What is packaging design?

It is a systematic approach to safe transportation and effective promotion of product. A product doesn t cover the cost of manufacture or create a profit until it reaches the end user in good condition i.e. unspoiled and undamaged. The package has the primary function of ensuring safe transit. Its second function is to act as silent sales person for the product. Packaging design can be viewed in four different ways: ‡a means of protecting the contents of a package ‡a contributor to the cost of the end product ‡a sales canvas on which to promote the product's attributes and benefits ‡a part of the product experience itself

When Anthem (Designer) worked with Unilever on reinvigorating the packaging for Unilever's Good Humour ice cream treats, the design company looked at what it states is the "magic, fun and taste" that is central to the Good Humor brand.

Balance between structural and graphic design.
Structural design primarily covers the technical construction of the package from functional point of view. Graphic design covers the visual appearance of the package and its promotional value. Graphic design and structural design go hand in hand: a good packaging solution brings them both into harmony. Unfortunately many packages with a visually attractive design arrive at the point of sale in bad condition because the structural design is faulty. The reverse is also possible, the product arrives in perfect physical condition but no one even looks at it because the package is so unattractive. In both the cases the sales suffer because of poor image of the product.
New York Times wrote an article about Tropicana receiving a lot of consumer complaints. The article says that consumers described the new packaging as ugly or stupid, and resembling a generic bargain brand or a store brand. And Do any of these package-design people actually shop for orange juice?

The old and returning package design is on the left. The new and now scraped Tropicana design is on the right.

Standing out from the crowd

With around 40,000 different packs to choose from in the average supermarket, across food and non-food items, the challenge is to stand out from the crowd. Over 70% of purchase decisions are made at point of purchase. There are thousands of products competing for shoppers' attention in store and, according to various research findings, a pack on a supermarket shelf has less than three seconds to grab that attention. This doesn't mean that packaging necessarily needs to be loud or simple - but it must be clear to the audience for which it is intended.

Packaging is a part in the product marketing mix.

Prerequisites of successful packaging

Branding Brief

Brand Strategy

Research : Market and audiences

Social &Environmental Considerations

Naming & logo

Design look & feel

What is a brand?
The public face usually carefully constructed, of a marketable product, service, organization or body. Brand is the interface between the organization and the audience. Brand represents the full personality of the organization. A brand may come in contact with its audience in many ways: from what we see and hear, through to our physical experiences with the brand and general feelings and perceptions we have about a company. A brand encapsulates both the tangible and the intangible and can be applied to almost anything like (a person), David Beckham and (a business) Apple, Microsoft, Coca Cola etc
Nike s Just Do It strap line has become iconic since it was launched in 1988 and has sustained 20 years of use. It was created by Wieden and Kennedy, Nike s long- standing advertising agency, at a time when Nike was losing market share to other foot wear companies such as Reebok. The Just Do It success lies in its simple bluntness and a huge amount of advertising dollars spent on promoting Nike heroes rather than products.

What is identity?
‡ ‡

Every organization is unique, and the identity must spring from the organization s own roots. Sense of purpose of the Organization and sense of belonging to the Organization are two facets of Identity.

What is Brand Strategy ?
It is critical to determine the direction of the brand. A strategy should detail areas such as understanding the brand s audience, its market (including competitors) and should also integrate with the vision of company. A company may also commission research into audience needs and experiences of the brand.
Coca- cola often produces limited edition bottles or cans as limited edition collector s item. Its original bottle design is iconic and the brand is frequently ranked as the world s most successful.

Positioning the product
To position a product there are three questions which needs to be answered:

Product positioning asks how one as a producer( or manufacturer) want the consumer to see his/ her product in relation to:
‡ The manufacturing company and its other products or brands. ‡ The competing products in the market.

Luxury watch packaging

The functions of a package
Every package has to fulfill four basic functions as economically as possible. They are: 1. 2. 3. 4. To contain To protect To facilitate handling To promote sales

Hovis Iconic redesign
In 2003 London-based design agency WMH redesigned Hovis brand packaging. They changed radically the bread packaging from a traditional design to the now-familiar baked bean, cucumber and tomato imagery. British

Bakeries wanted to force consumers to reappraise the Hovis brand. The brief asked that WHM communicate the brand s versatility bread you can dress up.

The functions of a package
The first three functions have a bearing on structural design and the last function has to do with graphic design. 1. To contain
‡ The package should contain a certain quantity of specific product to the optimum efficiency. A tight package, with as little empty space as possible withstands pressure and handling Stresses better than a loose one. The product itself becomes a source of strength. A loosely filled package has to bear stresses alone. ‡

Too large a package means wastage of packaging material and unnecessary transport costs.

Sometimes all you need is just a title of what is inside the package.

The functions of a package
2. To protect The package must protect its contents against: ‡ Spoilage ‡ Breakage ‡ Humidity ‡ Pilfering and theft Motto for packaging: as strong as is needed, as economic as possible.
Construction Multi-Wall Hard Angle is a very rigid and strong packaging product manufactured by laminating layers of solid fiber chipboard in a 90 degree shape. By increasing ply thickness, Hard Angle provides a product easily tailored from lightweight to very heavy duty applications. Applications Hard Angles are ideal for increasing stacking strength when placed vertically on edges of a product or in the inside corners of a carton. Hard Angles can reduce the need for corrugated cartons when used vertically in the corners of a product with top and bottom corrugated trays - forming what is termed a "carton less pack" or a "stretch pack".

The functions of a package
3. To facilitate handling The package must facilitate handling of product until it reaches the end-user. For an exporter, transport and distribution contribute a considerable amount to the product s total cost. The package design should minimize the transport and distribution costs. In most developing countries manual handling is cheap and mechanical handling facilities may not exist. In industrialized countries, manual handling is expensive. Handling also covers the recycling or disposal of used packaging.

Labour and space are expensive in industrialized countries. Loads are therefore handled mechanically with the use of pallets.

The functions of a package
4. To promote sales Objective is to attract customers attention. For this purpose, package designs can not simply inform the customers( like a silent sales person), but also provoke feelings and communicate emotions. An effective packaging looks attractive, impresses with its creativity and is just nice to have on the shelf.

Hello I am a friendly pickle jar says the plain but effective packaging designed by KIM Abrams Design for Vitula s pickles. The brief was to develop a loving jar for a lovingly manufactured product. Designers many time rely on humour. Above is a flavoured milk package targeting kids.

Need for research .
To design a package, information about following areas is needed: 1. The Product - Thorough understanding about the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the product that is to be packaged is essential. - Data of speed and volume of production, seasonal changes of volume, and production methods are needed for packaging. Tighter requirements for dimensional accuracy and consistency of materials need to be set.

2. Production

3. Packaging operations

A packaging project by Frost Design. Interesting use of grey board. It seems like an invitation to try pencils.

Need for research . 4. Packaging material - The selection of packaging material has to be done keeping in constraint the product and packaging operations. The chosen materials should also be suitable, and accepted on, the target market as regards, for example, recycling or disposal. - Safety, health and environmental protection are three musts of appropriate packaging . - Minimum cost is the challenge without compromising on the quality.
Reusable packaging using biodegradable materials The unassuming exterior of the so-called Hanger Pak looks conventional enough, with curved-and-folded ends to keep the inside wares from crumpling. Flipped over, however, and it reveals a simple set of instructions for converting the

5. Environmental Concerns

6. Cost and quality

Reusable Packaging Concepts

The television packaging designed by Tom Ballhatchet becomes the television stand. Putting wheels on it for easy transport home, Ballhatchet designed the areas that the screen occupied inside the package to be used as shelves for the TV stand (the wheels come off and go underneath), and the result is the first large appliance packaging we've seen that won't end up in the recycle bin or landfill when you get it unpacked.

step-by-step pictures of the unpacking and setup process

Packaging Classification
Transport Packaging : The main purpose of transport packaging is to minimize risks to a product during storage, transport and distribution. : It refers to the containers and packaging for retail goods which are ready to be displayed instantly or with little set up for retail consumption by consumers.

Retail Packaging

Example of retail packaging

Example of transport packaging

Types of goods, types of protection needed
Products made of different materials need protection against different eventualities. Some products and their most important protection needs are listed below.
Product types
Fresh fruits and vegetables Dried food stuffs Canned foods Textiles and garments

Need protection against
Bruising Moisture Moisture, colliding Moisture, insects, dust,dirt, light( discoloration) Moisture ( surface staining & moulding), drying (which results in a loss of flexibility), surface scratching

Leather products Stoneware, bone articles, glassware, shells, ceramics, etc.

Breakage Moisture ( corrosion, tarnishing), surface scratching, breakage (deformation from pressure) Moisture, light Moisture, crushing Loss, theft, breakage

Metal products Paper products Straw and similar products Jewellery products

References :
1. popsop.com/wp-content/uploads/hovis_wmh_hr.jpg 2. Hovis-wmh-hr.jpg 3. International trade centre s Packaging for exporting. Packaging design a practioner s manual 4. Forms (Journal) Jan 2010 edition. 5. www.thedieline.com/.../05/remarkable-penc.html 6. www.smashingmagazine.com/.../ 7. Fundamentals of branding by Davis Melissa 8. Notes from Mrs. Preetha Hussain, Associate Professor NIFT, Delhi

Example of bad packaging design

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