TS stability

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47 5815 MT222 2015 1 1 1 Ch.6 Transverse Statical Stability-A (1)

TS stability

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Transverse statical stability

1. The centre of gravity of a body G is the point

through which the force of gravity is considered

to act vertically downwards with a force equal

to the weight of the body. KG is VCG of the

ship.

2. The centre of buoyancy B is the point through

which the force of buoyancy is considered to

act vertically upwards with a force equal to the

weight of water displaced. It is the centre of

gravity of the underwater volume. KB is VCB of

the ship.

Transverse statical stability

Recapitulation

1. The centre of gravity of a body G is the point through which the

force of gravity is considered to act vertically downwards with a

force equal to the weight of the body. KG is VCG of the ship.

buoyancy is considered to act vertically upwards with a force equal

to the weight of water displaced. It is the centre of gravity of the

underwater volume. KB is VCB of the ship.

weight of water, and the centre of gravity must be in the same

vertical line as the centre of buoyancy.

Transverse statical stability

Definitions

1. Heel: A ship is said to be heeled when she is

inclined by an external force.

For example, when the ship is inclined by the

action of the waves or wind.

inclined by forces within the ship.

For example, when the ship is inclined by shifting a

weight transversely within the ship. This is a fixed

angle of heel.

The metacentre

The verticals through the centres of buoyancy at

two consecutive angles of heel intersect at a point

called the metacentre

The initial metacentre

For angles of heel up to about 15 the vertical through the

centre of buoyancy may be considered to cut the centre

line at a fixed point called the initial metacentre (M).

The height of the initial metacentre above the keel (KM)

depends upon a ships underwater form.

The metacentric height

If G is below M the ship is said to have positive

metacentric height.

if G is above M the ship is said to have negative

metacentric height.

Stable equilibrium

A ship is said to be in stable equilibrium if, when

inclined, she tends to return to the initial position.

For this to occur:

The centre of gravity must be below the

metacentre.

The ship must have positive initial metacentric

height.

If moments are taken about G there is a moment to

return the ship to the upright. This moment is referred

to as the Moment of Statical Stability

Stable equilibrium

perpendicular distance between the centre of gravity and the vertical

.through the centre of buoyancy

At a small angle of heel (less than 15):

GZ = GM x sin and Moment of Statical Stability =W x GM x sin

Unstable equilibrium

When a ship which is inclined to a small angle

tends to heel over still further, she is said to be in

unstable equilibrium.

GM. Note how G is above M.

capsizing moment which will tend to heel the ship

still further.

unstable equilibrium

Neutral equilibrium

When G coincides with M ,the ship is said to be in

neutral equilibrium.

if inclined to a small angle she will tend to remain at

that angle of heel until another external force is

applied.

The ship has zero GM. Note that KG = KM.

Therefore there is no moment to bring the ship back

to the upright or to heel her over still further.

The ship will move vertically up and down in the

water at the fixed angle of heel until further external

or internal forces are applied.

Neutral equilibrium

Moment of Statical Stability = W x GZ, but in

this case GZ = 0

Moment of Statical Stability = 0

Correcting unstable and neutral

equilibrium

When a ship in unstable or neutral equilibrium is

to be made stable, the effective centre of gravity

of the ship should be lowered. To do this one or

more of the following methods may be employed:

2. Weights may be loaded below the centre of

gravity of the ship.

3. Weights may be discharged from positions

above the centre of gravity.

4. Free surfaces within the ship may be removed.

TENDER & STIFF SHIPS

taken by the ship to roll from one

side to the other and back again to

the initial position.

Stiff ships

moments at small angles of heel will also be comparatively

large.

When inclined she will tend to return more quickly to the

initial position.

time period, and will roll quickly and perhaps violently

from side to side.

The time period could be as low as 8 seconds.

within that ship

STIFF SHIPS

STIFF SHIP

A SHIP SAID TO BE STIFF WHEN SHE

M

HAS A

LARGE GM ,

WHEN SHE HEELS G

GZ LARGE

CONSEQUNTLY

STATICAL RIGHTENING MOMENT IS ALSO LARGE.

THERFORE

K

PERIODE OF ROLLING IS SHORT

EXAMPLE : WAR SHIPS

Tender ships

When the GM is comparatively small, the righting

moments at small angles of heel will also be small.

The ship will thus be much easier to incline and will not

tend to return so quickly to the initial position.

example 25 to 35 seconds,

to increase the GM by lowering the effective centre of

gravity of the ship

TENDER SHIPS

TENDER SHIP

A SHIP SAID TO BE TENDER WHEN SHE

M

HAS A

SMALL GM , G

WHEN SHE HEELS

GZ SMALL

CONSEQUNTLY

K

STATICAL RIGHTENING MOMENT IS ALSO SMALL.

THERFORE

PERIOD OF ROLLING IS LONG

EXAMPLE : PASSENGER SHIPS , CARGO SHIPS

Point of Comparison STIFF SHIPS TENDER SHIPS

Gm

GZ

W x GZ

and machinary and passenger ships

Negative GM

and Angle of Loll

Negative GM and angle

of loll

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