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NOISE POLLUTION

Dr A P Singh
Associate Professor & Head
PG Department of Zoology
SGGS College, Chandigarh
(Panjab University, Chandigarh, India)
SOUND
A form of mechanical Energy which travels in a medium
as waves of compression and rarefaction
Has two basic characteristics:

Loudness (Sound Intensity): Strength of sound sensation


perceived by an individual.
It is determiner of energy carried by sound waves.
Unit of Loudness is decibels (dB) or bels (B; = 10 dB) or sones (= 40
dB)
Threshold of human hearing is 0 dB
dB scale is logarithmic, i.e., strength of loudness and unit of loudness
do not show linear relationship, rather is exponential as power of 10
Ten fold increase in strength add 10 dB, and 100 fold increase in
strength adds 20 dB and 1000 fold increase in strength adds 30 dB
Measured by Sound Level Meter or Decibel Meter

SOUND.. CONTD.
Frequency (Pitch): It is number of sound
vibrations or number of sound wave cycles per
second
Measured in units called hertz (Hz)
Range of sensitiveness of human hearing is 20
20,000 Hz
Sound below 20 Hz is called Infrasound and
above 20,000 Hz as ultrasound or ultrasonic and
are inaudible
Frequency influences loudness
Sound with frequency of 1000 Hz and loudness
of 20 dB and frequency of 20 Hz and loudness of
80 dB appear similar
SOUND LEVEL METERS OR DECIBEL
METER

DIGITAL MECHANICAL
DISPLAY POINTER
0 dB Threshold of Hearing
10 dB Breathing, Rustling of the Leaves Barely Audible
20 dB Broadcasting Studio Very Quiet
30 dB Soft Whisper, Library Quiet
50 dB Low Volume Radio, Living Room
60 dB Moderate Conversation, AC, Telephone, Type Moderately Loud
Writer
70 dB Office, Loud Conversation, Alarm Clock, Desert
Cooler. Vacuum Pump
75 dB New Car
80 dB Scooter, Car, Bazar Loud
90 dB Bus/Traffic
100 dB Printing Press, Rolling Mill Very Loud
110 dB Motor Cycle/Train Whistle Uncomfortably Loud
120 dB Hooter/Flying Aircraft
130dB Maximum Volume Rock Music
150 dB Jet Takeof Painful
180 dB Rocket
NOISE
Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal
activities such as working, sleeping, and conversations.
Sound that is unwanted or unpleasant or harsh which disrupts

ones quality of life by disturbing peace of mind, causing


discomfort, interfering speech and is annoying is called as
noise.
Level at which sound becomes noise depends on state of

listener, e.g., patient requires calmness


Loud music cant be enjoyed for long

Sound becomes noise between 45 60 dB

During Festivals/Dance Parties/Celebrations even sound of 80

dB is enjoyable
Metros have average noise level of 90 dB
NOISE POLLUTION
When there is a lot of noise in the
environment, it is termed as noise pollution.
It is an underrated environmental problem
because of the fact that we cant see, smell,
or taste it.
It is a physical pollution which does not
leave residue but its effects can be felt
World Health Organization holds that Noise
must be recognized as a major threat to
human well-being
MAJOR SOURCES OF NOISE
POLLUTION
Domestic Gadgets & Personal Entertainment
Factories & Mills: Machines, Exhausts, Steam,
Generators, grinding, cutting
Transportation Means:

Commercial Areas:

Community Functions

Bus Stands, Railway Stations & Airports

Sports Events

Agricultural Operations

Construction Activities

Defence Activities

Festivals
EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION

Noise has Auditory and Non-Auditory Effects:


Auditory Effects: adverse effects on functions

of hearing system through changes in its


structural components.
These can be in form of :
Auditory Fatigueness: reduction in hearing

ability; exposure to 80 dB for over half an hour


Temporary Deafness: inability to hear for a

brief period at loudness 100 dB


Ear Pain:

Permanent Deafness: at loudness of 140 dB

Urbanites, people living close to aerodromes,


drivers of vibrating vehicles, industrial workers
are prone to auditory effects
CONTD
Non-auditory Effects: Adverse effects on receivers and
functioning of organs their body other than auditory.
Interference of Speech & Verbal Communication
Annoyance & Ill Temper
Tiredness, Fatigueness & Reduced Work Efficiency
Headache, Cramps & Discomforts
Anxiety, Hypertension, behavioural & Emotional
Stress, Memory Loss and Panic attacks
Disturbance of Digestive Functions through
dysfunctions of liver and peptic ulcers
Adverse Effects on reproductive Cycles of Insects and
bird Species (Egg Laying, Hatching)
Sonic Boom due to Jets: a series of Shock Waves
generated by a supersonic jet flying at a speed of
more than one mach (1 mach = velocity of sound);
rattling of windows, doors and shaking of buildings
CONTROL & REMEDIAL
MEASURES
Three Methods of Control are:
Reduction of Noise at Source:
Interruption of Path of Transmission of Noise:
Protecting the Receiver:
Diferent Measures Adopted to control Noise Pollution
include:
Regular Monitoring of Noise level in residential, industrial
and commercial areas (by installing Decibel Meters)
Maintenance of Green Muffler (row of plantation to absorb
noise; around industries and houses, along roads, railway
tracks )
Also absorb air particulates and gaseous pollutants
CONTROL & REMEDIAL
MEASURES
Manufacture of Noiseless Machinery by improved
designs, cushioning and proper lubrication
Absorption of Unwanted Sound by using proper
ceiling and flooring; rough cement coating &
acoustic tiles on outer surfaces of buildings
Creation of Silence Zones near educational
institutions, hospitals; and banning blowing of
pressure horns and public address system
Use of Ear Plugs (fitted in ear canal)and Ear Mufs
(worn on ears) by people at noisy places (factory,
traffic, etc)
CONTROL & REMEDIAL MEASURES
CONTD
Stringent Applications of Indian Noise Pollution
Legislative measures
Crime under section 268 of Indian Penal Code;
Under section 6-2.6 (?)of Environment Act, 1986,
amended 1989; noise as pollutant and prescribed
Day and Night Standards and Silence Zones;
Nuisance under Section 133 of IPC
Noise Pollution (Regulation & Control)Rules 2002
under Provisions of Environment Act, 1989
AMBIENT NOISE LEVEL
(RECOMMENDED BY CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD)

Day Night

Industrial Area 75 dB 70 dB

Commercial Area 65 dB 55 dB

Residential Area 55 dB 45 dB

Silence Zone 50 dB 40 dB