrative matters, also may
be collected.
Inventory of Existing Parking
An inventory of existing parking
facilities is a detailed listing of
the location and all other relevant
characteristics of each legal
parking facility, private and
public, in the study area. The
inventory includes both on- and
off-street facilities.
The relevant characteristics
usually listed include the following:
Type and number of parking
spaces at each parking facility
Times of operation and limit on
duration of parking, if any
Type of ownership (private or
Parking fees, if any, and method
of collection
The relevant characteristics
usually listed include the following:
Restrictions on use (open or
closed to the public)
Other restrictions, if any (such as
loading and unloading zones, bus
stops, or taxi ranks)
Probable degree of permanency
The information obtained from an
inventory of parking facilities is
useful both to the traffic engineer
and to public agencies, such as
zoning commissions and planning
departments. The inventory
should be updated at regular
intervals of about four to five
Accumulation data are obtained by
checking the amount of parking
during regular intervals on different
days of the week. The checks are
usually carried out on an hourly or
2-hour basis between 6:00 a.m. and
12 midnight. The selection of the
times depends on the operation
times of land-use activities that act
as parking generators.
For example, if a commercial zone
is included, checks should be made
during the times when retail shops
are open, which may include
periods up to 9:30 p.m. on some
days. On the other hand, at truck
stops, the highest accumulation
may occur around midnight which
requires information to be collected
at that time.
The information obtained is used
to determine hourly variations of
parking and peak periods of
parking demand.
Turnover and Duration
Information on turnover and duration
is usually obtained by collecting data
on a sample of parking spaces in a
given block. This is done by recording
the license plate of the vehicle parked
on each parking space in the sample
at the ends of fixed intervals during
the study period. The length of the
fixed intervals depends on the
maximum permissible duration.
Turnover and Duration
For example, if the maximum
permissible duration of parking at
a curb face is 1 hour, a suitable
interval is every 20 minutes. If
the permissible duration is 2
hours, checking every 30 minutes
would be appropriate. Turnover is
then obtained from the equation
Although the manual collection of
parking data is still commonly used,
it is now possible for all parking
data to be collected electronically.
Some of these electronic systems
use wireless sensors to detect the
arrival and departure of a vehicle at
a parking space and the
information sent to a central
location through the internet.
An example of this is the Spark Parking
Inc. system. In addition to collecting
data on parking, the Spark Parking
System can be used to collect parking
fees. The system provides for drivers
to make calls soon after occupying a
parking space from their mobile
phones to record their credit cards and
other personal information. The credit
cards are then used for automatic
payment of the parking fees.
Spark Service System
Identification of Parking
This phase involves identifying
parking generators (for example,
shopping centers or transit
terminals) and locating these on
a map of the study area.
Parking Demand
Information on parking demand
is obtained by interviewing
drivers at the various parking
facilities listed during the
inventory. An effort should be
made to interview all drivers
using the parking facilities on a
typical weekday between 8:00
a.m. and 10:00 p.m.
Parking Demand
Information sought should
(1) trip origin
(2) purpose of trip
(3) drivers destination after
Parking Demand
The interviewer must also note
the location of the parking
facility, times of arrival and
departure, and the vehicle type.
Parking interviews also can be
carried out using the postcard
technique, in which stamped
postcards bearing the appropriate
questions and a return address are
handed to drivers or placed under
windshield wipers. When this
technique is used, usually only
about 30 to 50 percent of the cards
distributed are returned.
Itis therefore necessary to record
the time and the number of cards
distributed at each location,
because this information is
required to develop expansion
factors, which are later used to
expand the sample.
Analysis of Parking
Analysis of parking data includes
summarizing, coding, and
interpreting the data so that
the relevant information required
for decision making can be
Analysis of Parking
The relevant information includes the
Number and duration for
vehicles legally parked
Number and duration for
vehicles illegally parked
Space-hours of demand for
Supply of parking facilities
Highway Safety
For independent learning, answer the following
on short bond papers, you may work on 1s to
group of 3s:
Define transportation related crashes or
What causes transportation crashes?
Enumerate and define/tell something
about each item for the following:
(a) Factors involved in Transportation
(b) Strategic Highway Safety Plans
(c) Methods of Analysis of Crash Data