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Harmonics in power

system
Electrical Engineering Student
Geetanjali institute of technical
studies
OM PRAKASH LOHAR

Outline

• History of Harmonics
• Linear and non-linear load
• What are harmonics?
• What cause harmonics?
• Harmonic current flow
• Harmonics components
• What problem do harmonics create?
• How do you know if you have a harmonics problem?
• examples
• If you have a harmonics problem, what should you
do?
• Why harmonic unknown or untreated in electrical
distribution system?
• How can we treat harmonics system?
• Unexpected of harmonics created

History of harmonics
• Power system have always had harmonics present.
• In early 1890’s harmonics were associated with
distorted current and voltage waveform shape on
transmission system.
• They didn’t cause a lot of problem in industrial setting
or office building as equipment was less
sophisticated.
• Over the last fifteen years, the proliferation of
electronic device has brought subject up-front and
personal.
• As the number of electronic devices increased, so did
the number of other harmonics creating devices.
• There has been an explosion of microprocessor based
equipment which are also non-linear loads. Examples
include computer systems, variable frequency drives,
AC/DC converters, electronic ballasts, X-ray

Linear loads
• Linear loads occur when the impedance is constant;
then the current is proportional to or the same as the
voltage
• A linear element in a power system is a component in
which the current is proportional to the voltage.
• Typical linear loads are incandescent lights and
motors,heaters
• Linear load, the consumer pays for unused energy due
to distortion voltage.

the consumer pays more for unused a energy due to both voltage and current distortion. DC/AC drive and induction furnace/arc furnace. • Non-linear loads are low impedance so they use as much as three times the peak current as a resistive load. • The current drawn by non-linear loads is not sinusoidal but is periodic. meaning that the current wave looks the same from cycle to cycle. • Typical non-linear loads are electronic switch power supplies. . • Non-linear load. Non-linear loads • Non linear loads occur when the impedance is not constant. then the current is not proportion or the same as the voltage. • There are two basically two types of non-linear loads: single phase and three phase.

the national electrical code (NEC) has addressed the requirements for equipment and system performance under influence of harmonics for applications in highly non-linear load . How big is this problem? • Since 1965. • In 1980. as well as to apply power improvement capacitors to minimize the increased cost of energy. high efficiency semiconductor devices has increased the use of electronic( static) power converters throughout industry in the form of variable speed drives for all type of machinery. it has been economical and essential to utilize electronic power converters on large systems. • After the 1973 oil embargo and associated rapid increase in energy costs. These have also generated significant harmonics in power systems. Since then. harmonics were recognized as a major technical issue in the USA. the introduction of low cost.

9. • Triplen harmonic: odd multiple of the 3rd harmonic (3rd. These type of loads generated primarily 5th and 7th current harmonics and a lesser amount of 11th. 5.15).. ect. • They will add rather than cancel on the neutral of a 3 phase 4 wires system. 9th.). 9th. 15th.9. for not generate current triplen harmonics (3.) • The troublesome harmonics for single phase loads are 3rd and multiple of 3rd ( ie. like personal computers. Single phase vs. 15th. 13th and higher order.7. ect. three phase load harmonics • Single phase non-linear loads.C phase triple are all in the same phase with each other. B. These harmonics are call “triplens” because A. 21). This can over load the neutral if it is not sized to handle this type of load. • 3 phase non-linear loads like 3-phase DC driven. . electronics ballast and other electronic equipment. 3- phase rectifier. generate odd harmonics (3.

. General definition • The general definition of harmonic is any periodic signal (waveform) can be describe by a series of sine and cosine function. also call Fourier series. and the others harmonics according to their original. so that (n=2) is the second wave.  Vns  sinis which  n of  t  Vnc cos  n   t  form: n 1 the coefficients are obtained as follows 2 1  Vdc  V( t ) d t  0 2  1  Vns  V( t )  sin  n   t  d t  0 2 where  T 2  1  T is the fundamental period time Vnc  V( t )  cos  n   t  d t   0 n is an integer • 1st term of the series (n=1) is called direct wave. • If the function V(t) is symmetric in the proportion to origin the series contains only odd terms. • Every periodic function  of form V(t)=V(t+T) can be developed into Fourier’s Vdc   V( t )series.

effectivevoltage • A wave having a crest factor less than 1. IF IH Total harmonic distortion voltage VH THD VF Where IH=rms value of all the harmonic components combine IF=rms value of the fundamental component of line current. Two that are frequently used are crest factor and total harmonic distortion THD. • In the case of a sinusoidal voltage (which evidently has no distortion) the crest factor is  – The total harmonic distortion THD of a 2 current IF or voltage is equal to the effective value Total harmonics of all the distortion harmonics THD IH n divided 2 by the effective value of the fundamental. . General definition • There are several ways of describing the degree of distortion of a current or voltage. • A crest factor2 greater  1.4 tend to be flat topped.414 than 1. – The crest factor of a voltage is equal to the peak value divided by the peakvoltage effective Crestfactor (rms) value.4 indicates a voltage that tends to be pointy.

2. Each harmonic is expressed in terms of its order. What are harmonics? • Harmonics are like pot holes.S. • Total harmonic distortion is the contribution of all the harmonic frequency current to the fundamental.5…. the fundamental power frequency is 60Hz.4. • Harmonics result from non-linear loads such as electronics switch power supplies • The characteristic harmonics are h based (n p)  on1 the number of rectifier (pulse number) used inha circuit ( n  p ) and 1 can be determined by the following equation: example: using a 6 pulse rectifier: n  1 p  6 – Where: n= an integer (1.) h  ( n  p )  1 h  7 th harmonics p=number of pulse or rectifiers h  ( n  p )  1 h  5 th harmonics f  60 Hz 7 f  420 Hz 5 f  300 Hz . depending on the harmonic source • In U. • Individual harmonic frequency will vary in amplitude and phase angle.3. • Harmonics are currents or voltage with frequencies that are integer multiples of the fundamental power frequency.

What are causes of harmonics? • Harmonics are create by a non-linear loads that draw a current in abrupt pulses rather than a smooth sinusoidal manner. • Variable speed drives are usually referred to by the number of rectifiers in the system. microwave ovens and vacuum cleaners. single phase electronic loads connected phase neutral in a 3 phase 4wires distribution system. . air conditioners. • Electronics switching power supplies/converters • Harmonics are created by increased use of non-linear devices such as uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) systems. also generate zero sequence harmonic currents • Appliances: – TV set. rectifiers and personal computers. washing machines. • All electronic loads generate positive & negative sequence harmonic currents. solid state variable speed motor drives. • Harmonic resonance occurs when the capacitor reactance and the system reactance are equal.

These currents will result in greater voltage distortion. As a result of the current flow. The magnitude of the voltage distortion depends on the source impedance and the harmonic voltage produced. Harmonic current flow • Large harmonic currents will circulate between transformer and capacitor. • These voltages sum and when add to the nominal voltage produce voltage distortion. harmonic voltages are produced by impedance in the system for each harmonic. • When a non-linear load draws current. that current passes through all of the impedance that is between the load and system source. • If the source impedance is low then the voltage distortion will be low. • If a significant portion of the load become non-linear (harmonic currents increase) and/or when a resonant condition prevails (system impedance increases) the voltage can increased .

• . There is a good possibility of heavy presence of triplen harmonics. How do you check for harmonics currents? • When non-linear loads are a considerable part of total load in the facility (more than 20%) there is a chance of a harmonic problem. If the neutral current is considerably higher than value predicted from the imbalance in the phase currents. • The amount of current distortion produced by the non-linear loads. • Measure the current in the neutral of a 3phase 4 wire system. • Other signs of current harmonics include inexplicable higher than normal temperature in the transformer. voltage distortion and high crest factor.

produced by the other elements of the subs system. – Penalty losses. – A reduction dollar in penalty hrs days  losses will produce a very  attractive annual_saving  Total_KW_saving   Total_KW_saving dollar       12months   Total_PFpenalty_saving annual  saving. generated by single and 3-phase non-linear electronic loads. Will harmonic currents affect your power costs? • Harmonic currents. when supporting 100% THD non-linear electronic office loads.25 time higher losses than when supporting linear loads. KWh day year  KW_demandchage    Months  . will typically equal to and often substantially exceed the transformer’s penalty losses. will cause significant “penalty” losses throughout the electrical distribution system. will produce approximately 3. – Penalty losses result in apparatus overheating higher air conditioning costs and high power costs. distribution transformers. – For example.

• The component class shows the rotational direction of the phase of the harmonic with respect to the fundamental frequency.4. when the curve form is symmetric in proportion to origin only odd harmonics are generated.11. • Harmonics are divided into three type of components (positive .12… • Positive sequence:1. .6. Harmonics components • Harmonics are divided into different components by their properties (ranking number).14 … • In addition harmonics are divided into even and odd harmonics • In a normal situation.8.7.5.9. negative and zero sequence).10. 13… • Negative sequence: 2. • Zero-sequence harmonics: 3.

. Zero negative 6 n  1 Zero 6 n  3 Where n is any integer . 11. 12. 5. positive – If n = 2. or harmonics (phase) rotate in the same direction... the phase angle in all phases is thePositive  n harmonics same. 7. 9... Negative – If n = 3. 10. or harmonics rotate in a different direction. the phase order is different than or with direct waves. 8.the phase order (phase angle) is the same as or with the direct wave. 13. 6. 6or 1 do not rotate.4..How is such component divided obtain – If n= 1.

cancel each other and result in very little neutral current. – With no harmonic content. Three phase Balance and unbalance Systems • Balance in three phase system – Current in a balance system are shifted 1/3 of a cycle compared to each other. Problems due to unbalance the loading: – Negative voltage sequence – Increased current in neutral conductor – Increased neutral to ground voltage – Overheating of motors/ insulation breakdown – Reduced motor efficiency – Motor bearing failure – Waste energy/high electric bill – Waste investment & operating capital . the line current are 120 degree out of phase. – Real time phase balancing based on X/R – Saves energy – There is no such devices know in markets.

the cost of lost productivity during the emergency repair far exceeds the replacement cost of the transformer itself. – Theoretically the neutral current can be up to the sum of all 3 phases therefore causing overheating of the neutral wires. harmonics can cause false or spurious operations and trips. Since only the phase wires are protected by circuit breakers of fuses. If capacitor is tuned to one of the characteristic harmonic such as the 5th or 7th. this is equivalent to continuous audio feedback through a PA system. • Waste energy/high electric bill • Capacitors: can be affected by heat rise increases due to power loss and reduced life on the capacitors. manufacturing and industrial) with a power factor less than 0. In comparison. • Overheating of standard electrical supply transformers which shortens the life of a transformer and will eventually destroy it. over voltage and resonance can cause dielectric failure. . This results in destroyed capacitors and their fuses and damaged surge suppressors which will cause an electrical system shutdown • False tripping of branch circuit breakers. • High voltage and current distortion exceeding • Poor power factor conditions result in monthly utility penalty fees for major users (factories. • Resonance that produces over-current surges. this can result in a potential fire hazard. – When a transformer fails.9. What problem do harmonics create? • Large load currents in the neutral wires of a 3 phase system. damaging or blowing components for no apparent reason.

Many electronic devices count on regular sinusoidal voltage waves for detection of peaks and/or zero crossing used in timing circuits. communication interference. – Increased heating is the result of increased copper and iron losses due to the increased frequencies present. Harmonic over voltages are caused by local circuit resonant condition that can overstress equipment insulation. • Electrical interference: – interference may take the form of loss of data. • Over voltage – An over voltage is a voltage above the normal rated or maximum operating voltage of a device or circuit. . One most common form is the tuning of a circuit due to the addition of a capacitor. How do you know if you have a harmonic • problem? Frequent tripping of circuit breakers & fuse blowing • Capacitor failures • Overloading of transformer neutrals • Telephone interference • Severe lamp flicker • Excessive equipment heating.

Circuits • Is circuit a harmonic circuit? Is circuit is linear or non-linear load circuit? • Does the circuit below a harmonic circuit? why? .

579E+01 TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION = 2.256E-02 -1.516 38.847E+01 -8.086E+01 2.000E+00 2 1.3 . circuit1 • The output of circuit **** 11/06/03 08:43:53 *********** Evaluation PSpice (Nov 1999) ************** * U:\EE461\Schematic1.598 59.512E+00 3.000E+00 2.181E-02 0.249E+02 1.405E+00 3.711 2 2 3 Prms  Irms R Prms  50  10 2 2 IH1  ( Irms )  59.570E+01 -8.000 DEG C ********************************************************************** FOURIER COMPONENTS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE V(Vout) DC COMPONENT = 4.200E+02 3.516 THD  4 THD  2.779E+02 -1.681E-03 -8.3 IH1  38.sch **** FOURIER ANALYSIS TEMPERATURE = 27.780E+02 4 2.400E+02 3.851E+01 3 1.738594E+01 HARMONIC FREQUENCY FOURIER NORMALIZED PHASE NORMALIZED NO (HZ) COMPONENT COMPONENT (DEG) PHASE (DEG) 1 6.316800E+00 PERCENT R  10 V  1000 V I  I  100 R 2 3 P  I  R P  100  10 I Irms  Irms  70.798E-03 -8.800E+02 2.000E+01 9.

258 1000 I  I  42.000E+01 5.311E-02 3.153E+01 5.sch   **** FOURIER ANALYSIS TEMPERATURE = 27.200E+02 4.558E+01 3 1.066E-02 4.800E+02 3.837E+01 1.194E+01 7. Circuit 2 • The output of circuit 2   * U:\EE461\Schematic1.190E-02 2.782316E+00 PERCENT L  0.996 Z  Rl EH I XL EH THD  THD  9.487E+01 4.000E+00 2 1.936E+02 1.136E+02 4 2.048 Z  R  XL Z  13.388514E+01 HARMONIC FREQUENCY FOURIER NORMALIZED PHASE NORMALIZED NO (HZ) COMPONENT COMPONENT (DEG) PHASE (DEG) 1 6.173E+01 9.000 DEG C *********************************************************************** FOURIER COMPONENTS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE V(Vout) DC COMPONENT = 3.400E+02 2.283E+01 1.000E+00 -2.21 XL  2  f L XL  9.692E+01 0.024 H f  60 Hz V  1000 Rl  10 R  4.7 % EF .361E+02 TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION = 9.

Bipolar amplifier circuit • The example .

541E+02 8.sch • **** FOURIER ANALYSIS TEMPERATURE = 27.822 1 H2  6.820E-01 9.956E-01 1. Bipolar amplifier circuit • Pspice results • TOTAL POWER DISSIPATION 1.000E+04 4.669E+02 • TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION = 1.822E+00 1.893278E-01 • • HARMONIC FREQUENCY FOURIER NORMALIZED PHASE NORMALIZED • NO (HZ) COMPONENT COMPONENT (DEG) PHASE (DEG) • • 1 1.461E+02 • 4 4.782E+02 0.258 % H1 .471E+01 4.561 10 3 H4  4.000E+00 -1.561E-02 1.858E-03 1.858 10 THD   H22  H32  H42  100 THD  18.66E-01 WATTS • **** 09/24/03 10:35:12 *********** Evaluation PSpice (Nov 1999) ************** • * U:\EE461\amplifier.511E+02 • 3 3.148E+01 5.000E+04 3.455E-02 1.271E-03 1.000E+00 • 2 2.000 DEG C • ****************************************************************************** • FOURIER COMPONENTS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE V(Vout) • DC COMPONENT = -2.825818E+01 PERCENT H1  3.000E+04 5.956 10 2 H3  5.000E+04 6.

If you have a harmonics problem. many designers have specified K-rated transformers. a k-rated transformer’s higher harmonics impedance cause increase in voltage distortion. a designer’s options have been limited to over-sizing distribution transformer and ‘shared’ neutral conductors. – As an alternative to over-sizing conventional distribution transformers. Unfortunately. branch circuits have been configured with separate neutral conductor for each phase conductor. and h 1 h is the harmonic number. evaluate the situation: – Compile good date on the symptoms. – Take good measurements of your system at various time during different operating cycles – Invite a consulting engineer or power quality expert from your power supplier to assess your systems. In either case. . branch circuits have been underutilized and limited in their length as a means of reducing voltage distortion and neutral ground voltage (common mode noise) at the loads. • If you suspect there is a harmonics problem. – As an alternative. what should you do? • How have some engineers dealt with harmonics in their system designs? – To improve system performance and provide the best possible environment for the non-linear loads.   ( Ih( pu) )  h  Ih(pu) is the harmonic current  2 2 K_rate expressed in per unit.

The advantage is the potential to “voltage match” by stepping up or down the system voltage. Reducing harmonics • There are many ways to reducing harmonics. and by . KVA • Determine h if ascresonant condition h = harmonic order on the distribution could occur: KVAR KVA KVA sc Z pu KAV is available short circuit at point of capcitor bank installation sc KVAR = capacitor bank size – Isolation transformers: An isolation transformer provides a good solution in many cases. However. The primary methods used today to reduce harmonics are: – Power System design: harmonics can be reduced by limiting the non-linear load to 30% of the maximum transformer’s capacity. resonating conditions can occur that could potentially limit the percentage of non-linear loads to 15% of transformer’s capacity. ranging from variable frequency drive designs to the addition of auxiliary equipment. with power factor correction capacitors installed.

harmonic trap filters provide true distortion power factor correction. ect. 5% and 7. Reducing harmonics (const. 3%.) • Line reactors: more commonly used for size and cost. . 7th.5%.5%. 11th . AC drives that use diode bridge rectifier front ends are best suited for line reactors. Filters can be designed for several non-linear loads or for and individual. Line reactors (commonly referred to as inductors) are available in standard impedance ranges from 1. the line reactor is the best solution for harmonics reduction when compared to an isolation transformer. Filters are tuned to a specific harmonic such as the 5th. In addition. • Harmonics trap filters: used in applications with a high non-linear ratio to system to eliminate harmonic currents.

the widespread use of computers and switched-mode power supply (SMPS) equipment is turning modern office buildings. factories and industrial plants into high-tech computer environments.Why harmonic unknown or untreated in electrical distribution system? • The electrical distribution system of most sites or facilities was never designed to deal with an abundance of non-linear load. • Within the last decade. . • A building or facility unable to fully support today’s technology and the high tech problems that it brings along with it. • It’s a problem that has only recently begun to be recognized in the building industry.

Design a hearing aid or heart pacemaker .

Output results • The output swing of circuit 9 AtotalPs  3.01  10 9 Anew  2.59  10 .

– The filter is designed or tuned to the predetermined none-linear load and to filter a predetermine harmonic frequency range. Usually this frequency range only accounts for one harmonics frequency. How can we treat harmonics system? • Harmonic treatment can be performed by 2 methods: Filter or cancellation – A harmonic filter consists of a capacitor bank and inductor coil. – Harmonic cancellation is performed with harmonic canceling transformer also know as phase shifting transformers. – A harmonic canceling transformer is a relatively . This application is mostly used when specified for a uninterruptible power supplies UPS or variable frequency drive motor in a manufacturing plant.

This cause the bank to act as a sink or trap for higher harmonic currents from the surrounding customer and/or utility system. • In electric motors. 5 th. negative sequence harmonics (i. • Voltage distortion affects not only sentinel electronic load but also electric motors and capacitor banks. . current harmonics can distort the voltage waveform and cause voltage harmonic. • In addition. Why are voltage and current harmonics a • Current harmonics are aproblem problem because they cause increased losses in customer and utility power system components. 11th. Transformers are especially sensitive to this problem and may need to be de-rated as much as 50% capacity when feeding loads with extremely distorted current waveforms. 17th).e. The effect is increased current. • in Capacitor banks. is that the reactance (impedance) of a capacitor bank decrease as the frequency increases. increased heating and dielectric stresses that could lead to capacitor bank failure.

originally established levels of voltage distortion acceptable to the distribution system for individual non-linear loads. IEEE recommended practices and requirements for harmonics control in electrical power system. • IEEE 519 voltage limit . IEEE guide for harmonic control and reactive compensation of static power converters. • The establish recommended guidelines for harmonic voltages on the utility distribution systems well as harmonics currents within the industrial distribution system. With the rising increase usage of industrial non-linear loads. IEEE standard STD 519 • In 1981. such as variable frequency drives.1993. it became necessary to revise the standard. the IEEE published revised a standard limiting the amplitudes of current harmonics. • On April 12.

IEEE standard 519 • IEEE 519 Current limit. Half –wave converters are not allowed. – Current distortion that result in a DC offset. – All power generation equipment is limited to these values of current distortion. – n =harmonic order – THD= instantaneous value of harmonic distortion – PCC = At point of metering or point where non-linear load meets linear loads . – where Isc = maximum short circuit current at PCC – IL = maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at PCC. eg. regardless of actual Isc/IL. low voltage system – Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd harmonic limit above.

• Harmonic current may also contaminate audio and video signal interconnecting shielded cables. . generated by single phase and three phase non-linear electronics loads. • Harmonics currents. will cause additional “ penalty” losses throughout the electrical distribution system. This will result in loss of torque. overheating and premature failure. • These losses result in apparatus overheating and premature apparatus failure.What will happen if you do not follow the IEEE Std 519 • Electronic equipment is susceptible to miss-operation cause by harmonic distortion data in computer network may be corrupted. • Harmonic currents and voltage are not controlled. • Conventional linear loads can also be affected.

the other operated the two outboard lamps. 4 were overload because the engineer miscalculated. • By providing 2 circuits to each fixtures. Thinking he was doing the owner a favor. Considering the circuits were rated for 20A and should not exceed 16A continuously) this arrangement was a potentially serious electrical accident waiting to happen. Using 3 lamps per fixtures. the engineer reduced the number of contactors required to control the in/outside lamps separate from the building management system. Unexpected harmonics creates • Clamp-on ammeter found loads as high as 28 A. • First step in finding the cause of the problem was tabulate the load on each circuit. • The power system was 208V/120V. 3-phase. The owner didn’t have enough fixtures on hand for the entire job. 11 circuits overload appeared to be . Of 90 circuits. the supplier furnished the additional fixtures with 3 lamps switch-able ballasts. one ballast operated the center lamp. 15 had overload. • the engineer who designed the system laid it out using building standard light fixtures. instead of the original 2 ballasts per fixture. 4-wire.

Since the 1- lamp ballast used a normal power factor design (low PF).85 PF • Part of the problem was the engineer expected the 1-lamp circuit to draw about ½ the current per lamp as the 2-lamp circuit. the question of harmonics remained. .40 PF • 2-lamp operation=0. • Despite these discoveries. Unexpected harmonics creates • With balance linear loads on two phases. Both ballasts were conventional magnetic units. Fluorescent ballasts (even with magnetic ballasts) generate harmonics.85 PF • 3-lamp operation=1. That explained many of the overloads.77A at 0. all in the same housing.87A at 0. This has been common knowledge since at least 1968. but the 1 lamp ballast was a normal (low) power factor ballast. This analysis ruled out the theory that supplying the ballast with 2 circuits from different phases was the problem • The specification for the ballast that were actually supplied revealed they were not electronic. The current and power factor rating for all ballast were: • 1-lamp operation= 0. when the NEC began to require a full size neutral conductor on circuits serving discharge lighting (which includes fluorescent) and also electronic equipment.44A at 0. the 1-lamp circuit (serving ½ the number of lamp) actually drew more current than 2-lamp circuits. the current on the neutral is no greater than it would be with just a single phase load. The ballast consisted of a 1&2 lamp ballast.

6 time the peak to peak value of the pure sine wave. This measurement error compounded the problems caused by the ballast substitution and the original miscalculation. However. When phase A and phase B (each with a 30% third harmonic) combine on the neutral. The peak to peak is 1. Solution • To avoid problems of overloading the neutral on 3phase. the electrician’s average responding meter interpreted this current at 1. manufactures of CBM certified ballast limit the 3 rd harmonic to 33% of the fundamental so as not to overload the neutral. 4 wire system. • The remedy involved new light fixtures for this space. • Replaced the fixtures with the 3-lamp switch-able ballasts and low PF 1-lamp . • Our case involved 2 phases sharing a neutral at each fixture. replacing these fixtures was less expensive than rewiring.82A.13A. The wave form seriously distorts. • A true rms meter would indicate the correct value of 0.

org/files/ItemFileA440.creativec.tut.htm http://www.fi/harmo/1.tvss.ecmweb.pdf • http://www. Reference • http://www.com/ar/electric_unexpected_harmon ics_creates/ .ee.netaworld.tut.htm • http://www.fi/harmo/harmoeng.com/harmonics.cpccorp.htm • http://leeh.ee.com/harmonic.htm • http://leeh.pdf • http://www.net/pq/har.

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