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Oxygen and oxides

2.16 recall the gases present in air


and their approximate percentage by
volume

Air is a mixture of gases
which contains 4/5 nitrogen
1/5 oxygen
2.17 describe how experiments involving the reactions of
elements such as copper, iron and phosphorus with air can be
used to determine the percentage by volume of oxygen in air

Experiment with copper


This can be demonstrated by the
reaction
of a fixed amount of air with heated
copper.
Copper will react with oxygen in the
air to form copper(II) oxide.
copper + oxygen copper(II)
oxide.
2Cu(s) + O2(g) 2CuO(s)
A known amount of air is passed backward and
forward
over the heated copper.
As copper(II) oxide is formed, oxygen is
removed from the air
and the volume of air in the syringes is seen to
decrease.
When the reaction is complete,
only 80% of the original volume of air remains.
This shows that the proportion of oxygen in the
air is about 20%.
Experiment using iron
If the original volume was 15cm3 and
the final volume is 12cm3
then the oxygen used up measured
is 3 cm3. % of oxygen
= 3/15 *100
= 20%
Experiment with
phosphorous
2.18 describe the laboratory preparation of oxygen from hydrogen peroxide
EQUATION: Catalyst
Hydrogen peroxide = Water + Oxygen
2H2O2 = 2H2O + O2


DESCRIPTION: The apparatus is set up as shown above.
10 volume hydrogen peroxide is added slowly to
the flask.
[CARE: If O2 is released too quickly the cork will
explode out.]
Oxygen is collected by downward displacement of
water.

PROPERTIES: Colourless, odourless gas.
Slightly soluble in water (hence fish can breathe in
it).
Many substances, both elements and compounds,
burn in oxygen (and in air which is one fifth
oxygen).


TEST: Oxygen relights a glowing splint.
2.19 describe the reactions with oxygen in air of magnesium,
carbon and sulphur, and the acid base character of the oxides
produced

Reaction with magnesium.

What precaution you need to take?


Why?

Write a balanced chemical reaction


for the same .
Reaction with carbon and
sulphur
Reaction of these oxides with water

MgO

CO2

SO2

Which are acidic and which are basic


2.20 describe the laboratory preparation of carbon dioxide
from calcium carbonate and dilute hydrochloric acid

Adding dilute hydrochloric acid to calcium carbonate powder or

chips.

The carbon dioxide gas is collected by downward delivery.


2.21 describe the formation of carbon dioxide from the thermal decomposition of metal carbonates such as copper(II) carbonate


Observations

What is the change in colour of the


solid?
What do you think are the new
products?
Write a balanced chemical reaction
for the reaction that has taken place.
2.22 recall the properties of carbon dioxide, limited to its solubility and density