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Statistics

Statistics

Mathematical procedures

Organize

Summarize Information

interpret

Variables

characteristic or condition that can

change or take on different values.

Research objective/question

relationship between variables for a specific

group of individuals

Population & Sample

Population

entire group of individuals of interest in

research

N

Sample

selected to represent the population in a

research study

Results are generalized to population

n

Types of Variables

Discrete variables

indivisible categories

Ex. class size

Continuous variables

infinitely divisible units

such as time (hour, minute, second) or weight

Real Limits

Boundaries set for each measurement

category or interval for continuous

variables

located exactly half-way (or half-unit)

between adjacent categories

Upper real limit

Category +1/2 unit

Lower real limit

Category minus unit

Measuring Variables

To establish relationships between

variables observed

Data

The measurements obtained in a research

Scale of measurement

set of categories and a process (sort,

compare, compute)

classifies each individual into one category

4 Types of Measurement Scales

1. Nominal scale

unordered set of categories

identified only by name

determine similarity or differences (or sort)

individuals

Categorical

2. Ordinal scale

ordered set of categories (ranked)

direction of difference between individuals (greater

than or less than)

4 Types of Measurement Scales

3. Interval scale

ordered series of equal-sized categories

identify the direction and magnitude of a

difference

Arbitrary location of the zero point

4. Ratio scale

is similar to an interval scale

value of zero indicates absence of the variable

(absolute zero)

identify the direction and magnitude of differences

allow ratio comparisons of measurements

4 Types of Measurement Scales

Scale Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio

s Ethnicity of anything Most Annual income in

Marital Movie ratings personality dollars.

Status (0, 1 or 2 measures. Length or distance in

thumbs up) WAIS centimeters, inches,

SES intelligence miles, etc.

score

ns or less than subtraction division of scale

Allowed operations of scale values

values

4 Types of Measurement Scales

Scale Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio

Operation Counting Greater Addition and Multiplication

s Allowed than or subtraction of and division of

less than scale values scale values

operations

4 Types of Measurement Scales

Scale Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio

Statistics Mode Median mean, All statistics

Chi- and standard for interval

square percentile deviation, scales

correlation, plus :

regression, geometric

analysis of mean,

variance harmonic

mean,

coefficient

of variation,

logarithms

Research Methods

Two variables

Correlational

Two or more variables

Experimental

Non-experimental

Non-equivalent groups

Pre-post studies

Correlational Studies

to determine presence of relationship

between two variables

to describe the relationship

simply observes the two variables as they

exist naturally

Chi-square

Cannot define causal relationship

Experiments

demonstrate a cause-and-effect

relationship between two variables

show that changing the value of one

variable (independent variable) causes

changes to occur in an observed variable

(dependent variable)

Done through

manipulation of a variable

control over research situation (reduce

extraneous variables)

Experiments (cont.)

General variables to control

Participant variable

Environment variable

Control techniques

Random assignments of participants

Matching participants or environment

through assignment

Holding variables constant

Non-experimental Methods

Similar to experiments--also compare groups of

scores

Do not manipulate variable to differentiate the

groups

cannot demonstrate cause and effect

relationships

simply demonstrate and describe relationships,

similar to correlational research

Use quasi-independent variables to

differentiates the groups

Pre-existing participant or environmental variables

time lapse

Non-experimental Methods

Non-equivalent groups

Pre-existing participant or environmental variables

differentiates the groups

Cannot control assignment of participants to groups

and cannot assure group equivalence

Pre-post Study

Time passage used to differentiate groups

Cannot control variables related to time

Types of Statistical Methods

Descriptive

Inferential

Descriptive Statistics

Organize and summarize data

Ex. tables or graphs; descriptive values

(average score) used to summarize data.

Parameter

descriptive value for a population

Statistic

descriptive value for a sample.

Inferential Statistics

Use sample data to make general

conclusions (inferences) about

populations.

Sample data

limited information about the population

Sample statistics

imperfect representatives of population

parameters

Sampling Error

The discrepancy between a sample

statistic and its population parameter

Define and measure sampling error

needed in inferential statistics

Notation

The individual measurements or scores obtained

for a research participant will be identified by the

letter X (or X and Y if there are multiple scores

for each individual).

The number of scores in a data set will be

identified by N for a population or n for a sample.

Summing a set of values is a common operation

in statistics and has its own notation. The Greek

letter sigma, , will be used to stand for "the sum

of." For example, X identifies the sum of the

scores.

Order of Operations

1. All calculations within parentheses are done

first.

2. Squaring or raising to other exponents is done

second.

3. Multiplying, and dividing are done third, and

should be completed in order from left to right.

4. Summation with the notation is done next.

5. Any additional adding and subtracting is done

last and should be completed in order from left

to right.

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