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Role of chemical

engineering in
automobile industry
5.Fluids used
2.1 TIRES: Pneumatic tires are manufactured according to relatively standardized processes and
machinery, in around 455 tire factories in the world. With over 1 billion tires manufactured
worldwide annually, the tire industry consumer of natural rubber. These factories start with bulk
raw materials such as rubber, carbon black, and chemicals and produce numerous specialized
components that are assembled and cured. The tire is an assembly of numerous components that
are built up on a drum and then cured in a press under heat and pressure. Heat facilitates
polymerization reaction that crosslinks rubber monomers to create long elastic.
2.2GLASS: Glass is the name given to all amorphous bodies that are obtained by lowering the
temperature of a melt independently of its chemical composition and temperature range of
solidification, which as a result of gradual increase of viscosity adopts the mechanical properties of
a solid body.
2.3 BATTERY: An automotive battery is a rechargeable battery that supplies electric energy to
automobile. Traditionally, this is called n SLI for Starting, Lighting, Ignition and its main purpose is
to start the engine. Once the engine is running, power for the car is supplied by the alternator.
Typically, starting discharges less than 3% of battery capacity. These are designed to discharge
current in amperes and then be quickly recharged. They are not designed for deep discharge, and
a full discharge can reduce the batterys lifespan.
2.4 PAINTS: The history of Indian paint industry ids as old as the history of the Indian people. The
earliest examples of Indian painting are cave paintings going back to 1000BC.
Indian per capita consumption of paint is about Rs 49 Billion sector which has demands for paints
which is relatively price- elastic but is linked to the industrial and economic growth. Indian per
capita consumption of paints I 0.5 kg per annum if compared with 4kgs in south east Asians and 22
kgs in developed nations.
The first patent for what appears to be a standard pneumatic tire appeared in 1847lodged by the Scottish inventor
Robert William Thomson. However, this never went into production.
The first practical pneumatic tire was made in 1888 on May Street, Belfast by Scots-born John Boyd Dunlop, owner of one
of Ireland's most prosperous veterinary practices.
It was an effort to prevent the headaches of his 10-year-old son Johnnie, while riding his tricycle on rough pavements.
In 1892, Dunlop's patent was declared invalid because of prior art by forgotten fellow Scot Robert William Thomson of
London (patents London 1845, France 1846, USA 1847), although Dunlop is credited with "realizing rubber could
withstand the wear and tear of being a tire while retaining its resilience".
John Boyd Dunlop and Harvey du Cros together worked through the ensuing considerable difficulties. They employed
inventor Charles Kingston Welch and also acquired other rights and patents which allowed them some limited protection of
their Pneumatic Tyre business's position. Pneumatic Tyre would become Dunlop Rubber and Dunlop Tyres
In 1946, Michelin developed the radial tire method of construction.
Michelin had bought the bankrupt Citron automobile company in 1934, so it was able to fit this new technology
Manufacturing of tire
1 .The first step in the tire manufacturing process is the mixing of raw materials to form the rubber compound.
Railcars deliver large quantities of natural and synthetic rubber, carbon black, sulfur, and other chemicals and oils, all of
which are stored until needed. Computer control systems contain various recipes and can automatically measure out specific
batches of rubber and chemicals for mixing. Gigantic mixers, hanging like vertical cement mixers, stir the rubber and
chemicals together in batches weighing up to 1,100 pounds.
2 Each mix is then remilled with additional heating to soften the batch and mix the chemicals.
3. In a third step, the batch goes through a mixer again, where additional chemicals are added to form what is known as the
final mix.
During all three steps of mixing, heat and friction are applied to the batch to soften the rubber and evenly distribute the
chemicals. The chemical composition of each batch depends on the tire partcertain rubber formulations are used for the
body, other formulas for the beads, and others for the tread.
Body, beads, and tread
Once a batch of rubber has been mixed, it goes through powerful rolling mills that squeeze the batch into thick sheets.
These sheets are then used to make the specific parts of the tire.
Manufacturing of tire
The tire body, for instance, consists of strips of cloth-like fabric that are covered with rubber. Each strip of
rubberized fabric is used to form a layer called a ply in the tire body. A passenger car tire may have as many
as four plies in the body.
For the beads of a tire, wire bundles are formed on a wire wrapping machine. The bundles are then formed
into rings, and the rings are covered with rubber.
The rubber for the tire tread and sidewalls travels from the batch mixer to another type of processing
machine called an extruder.
In the extruder, the batch is further mixed and heated and is then forced out through a diea shaped orifice
to form a layer of rubber. Sidewall rubber is covered with a protective plastic sheet and rolled. Tread rubber
is sliced into strips and loaded into large, flat metal cases called books.
Manufacturing of tire
Tire-building machine
6. The rolls of sidewall rubber, the books containing tread
rubber, and the racks of beads are all delivered to a skilled assembler
at a tire-building machine. At the center of the machine is a collapsible
rotating drum that holds the tire parts. The tire assembler starts building
a tire by wrapping the rubber-covered fabric plies of the body around
the machine drum. After the ends of these plies are joined with glue, the
beads are added and locked into place with additional tire body plies
laid over the beads. Next, the assembler uses special power tools to
shape the edges of the tire plies. Finally, the extruded rubber layers for
the sidewalls and tread are glued into place, and the assembled tirethe
Formation of green tire
Tire building machine

After the green tire is made, it is put in a mold for curing. Shaped like a clam, the mold contains a
large, flexible balloon. The tire is placed over the balloon (bladder), and the mold closes. Next, steam
is pumped into the balloon, expanding it to shape the tire against the sides of the mold. After cooling,
the tire is inflated and tested.
Dimensions of tire

Tire width: in mm
Rim Diameter: inches
Tires also show the year of
manufacturing and maximum
load they can be used for
Naturally occurring glass, especially the volcanic glass obsidian, has been used by many Stone Age societies across the globe for the
production of sharp cutting tools and, due to its limited source areas, was extensively traded.
But in general, archaeological evidence suggests that the first true glass was made in coastal north Syria, Mesopotamia or ancient Egypt.
The earliest known glass objects, of the mid third millennium BC, were beads, perhaps initially created as accidental by-products of
metal-working (slags) or during the production of faience, a pre-glass vitreous material made by a process similar to glazing.
Raw materials for glass
Glass is composed of numerous oxides that fuse and react together upon heating to form a
These include silica (SiO 2 ), sodium oxide (Na 2 O), and calcium oxide (CaO)
Lime is added to the batch in order to improve the hardness and chemical durability of the
Glass used for windshields also usually contains several other oxides: potassium oxide
(K 2 O derived from potash), magnesium oxide (MgO), and aluminum oxide
(AI 2 O 3 derived from feldspar).
Feldspar: group of minerals distinguished by presence of alumina and silica in their
Manufacturing of glass
1 The raw materials are carefully weighed in the appropriate amounts
and mixed together with a small amount of water to prevent
segregation of the ingredients. Cullet (broken waste glass) is also used
as a raw material.
2 Once the batch is made, it is fed to a large tank for melting using the
floatglass process.
First, the batch is heated to a molten state, and then it is fed into a tank
called the float chamber, which holds a bath of molten tin.
The float chamber is very largefrom about 13 feet to 26.25 feet (4
to 8 meters wide and up to almost 197 feet (60 meters) long; at its
entrance, the temperature of the tin is about 1,835 degrees Fahrenheit
Manufacturing of glass
Cutting and tempering
4 The glass is cut into the desired dimensions using a diamond scribe
a tool with sharp metal points containing diamond dust. Diamond is
used because it is harder than glass. The scribe marks a cut line into
the glass, which is then broken or snapped at this line. This step is
usually automated and is monitored by cameras and optoelectronic
measuring systems. Next, the cut piece must be bent into shape. The
sheet of glass is placed into a form or mold of metal or refractory
material. The glass-filled mold is then heated in a furnace to the point
where the glass sags to the shape of the mold.
5 After this shaping step, the glass must be hardened in a heating step
Manufacturing of glass
After the glass is tempered and cleaned, it goes through a laminating
In this process, two sheets of glass are bonded together with a layer of
plastic (the plastic layer goes inside the two glass sheets).
The lamination takes place in an autoclave, a special oven that uses
both heat and pressure to form a single, strong unit that is resistant to
tearing. The plastic interlayer is often tinted to act as an ultraviolet
When laminated glass is broken, the broken pieces of glass remain
bound to the internal tear-resistant plastic layer, and the broken sheet
remains transparent. Thus, visibility remains good.
Flat Glass process

The glass for automobile windshields is made using the float glass
process. In this method, the raw material is heated to a molten
state and fed onto a bath of molten tin. The glass literally floats on
top of the fin; because the fin is perfectly flat, the glass also
becomes flat. From the float chamber, the glass passes on rollers
through an oven . After exiting and cooling to room temperature,
Broken Windshield:
Due to lamination during manufacturing, it
does not scatter when broke.
Paint was made with the yolk ofeggsand therefore, the substance would harden and adhere to the surface it
was applied to. Pigment was made from plants, sand, and different soils. Most paints used either oil or water as
abase(the diluent, solvent or vehicle for the pigment).
In 1718, Marshall Smith invented a "Machine or Engine for the Grinding of Colours" in England. It is not known
precisely how it operated, but it was a device that increased the efficiency of pigment grinding dramatically.
Soon, a company called Emerton and Manby was advertising exceptionally low-priced paints that had been
ground with labour-saving technology.
In 1866,Sherwin-Williamsin theUnited Statesopened as a large paint-maker and invented a paint that could be
used from the tin without preparation.
Cheap and easy to make, they also held the color well and lasted for a long time.
Automotive paint
When vehicles were first invented, modern auto paints were simply not available. Instead, people handpainted
their cars using brushes and paint that they could purchase at their local stores.
Around 1900, automakers used the same varnishes that were used for carriages. Applying paint could take as
long as 40 days for each vehicle, and after it dried, it had to be sanded and polished.
During the early 1900s, a man by the name ofDr. George Sargentconducted a study, discovering that
electroplating chrome would require a ratio of one part of sulfuric acid to 100 parts of chromium. He presented
his research in a paper in 1920.
In the 1920s, Ford Motor Company started using paints made from nitrocellulose lacquers on automotive
assembly lines. These paints had a substantially shorter drying time than the older varnishes
In the 1930s, automakers started using paints called stoving enamels. These paints provided glossier shines and
much faster drying times. In the world of chrome, Dr. William Peacock developed a silvering spray in order to
silver mirrors.
In 1955, General Motors started painting its cars with a new acrylic that required the cars to be baked after the
acrylic was applied. This process gave the cars a consistent finish, but the finish wasnt as glossy as that
provided by stoving enamels. In 1960, Ford Motor Co. began using acrylic stoving enamels, which provided the
tough finish with more shine.
In the late 1980s, car manufacturers began using urethane and polyurethane paints on their vehicles. After the
application, clear coats were then applied. This resulted in durable and highly glossy finish.
Manufacturing of paint
The first step in making paint involves mixing the
pigment with resin, solvents, and additives to form a
If the paint is to be for industrial use, it usually is then
routed into a sand mill, a large cylinder that agitates
tiny particles of sand or silica to grind the pigment
particles, making them smaller and dispersing them
throughout the mixture.
In contrast, most commercial-use point is processed in
a high-speed dispersion tank, in which a circular,
toothed blade attached to a rotating shaft agitates the
mixture and blends the pigment into the solvent.
Paint canning is a completely automated process. For
Sand mill for manufacturing of
Canning of paints
Early cars did not have batteries, as their electrical systems were limited. A bell was used instead of an electric
horn, headlights were gas-powered, and the engine was started with acrank.
Car batteries became widely used around 1920 as cars became equipped withelectric starters. The sealed
battery, which did not require refilling, was invented in 1971
The first starting and charging systems were designed to be 6-volt and positive-groundsystems, with the
vehicle's chassis directly connected to the positive battery terminal. [6]Today, all vehicles have a negative ground
system. The negative battery terminal is connected to the car'schassis.
The Hudson Motor Car Companywas the first to use a standardized battery in 1918 when they started using
Battery Council Internationalbatteries. BCI is the organization that sets the dimensional standards for batteries.
Cars used a 6V electrical system, and so had 6V batteries until the mid-1950s. The changeover from 6 to 12V
happened when bigger engines with highercompression ratios required more electrical power to start.[8]Smaller
cars, which required less power to start stayed with 6V longer, for example theVolkswagen Beetlein the mid-
Mixing the constituent ingredients is the first step in battery manufacture. After granulation, the mixture is then pressed or
compacted into preformshollow cylinders. The principle involved in compaction is simple: a steel punch descends into a
cavity and compacts the mixture. As it retracts, a punch from below rises to eject the compacted preform
The container of a typical alkaline battery, consisting of preform inserted into a steel can, also doubles as the
cathode. The anode in the middle is a gel composed primarily of zinc powder. The separator between the anode
and cathode is either paper or synthetic fiber that has been soaked in an electrolyte solution.
Fuel cells
The first references to hydrogen fuel cells appeared in 1838. In a letter dated October 1838 but published in the December
1838 edition of The London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Welsh physicist and barrister
William Grove wrote about the development of his first crude fuel cells.
He used a combination of sheet iron, copper and porcelain plates, and a solution of sulphate of copper and dilute acid
in June 1839, German physicist Christian Friedrich Schnbein discussed the first crude fuel cell that he had invented. His
letter discussed current generated from hydrogen and oxygen dissolved in water.Grove later sketched his design, in 1842, in
the same journal.
The fuel cell he made used similar materials to today's phosphoric-acid fuel cell.
In 1939, British engineer Francis Thomas Bacon successfully developed a 5 kW stationary fuel cell. In 1955, W.
Thomas Grubb, a chemist working for the General Electric Company (GE), further modified the original fuel cell design by
using a sulphonated polystyrene ion-exchange membrane as the electrolyte.
Three years later another GE chemist, Leonard Niedrach, devised a way of depositing platinum onto the membrane, which
served as catalyst for the necessary hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. This became known as the "Grubb-
Niedrach fuel cell".GE went on to develop this technology with NASA and McDonnell Aircraft, leading to its use during
Project Gemini. This was the first commercial use of a fuel cell
Fuel cell

William Groves 1839 fuel cell

Fluids used as coolants:
-high thermal conductivity, high specific heat, low viscosity.
-Most commonly used as coolant.

2.steam, inert gases in gas cooled nuclear reactors, carbon dioxide.

-mostly used coolant. Its high heat capacity and low cost makes it most suitable. However, it must be used with
corrosion inhibitors and antifreeze.
ANTIFREEZE: solution of suitable organic chemical(most often ethylene glycol) in
water, used when water based coolant has to withstand temperature below 0c or wen its boiling point is to b
Eco friendly cars:


Zero to 60 mph: 9.4 sec
Zero to 100 mph: 34.2 sec
Top speed (drag limited): 108 mph
Braking, 70-0 mph: 194 ft
Electric Cars:
1. Mahindra e20+ 2. Toyota