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Management of Wastes

Dr A P Singh
Associate Professor & Head
PG Department of Zoology
(NAAC Accredited)
Images For Sensitisation
What are Wastes?
Discarded or unwanted materials or useless
Wastes are materials that are not prime products
(that is products produced for the market) for which
the generator has no further use in terms of his/her
own purposes of production, transformation or
consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose.
Wastes may be generated during the extraction of
raw materials, the processing of raw materials into
intermediate and final products, the consumption of
final products, and other human activities.
Unwanted or unusable materials; any substance
which is discarded after primary use, or it is
worthless, defective and of no use
Residuals recycled or reused at the place of
generation are excluded.
Scenario - 1
The growing urbanization unprecedented growth in
all kind of wastes municipal including e-waste, and
industrial hazardous and non-hazardous wastes.
a growing amount of sewage, large portion of
which is discharged untreated in water bodies and
thus, is largest source of their pollution.
Developed Economies have been successful in
maximizing resource recovery and waste
recycling and thus diverting waste from landfills
developing economies have been still struggling
with source segregation of waste and setting up
material recovery and waste recycling facilities, and
most of the waste still is reaching the landfill sites.
Scenario - 2
As most of these landfill sites in developing
economies unlined low-lying areas. Waste
disposal at such sites result in contamination
of surface and groundwater sources making
them unfit for human consumption.
Experiences in developed countries in past
have shown that cleaning up contaminated
sites has been much more expensive than
implementing pollution prevention
It is expected that global waste management
cost which at present is whopping $205.4
billion annually will increase to $375.5 billion
in 2025 thus, putting a lot of pressure on
agencies managing these wastes
Scenario - 3
Waste is an unavoidable by-product of
most human activity.
Economic development and rising
living standards have led to increases
in the quantity and complexity of
generated waste
Industrial diversification and the
expanded health-care have added
substantial quantities of industrial
hazardous waste and biomedical waste
Have potentially severe environmental
and human health consequences.

Per capita waste generation increasing

by 1.3% per annum
With urban population increasing
between 3 3.5% per annum
Yearly increase in waste generation is
around 5% annually
India produces more than 42.0 million
tons of municipal solid waste annually.
Per capita generation of waste varies
from 200 gm to 600 gm per capita / day.
Average generation rate at 0.4 kg per
capita per day in 0.1 million plus towns.
How Wastes are
Affluence (rich waste more)
Changed Life Style
Approach of Convenience
Use & Throw away Policy
Excessive per capita resource
Increased population density
Sources of Wastes
Municipal Activities
Hospitals, Clinics & Laboratories
Dumps of Used Items
Types of Wastes
Solid Wastes
Farm Yard
plastics, Styrofoam containers, bottles, cans,
papers, scrap iron, and other trash
Liquid Wastes: Wastes in Liquid Form
Domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste
water from ponds, manufacturing industries
and other sources
Classificationof Wastes
1. Based on Biodegradation
Biodegradable Wastes
Which can be degraded (Organic; paper, wood, fruits and
Non- Biodegradable Wastes
Which cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines,
cans, Styrofoam containers and others)
2. Effects on Health/Environment
Substances unsafe to use commercially, industrially,
agriculturally, or economically and have any of the following
properties- ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity & toxicity.
Substances safe to use commercially, industrially,
agriculturally, or economically and do not have any of those
properties mentioned above. These substances usually
create disposal problems.
Problems of Wastes
Huge Volume
Lack of Space for Dumping
Increasing cost of waste disposal
Need for Sorting due to varied
Environmental Hazards
Extent of Waste
In an Average City
Paper 40 %
Yard Waste 1 %
Textile & Rubber 12 %
Metal 9 %
Plastic/Polythene 8 %
Glass 7 %
Food Leftovers 7 %
Misc. 2 %
Management Strategies
Solid Wastes Dumping, Burning, Reduction of Volume & Recycling
4 Rs Reduce, Recycle, Reuse
Pilling of collected waste or refuse in an open or covered by a layer of
Open Dumping (Tipping)
A simplest, most convenient, cheapest and major mode of waste
disposal in developing/Underdeveloped countries
It is a crude method of piling of waste in an open low lying area or
uncovered pit
Waste is periodically levelled or set on fire and compressed to
reduce volume
Ugly look and foul smell
Environment Hazards : Pollution
Health Hazards : breeding of pests and vectors; epidemics
Banned in developed countries
Land Fill (Controlled Tipping)
Low lying or deep dug area filled with solid wastes to confine and
concentrate them and finally covered by a thick layer of earth
Organic matter undergo :
anaerobic decomposition,
decrease in volume and
Temperature goes upto 70 C
Produced gases like methane, ammonia, H2S, N2 can cause blasts

Advantages: Disadvantages
Confined to small area Danger of blasts due to produced gases
Does not attract pests and Due to reduction of volume of waste
insect vectors with time, area cant be used for
Reduction of volume of construction of buildings
waste Danger of pollution of soil by retention
Does not produce foul smell of heavy metals (lead, chromium,
arsenic, copper, iron)
Prevents pollution of
Heavy runoff can transport refuse to
surface water surface waters to cause their pollution
Levelled area can later be Growing of crops in the area or
used as play ground or as irrigation by polluted waters can bring
parking toxic heavy metals into food chain
Sanitary Landfills
They are modern ideal landfills and are environmentally
safe and cover all draw backs
Important Features:
Bottom made of multiple barriers- Clay, Plastic Sheets
(Check entry of leachates into underground water
Leachates are collected in special containers,
concentrated and safely disposed off
produced gases are monitored and collected and
collected above the dump by pipes and appropriately
(prevent blasting and threat of fire)
Monitoring wells are dug around landfills to check
underground pollution if any
Depth of landfill should be above the water table
Burning in Open/Dumps (Uncontrolled)
Reduces Bulk
Produces lots of smoke, offensive smell, gaseous pollutants
Blowing away of ash disfigures the objects around

Incineration Advantages:
Two step burning at high Leaves non-combustible material
temperature in special Volume of wastes reduced by 80 %
chambers called incinerators Produced heat used to turn turbines
First Step for generating electricity
Primary combustion Leftover used for land filling
Burning at 1000 C
Costly Setup
Second Step By products have health hazards
Secondary Combustion [Smoke bad sight, irritations,
Burning at 1300 C big Cities Gaseous Pollutants SO2 and NO2 (Acid
Rains), Heavy Metals Cadmium,
and Hospitals are equipped Mercury, Lead, Carcinogens dioxin
and furans]

Modern Incinerators
Equipped with Wet Scrubbers
Electrostatic Precipitators
Concrete Blocks
Lead Blocks (for Radioisotopes)
Mixed with Cement and immobilized
Reduction of Volume
Judicious use of resources
(avoiding wastage, reduction in size of packaging)
Eating of garbage by hogs and cattle
Salvage (recovery of items which can be reused or recycled
Composting of biodegradables(vermi-composting and microbial-composting;
products used as manures)
Biogas Generation
Incineration (volume reduced by 80 %)
Salvaged items reused as such (glass Bottles after washing and sterilization) or
melted/ processed and recast (paper, plastics, glass, metals, card boards)
Relieves pressure on raw industrial resources
Better resource use (for example wood spared for other use if paper
Reduction of pollution (by less industrial operation)
Generates employment for recovery and sorting
All items not recyclable
Some recyclable items cause health/environmental problems (polythene
recycling produce Dioxin and furan, which are carcinogens)
Labour Intensive,, uneconomical salvage sorting
Controlled degradation (composting)
of organic matter by red earthworm
(Eisenia fetida)
Eaten organic matter left behind in
form of worm castings/faecal pellets
(soil+ organic matter) which is rich
Organic Farming/ Gardening
(After Sir Albert Howard, 1930s)
A System of Crop Cultivation employing
biological methods of fertilization and pest
A holistic system in which town wastes are
returned to soil to enrich its nutrients.
It is less energy intensive and employs
organic materials like animal dung, sewage
sludge & plant residues
Improves soil structure and water holding
capacity and supports soil organisms; food
raised is more nutritive and tastier
Waste Management
Plastic Waste Management Rules 2016
e-waste (Management) Rules, 2016
Bio-Medical Waste Management
Construction and Demolition Waste
Management Rules, 2016
Hazardous and Other Wastes
(Management and Transboundary
Movement) Rules, 2016
Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016
Refuse: All nonhazardous solidwastefrom
a community that requires collection and
transport to a processing or disposal site.
Refuseincludes garbage and rubbish
Garbage Garbage is mostly decomposable
Rubbish is mostly dry material such as glass,
paper, cloth, or wood.
4 Rs : Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, & Rot