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flow studies

Presenter:

Ugyen Dorji

Masters student

Kumamoto University, Japan

Course Supervisor:

Dr. Adel A. Elbaset

Minia University, Egypt.

Outline

Introduction

Methodology

Classical methods

Gauss-Seidal method

Newton Raphson method

Fast Decoupled method

Other methods

Fuzzy Logic application

Genetic Algorithm application

Particle swarm method (PS0)

Load/Power Flow studies

Load-flow studies are performed to determine the steady-state

operation of an electric power system. It calculates the voltage

drop on each feeder, the voltage at each bus, and the power

flow in all branch and feeder circuits.

Determine if system voltages remain within specified limits

under various contingency conditions, and whether equipment

such as transformers and conductors are overloaded.

Load-flow studies are often used to identify the need for

additional generation, capacitive, or inductive VAR support, or

the placement of capacitors and/or reactors to maintain system

voltages within specified limits.

Losses in each branch and total system power losses are also

calculated.

Necessary for planning, economic scheduling, and control of an

existing system as well as planning its future expansion

Pulse of the system

Power Flow Equation

represented by their equivalent pi

models (impedance in p.u.)

results in

(1)

(2)

bus i is

solved by iterative techniques

Gauss-Seidel method

Equation (5) is solved for Vi solved

iteratively

Pisch and Qisch are the net real and reactive powers in p.u.

In writing the KCL, current entering bus I was assumed positive.

Thus for:

Generator buses (where real and reactive powers are injected),

Pisch and Qisch have positive values.

Load buses (real and reactive powers flow away from the bus),

Pisch and Qisch have negative values.

Eqn.5 can be solved for Pi and Qi

the elements of the bus admittance matrix, Ybus , shown by

upper case letters, are Yij = -yij, and the diagonal elements

are Yii = yij. Hence eqn. 6 can be written as

Iterative steps:

Slack bus: both components of the voltage are specified. 2(n-1)

equations to be solved iteratively.

Flat voltage start: initial voltage of 1.0+j0 for unknown

voltages.

PQ buses: Pisch and Qisch are known. with flat voltage start, Eqn.

9 is solved for real and imaginary components of Voltage.

PV buses: Pisch and [Vi] are known. Eqn. 11 is solved for Qik+1

which is then substituted in Eqn. 9 to solve for Vik+1

However, since [Vi] is specified, only the imaginary part of Vik+1

is retained, and its real part is selected in order to satisfy

applying an acceleration factor to the approx. solution obtained

from each iteration.

the slack bus are computed from Eqns.10 & 11.

Line flows and Line losses

The complex power Sij from bus i to j and Sji from bus j

to i are

Newton Raphson Method

Power flow equations formulated in polar form. For

the system in Fig.1, Eqn.2 can be written in terms

of bus admittance matrix as

Separating the real and imaginary parts,

estimate neglecting h.o.t. we get

The Jacobian matrix gives the linearized relationship between small

changes in i(k) and voltage magnitude [Vik] with the small changes

in real and reactive power Pi(k) and Qi(k)

milarly we can find the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of J2,J3 and J4

The terms Pi(k) and Qi(k) are the difference between the

scheduled and calculated values, known as the power

residuals.

Procedures:

1. For Load buses (P,Q specified), flat voltage start. For voltage

controlled buses (P,V specified), set equal to 0.

2. For Load buses, Pi(k) and Qi(k) are calculated from Eqns.23 & 24

and Pi(k) and Qi(k) are calculated from Eqns. 29 & 30.

3. For voltage controlled buses, and Pi(k) and Pi(k) are calculated

from Eqns. 23 & 29 respectively.

4. The elements of the Jacobian matrix are calculated.

5. The linear simultaneous equation 26 is solved directly by

optimally ordered triangle factorization and Gaussian

6. The new voltage magnitudes and phase angles are computed

from (31) and (32).

7. The process is continued until the residuals Pi(k) and Qi(k)

are less than the specified accuracy i.e.

practical power transmission lines have high X/R ratio.

Real power changes are less sensitive to voltage magnitude

changes and are most sensitive to changes in phase angle .

Similarly, reactive power changes are less sensitive to changes

in angle and are mainly dependent on changes in voltage

magnitude.

Therefore the Jacobian matrix in Eqn.26 can be written as

The diagonal elements of J1 given by Eqn.27 is written as

In a typical power system, Bii Qi therefore we may neglect Qi

Furthermore, [Vi]2 [Vi] . Ultimately

elements of J1 becomes

written in the following form

B and B are the imaginary part of the bus

admittance matrix Ybus. Since the elements of the

matrix are constant, need to be triangularized and

inverted only once at the beginning of the

iteration.

Other Methods

Repetitive solution of a large set of linear

equations in LF- time consuming in simulations

Large number of calculations on the Jacobian

matrix.

Jacobian of load flow equation tends to be

singular under heavy loading.

Ill conditioned Jacobian matrix

Doesnt require the formation of the Jacobian

matrix

Insensitive to the initial settings of the solution

variables

Ability to find multiple load-flow solutions.

Fuzzy Logic application

Repetitive solution of a large set of linear equations in the

load flow problem is one of the most time consuming parts

of power system simulations.

Large number of calculations need on account of

factorisation, refactorization and computations of Jacobian

matrix.

Fundamentally FL is implemented in a fast decoupled load

flow (FDLF) problem.

Mathematical analysis of FDLF

In eqn. 1, the state vector is

updated but state vector V is

fixed. Eqn. 2 is used to update

the state vector V while state

vector is fixed. The whole

calculation will terminate only if

the errors of both these

equations are within acceptable

Main idea of FLF Algorithm

the state vector performed via Fuzzy Logic Control instead of using the

classical load flow approach.

schematically in Fig. 1.In this

Figure the power parameters FP

and FQ are calculated and

introduced to the P- FLCP- and

Q-V FLCQ-V, respectively.

The FLCs generate the correction

of the state vector DX namely,

the correction of voltage angle

for the P- cycle and the

correction of voltage magnitude

V for the Q- V cycle.

Structure of the fuzzy load flow controller (FLFC)

each node of the system.

The above parameters are elected as crisp input signals. The

maximum (or worst) power parameter (FPmax or FQmax)

determines the range of scale mapping that transfers the input

signals into corresponding universe of discourse, at every

iteration.

The input signals are fuzzified into corresponding fuzzy signals

(FPfuz or FQ fuz with seven linguistic variables; large negative (LN),

medium negative (MN), small negative (SN), zero (ZR), small

The rule base involves seven rules tallying with seven

linguistic variables:

Rule 1: if Ffuz is LN then Xfuz is LN

Rule 2: if Ffuz is MN then Xfuz is MN

Rule 3: if Ffuz is SN then Xfuz is SN

Rule 4: if Ffuz is ZR then Xfuz is ZR

Rule 5: if Ffuz is SP then Xfuz is SP

Rule 6: if Ffuz is MP then Xfuz is MP

Rule 7: if Ffuz is LP then Xfuz is LP

These fuzzy rules are consistent to that of Eqn.3.

The fuzzy signals ffuz are sent to process logic, which

generates the fuzzy output signals xfuz based on the

previous rule base and are represented by seven linguistic

variables similar to input fuzzy signals.

determines the range of scale mapping that transfers the

output signals into the corresponding universe of discourse

at every iteration.

equation at node-I with maximum real or reactive

power mismatch of the system, XI represents the

voltage angle or magnitude at node-I.

finally the defuzzifier will transform fuzzy output signals

into crisp values for every node of the network. The state

vector is updated as

iterations.

Case studies

GA applications

Load flow problem

where Gij and Bij are the

(I,j)th element of the

admittance matrix. Ei, and Fi

are real and imaginary

parts of the voltage at node

i.

If node i is a PQ node where the load demand is specified, then

the mismatches in active and reactive powers, Pi and Qi ,

respectively, are given by

Pisp and Qisp are the

specified active and

reactive powers at node i.

When node i is a PV node, the magnitude of the voltage,

Visp and the active power,Q;P, at i are specified. The

mismatch in voltage magnitude at node i can be defined as

given in Eqn.3

PV nodes.

Components in genetic approach

1. Chromosomes: The real and imaginary parts of

the voltages of the nodes in the power system

are encoded using floating-point numbers and

are set as elements in the chromosomes.

2. Fitness function:

to bring more diversity in the population of

chromosomes.

4. Mutation operation: An element of a

chromosome is selected randomly. The voltage

value of the element is replaced by a value

arbitrarily chosen within a range of voltage

Initialize s chromosomes in the

population

(fittest chromosomes always

retained) Fig.1 GA Load flow

Algorithm

flowchart

Selection of chromosomes

(roulette wheel method)

rate/probability)

End

No of

Offspring Yes

=s? Max

No

Yes No number of

generatio

Mutation n

reached?

Replace the current population with new

population

Constraint satisfaction technique for updating

candidate nodal voltages

(a) Satisfying the powers at a PQ node i by updating a PQ

node d.

(b) updating the voltage at a PV node to satisfy its voltage

and active power requirements

Constraint satisfaction for PQ nodes

Let the real and imaginary voltages of node d be Eid and Fid. The

power mismatches Pi in eqn. 3 and Qi in eqn. 4 for node i are now

set to zero. From eqns. 1-4, when d i, Eid and Fid can be calculated

according to

When d = i, the power constraints at PQ node d itself are required

to be met. The constraint equations for calculating Eid and Fid of

node d can be derived from eqns. 1- 4 by the same procedure

above and by setting the subscript i in eqns. 1-4 to d.

Constraint satisfaction for PV nodes

Let the real and imaginary voltages of the PV node d in the

chromosome be Edd and Fdd . The mismatches Pd in eqn. 3 and Vd

in eqn. 5 for node d can now be set to zero. From eqns. 1, 3, 5 and

6, the expressions for Edd and Fdd are:

Methods for enhancing the CGALF Algorithm

a) Dynamic population technique

) Diversity of the chromosomes increased by introducing new

chromosomes in the population to escape from local minimum

points.

) % of existing weaker chromosomes replaced by randomly

generated chromosomes when the values of objective function

H are identical for a specified number of generations or

iterations- subject to constraint satisfaction.

b) Solution acceleration technique

) Faster convergence.

) Modify the constrained candidate solution process such that

the revised solutions in the chromosomes are closer to the

candidate solution in the best or fittest chromosome found so

far.

Vk=2Vk,best Vk

c) Nodal voltage updating sequence

i. Update the voltages of the PV nodes in the sequence of the

node number using eqns. 12-14.

ii. Then, the PQ node, which has the largest total mismatch, is

updated first using the constraint satisfaction methods.

(iii) Repeat step (ii) until all the PQ nodes are processed.

In step (i) above, the update operation attempts to meet

the voltage magnitude constraints and active power

requirements of the PV nodes.

The strategy employed in step (ii) guarantees a reduction

of the mismatch at the node with the largest total

mismatch. The strategy is applied dynamically during the

processing of the nodes as indicated in step (iii).

Application examples

Klos-kerner 11 node test system.

Two loading condition considered.

Node 1: Slack node,voltage level=1.05pu. Nodes 5 and 9 are PV

nodes with target voltages of 1.05pu and 1.0375pu.

Hybrid Particle swarm optimization

application

1. Problem Formulation: The load flow equations, at any given

bus(i) in the system, are as follows:

The optimization problem is formulated as follows:

The PSO model consists of a number of particles moving

around in the search space, each representing a possible

solution to a numerical problem. Each particle has a

position vector (xi) and a velocity vector (vi)), the position

(pbesti) is the best position encountered by the particle

(i) during its search and the position (gbest) is that of the

best particle in the swarm group.

In each iteration the velocity of each particle is updated

according to its best-encountered position and the best

position encountered among the group, using the following

equation:

by adding the velocity vector to the position vector.

velocities on the current velocity-it regulates the trade-off

between the global and local exploration abilities of the swarm.

Suitable value for w usually provide balance between global

and local exploration abilities and consequently a reduction on

the number of iterations for optimal solution.

Ability of breeding, a powerful property of GA is used.

Numerical Examples

IEEE 14 bus system:

Thank you

References:

1. Power System Analysis, Hadi saadat, McGraw Hill International

editions.

2. Fuzzy Logic application in load flow

studies,J.G.Vlachogiannis,IEE,2001.

3. Development of constrained-Genetic Algorithm load flow

method, K.P.Wong,A.Li,M.Y.Law,IEE,1997.

4. Load flow solution using Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization,

Amgad A.El-Dib et.al, IEEE,2004.

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