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Session - 1

Basics Of Computers

A Desktop Machine

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A Computer System



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A Computer System (Contd.)

In general, a computer is a machine which

accepts data, processes it and returns new
information as output.


Data Information

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Software is set of programs (which are step by
step instructions) telling the computer how to
process data.

Software needs to be installed on a computer,

usually from a CD.

Softwares can be divided into two groups:

- System SW
- Application SW

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Software (Contd.)
System Software
It controls the overall operation of the system.

It is stored in the computer's memory and

instructs the computer to load, store, and
execute an application.

Examples: Operating System (OS), Translators

DOS, Windows, Unix etc.
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Software (Contd..)
Application Software
They are Softwares written to perform specific

The basic types of application software are:

word processing, database, spreadsheet,
desktop publishing, and communication.
Examples: MSOffice, Tally, MSOutlook,

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Advantages of Using Computers
Speed: Computers can carry out instructions in less
than a millionth of a second.

Accuracy : Computers can do the calculations without

errors and very accurately.

Diligence : Computers are capable of performing any

task given to them repetitively.

Storage Capacity : Computers can store large

volume of data and information on magnetic media.

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History of Evolution Of Computers

Two Eras:
Mechanical Era (Before 1945)
Electronic Era (1945 - )

Can be divided into generations.

First Generation (1945 1954)
Second Generation (1955 1964)
Third Generation (1965 1974)
Fourth Generation (1975 - )

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Types of Computers
On the basis of Computing Power & Size:
Laptop / Palmtop
Micro Computer / Desktop
Mini Computer / Mainframe
Super Computer

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Language of Computers
Computers only understand the electronic
Either Current is flowing or not.
Current Flowing : ON
Current Not Flowing : OFF
Binary Language
ON : 1
OFF : 0
Bit, Byte, KB, MB, GB, TB

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Computer Network
A Computer Network is interconnection of
Computers to share resources.

Resources can be : Information, Load,

Devices etc.

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Types Of Computer Networks

On the basis of Size:

Local Area Network (LAN)
Its a network of the computers locally i.e. in
one room, one building.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Its a network of the computers spread widely

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Benefits of Computer Networks

Information Sharing
Device Sharing
Load Sharing
Fast Communication
Anywhere Anytime Banking

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Internet is a huge network of computer networks.

Internet provides many services:

World Wide Web (www)
Remote Login (Telnet)
File Transfer (FTP)

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End Of Session #1

ANY Queries ??????

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CPU ( Central Processing Unit)

The central processing unit (CPU), also

known as just a "processor, is the "brain"
of your computer.

It contains various electronic circuits.

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VDU (Monitor)

This is the television-like screen where the results

of a computer's tasks are displayed.

Monitors come in all sizes, but most commonly

they are either 15 or 17 inches
(measured diagonally from one corner of the
screen to the opposite corner).

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The keyboard looks like a typewriter.

It contains all the letters of the alphabet,

numbers and some special symbols.

It operates like a typewriter keypad, but

instead of moving an arm, which strikes the
paper, it sends an electronic impulse to the
computer, which displays a character on the

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Itsa device that is used to control the computer.
A cable connects the mouse to the computer.

When the mouse is moved on a pad, called a

mouse pad, the cursor on the screen moves.

A cursor is a small symbol displayed on the

computer screen (normally a diagonal arrow that
is used as a pointer) that shows you what the
mouse is referencing on the screen.

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A printer is designed to output information

from a computer onto a piece of paper.

There are three kinds of printers:

dot matrix, laser, and inkjet.

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A scanner is a device used to copy an image off

paper and convert it into a digital image, which
can be saved as a computer file and stored on a
hard drive.

Scanners can also use a special kind of

technology called Optical Character Recognition
(OCR) to read text from paper and save it as an
editable document file

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Session # 2
Inside The CPU Cabinet
A Look Inside.



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A Look Inside ..

supply CD-ROM


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A Look Inside

Identify all the major components:

Power Supply
Card Slots
Cards (sound, video, network)
CPU, heatsink and fan
Drives (floppy, hard and CD-ROM)

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What these components do.

Power Supply (heart) supplies power to all the circuitry

and devices.

Motherboard (body) acts as a manager for everything

on the computer connects all the other components

CPU Central Processing Unit (brain) this does all the

work of computing.

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What these components do..

RAM Random Access Memory (short-term

memory) holds data and program instructions
that the computer is currently using.

Hard Drive (long-term memory) holds all of the

information that needs to be stored between
uses of the computer.

Floppy and CD-ROM drives (mouth/ears) allow

you to give data to the computer and take data
away from the computer.
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What these components do

Card Slots (fingers) Allows other components to

be added to the computer.

Video card (face) Does all of the processing

necessary to get stuff looking nice on screen,

Sound card (vocal cords) Allows sounds from HD

or CD-ROM to be played.

Network Card (telephone) allows computer to

talk to other computers over a wire.
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Power Supply

SMPS Switch Mode Power Supply

Switching Transistors

Outputs + 5V, -5V, +12 V, -12 V

Typical Costs are:

ATX Rs.700
Non ATX Rs.300

Usually, SMPS comes with the CPU Cabinet.

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A Single Chip


Examples: Intel Family Pentium 4, 3, 2, Pentium,

XEON, Itanium
AMD -- Athlon, K62
IBM -- Cyrix
Motorola -- 68000 Series
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Hard Drive

We wont remove this.

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Floppy Drive

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CD-ROM Drive

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Ribbon Cables


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Video Card

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Sound Card

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Back of

Remove these screws

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End of Session # 2


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The central processing unit or (CPU) is the "brain"

of your computer. It contains the electronic circuits
that cause the computer to follow instructions
from memory.

The CPU contains three main parts, all housed

in a single package (Chip):
Control Unit (CU)
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
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Session # 3
Computer Peripherals
Major Peripherals

Hard Disk
Floppy Disk

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Keypad contains:
Special Symbols
Function Keys

qwert Keyboard (Typewriter Keyboard).

On key press it sends a code (ASCII Code) to the CPU.
Plug N Play device.
Typical Cost is Rs.300 Rs.1200

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Pointing & Click Device.
Two / Three Buttons
Wheel / Optical Mouse
Normally Left Click Select/ Run
Right Click Popup Menu
Typical Cost is Rs.100 Rs1000

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Hard Disk

Magnetic Memory Device.

Non-removable storage device.
Several Circular Magnetic Disks are housed in a
single case.
Data is stored as 1s & 0s.
Typical Capacity is 20 GB -80 GB
Typical Cost is Rs.2200 Rs6000
Cost/Bit is Low.

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Floppy Disk
Magnetic Memory Device.
Removable storage.
A single circular mylar plastic disk, coated with magnetic
material is packed in a protective plastic casing.
Typical size is 3.5 & Capacity is 1.44MB
Typical Costs are:
Floppy Drive -- Rs.300
Floppy Disk -- Rs.10

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Optical Device.
Removable Storage.
Read Only Memory.
Typical Capacity is 550 Mb 800MB
Typical Costs are:
Drive -- Rs.1000
Disk Rs10 Rs.35
Related Terms:
CD Writer
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Output Device, Produces Hard Copy
Dot Matrix
Typical Cost Ranges from Rs.3500 Rs.2 lacs
Related Terms:
Impact Non Impact
Ribbon, Cartridge, Toner, Duty Cycle
Major Vendors in India:
HP, Cannon, Samsung, TVS, Epson etc.
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Input Device, Converts a hard copy into a

computer file.
Used to Scan Signatures, Photographs etc.
Optical Device.
Typical Cost Rs.4000 Rs.75000
Major Vendors in India:
HP, Umax, Cannon
Nowadays Scanners with OCR produces
editable documents.

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End of Session #3


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Session - 4

Overview of Operating System

What is Operating System

OS is system software, which may be viewed as

collection of software consisting of procedures for
operating the computer.

It provides an environment for execution of programs

(application software).

Its an interface between user & computer.

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Computer Machine

Machine Language
(Low Level Language)

Operating System

Human Understandable
Language (High Level

User / Programmer

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Types of OS

Multiprogramming OS


Multiuser OS

Time Sharing OS

Real Time OS

Distributed OS
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A Second Classification
This Classification is based on the type of interface
Operating System provides for the user to work in.

Character User Interface (CUI)

The User has to type the commands on the
command prompt to get the work completed.
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
The User need not type any commands. He/She
just point and clicks on the desired Icon to get the
work done.
Ex. Windows (9X, XP, NT, 2000), Linux.
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Functions of OS

File Management

Memory Management

Process Management

Device Management

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Types of Processing

Serial Processing
The job is processed at the time when
it is submitted.

Batch Processing
The similar jobs are bunched together and
are kept for processing at an later time.

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MS-DOS Overview

MS-DOS is an acronym for MicroSoft Disk Operating System

It is a CUI based operating system.

It provides user with a command prompt (generally called as C:\) where

various command could be typed.

When one operates in the DOS environment, one interacts with the
command interpreter, which interprets the commands given by user.

It provides an environment for execution of various application programs

like MS-Word, MODBANKER, ISBS etc.

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What is Command

It is a string of characters which tells the computer what to do.

When one types commands to a computer, one is conversing

with the operating system's command interpreter.

For example, to copy a file called file.txt from the 3-1/2"

floppy drive to the hard drive, one could type

C:\> copy a:\file.txt c:\

The word "copy" is a DOS command which causes files to be

copied from one location to another
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Entering the DOS Environment
If the OS is DOS then the system will directly show prompt (C:\>)

If the OS is windows one must either terminate the Windows environment, or

open a DOS shell within the Windows environment.

Ist Method: Terminating Windows Environment

Select Restart in MS-DOS Mode from Shut Down in Start


IInd Method: Opening DOS Shell in Windows

Select Start>Programs>Accessories>Command Prompt (XP)

Start>Programs>Accessories>MS-DOS Prompt (98)

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Files and Directory
A file is a collection of Records.
It is the smallest unit of File System (Storage) in a computer.
Any document created using computer is a file. This document could either be a
letter, any excel sheet, any image or even a database.

A collection of files is directory (in DOS) or folder (in Windows)
It is analogous to the Office Folder which contains various documents.
A directory/folder eases the management of related files/ documents, like the
various circulars related to personnel could be placed in a directory called
personnel and all the circulars related to loans could be placed in a directory
called loans.

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Filenames in DOS?

The filename in DOS have the following format.


It has two parts the name and the extension.

The name could be of 8 characters and the extension of 3


The filename can contain alphabets and numbers. It cannot

contain any special character other than underscore (_) and also
no spaces.
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Organization of files in DOS

The DOS file system is a hierarchical file system.

Files are collected into directories, and directories may contain

both files and other directories.

There is always a directory which is not contained by any

other, called the root which is represented by the backslash '\'

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Organization of files in DOS (Contd.)

Concept of Path: Every file can be specified by enumerating

all of the directories between the root and it, separated by the
backslash '\' character, and appending the file name to the end.

The drive which contains the root is specified at the head of

the path, separated from the root by a colon (':')

The hard drive is most commonly known as the C: drive, and

the floppy drives are usually called A:(3-1/2 inch) and B: (5-
1/4 inch).

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Organization of files in DOS (Contd.)

circulars loans personnel

officer.txt new.dat

january february


rest.txt abc.txt
Fig. Hierarchical Structure of Files
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Some DOS Commands
dir: Listing of all the directories.
C:\> dir

cls: Clears the screen.

C:\> cls

copy con: Creates a file.

C:\> copy con <filename>
< Write your Contents Here>
Press Ctrl-Z (^Z) to finish writing.

Ex: C:\> copy con test.dat

Lets Make UCO a top class Bank.
Ctrl-Z (^Z)
1 file(s) copied. (A Message will be shown on the system)

This will create a file named test.dat having some data.

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Some DOS Commands (Contd.)
edit: Edits a file.

C:\> edit <filename>

This will open a editor window where the contents of file can be seen. These
contents could also be edited here and on saving, the contents of file will

type: Displays the content of a file.

C:\> type <filename>

This will display the contents of file on the computer. The contents of file could
only be viewed but could not be changed, as in the case of edit.

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Some DOS Commands (Contd.)
md: Make Directory.

C:\> md (directory name>

This will create a directory with the specified name.

cd: Change Directory.

C:\> cd (directory name>

This will change the directory from current directory to the specified directory.

rd: Remove Directory.

C:\> rd (directory name>

If the directory is needed to be removed permanently from the computer, use
this command. For this command to be executed it is necessary that the
directory should be empty andIntroduction
03/09/17 user should be on a directory above it.
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Some DOS Commands (Contd.)
copy: Copies a file.

C:\> copy <source> <destination>

This will copy the file from the source location to the specified destination. The
command creates a copy of the file on the destination i.e. the file would be
found on both the location.

move: Moves a file.

C:\> move <source> <destination>

This will move the file from the source location to the specified destination.
The file from the source location would be removed and would be moved to the

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Some DOS Commands (Contd.)
ren: Renames a file.
C:\> ren <old filename> <new filename>
This will change the name (rename) of the file to a new name as

del: Deletes a file.

C:\> del <filename>
This will delete the file permanently from the system.

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Overview of Windows

Windows is an GUI based operating system.

It is also developed by Microsoft Corporation, which is headed by

Mr. Bill Gates.

Over the years the Microsoft have evolved various versions of

Windows. Win95, Win98, Win2000, Win ME, Win NT, Win XP.

It gives user a handy environment where he doesnt have to

remember and learn the syntaxes of various commands as is the case
in DOS.

The user can just point and click on the Icons provided to him on the
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Folders and Documents

Folders are a way to organize your documents within drives in Windows as

are the directories in DOS.

A document is each thing that you create on a computer. A document can

be made using any type of software.

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End of Session #4


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1. Name any four devices of a Computer.
Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, Light Pen.

2. What is the job of CPU?

Central Processing Unit controls and
coordinates all the activities of the computer.

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3. What is the unit of measuring the speed of the

Mega Hertz or Kilo Hertz ( No. of CPU

4. What is a computer network?

It is interconnection of computers to make a

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5. Name any three storage devices.

Hard Disk, Magnetic Tape, Compact Disk.

6. What is command to create directory?

C:\>MD <<dir-name>>

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7. What is Internet?
It is the network of networks.

8. What are different types of printers?

Dot Matrix Printer, Inkjet

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9.What is the use of Scanner?

It is used to copy the real image on
paper to be stored as digital image in
the computer.

10. Why Operating system is required?

It is required to provide the interface
between the user and the computer.

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11. What is the difference between Primary

Storage and Secondary Storage?

Primary Storage is temporary storage,

fast and costly.
Secondary storage is permanent, slow and

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12. What is MODEM. Why it is required?

It is Modulator Demodulator. It is used to
connect the PC to the Internet using Analog
Telephone Lines.

13. What is the maximum length of file

name in DOS?
First Name- 8 characters, Last Name- 3
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14. What is the command in DOS to see the

contents of the file?
C:\> Type<<File Name>>

15. What are the two types of Software?

Systems Software
Application Software

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