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Geography and Natural

Resources of the
GEO 102 (Monday, 5:30-8:30 PM)

For. Karim Jayson G.

Outline of the Presentation
Geography of the Philippines
Brief History of the Philippines
General Information of the Philippines
Political Geography
Regions and Provinces

Seasons and Climate

Protected Areas in the Country
Salient Features of the ff:
RA 9729 (Climate Change Act)
RA 7586 (National Integrated Protected Areas) Act
RA 10121 (Disaster Risk Reduction and
Management) Act
RA 9147 (Wildlife Resources Conservation and
Protection) Act
RA 7942 (Philippine Mining Act)
RA 9003 (Ecological Solid Waste Management Act)
RA 8550 (Philippine Fishery Code)
PD 705 (Revised Forestry Code)
Course Requirements..
Geo 101
30% Major Exam (Prelim, Midterm, Pre-final

and Final Exam)

30% Attendance
20% Quizzes
10% Assignment
10% Oral Participation
Brief History
Pre-Spanish Era
Before the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, the Philippines were
split into numerousbarangays, which were not unlike the Greek
These barangays warred, made peace, traded and had relations
with each other.
InMindanao, Islamic sultanates such as theSultanate of
SuluandMaguindanao, prospered. Ferdinand Magellans death in
1521 can be partly attributed to a dispute betweenLapu-
LapuandRajah Humabonfor control of Cebu.
TheKingdom of Maynilawas trading with China and other nearby
empires whenMiguel Lopez de Legazpiconquered the kingdom
in 1565 and assimilated it with the other kingdoms he had
conquered nearby to unite the Philippines under Spanish rule.
He was the firstGovernor-
General of Spanish East
Indieswhich included the
Philippines and other Pacific
theMarianas Islands. After
obtaining peace with various
indigenous nations and
kingdoms, Miguel Lpez de
Legazpi madeManilathe
capital of theSpanish East
Indiesin 1571.The capital of
the province ofAlbayin the
Citybears his name.
Ilustrados in Madrid

TheIlustrados(Spanish for "erudite," "learned," or "enlightened

ones") constituted the Filipino educated class during the Spanish
colonial period in the late 19th century. They were the middle
class who were educated in Spanish and exposed to Spanish
liberal and European nationalist ideals.
Spanish Era
Upon the subjugation of the local population in
Manila and Cebu, the Spaniards refused the locals
any political participation
The old ruling class in the pre-Spanish era were
given essentially powerless government posts.
Several revolts eruptedagainst Spain but were all
In 1808, whenJoseph Bonapartebecame king of
Spain, the liberalconstitution of Cadiz(Spanish
Constitution) was adopted, giving the Philippines
representation to theSpanish Cortes (Bicameral
However, once the Spanish overthrew the
Bonapartes, the Philippine, and indeed colonial,
representation in the Spanish Cortes was rescinded.
The restoration of Philippine representation to the
Cortes was one of the grievances of theIlustrados,
the learned indigenous class during the late 1800s.
The Ilustrados mounted a campaign that would
include indigenous voices in running the
However, the Katipunanadvocated complete
Philippine independence, thereby starting
thePhilippine Revolutionin 1896.
After the execution ofJose Rizal, the leader of the
Ilustrados and had disapproved of the revolution, in
1898, the revolution intensified.
The Spaniards in Manila had identifiedCavite,
Bulacan and Morong as the centers of fighting.
The Katipunan in Cavite had won several
battles against the Spaniards, but was split
into theMagdiwangandMagdalofactions.
TheTejeros Conventionof 1897 was held to
unite the two factions but instead caused
further division that led to execution ofAndres
Bonifacio, who was then the leader of the
Katipunan; Bonifacio's death gave the control
of the Katipunan toEmilio Aguinaldo
Aguinaldo thenproclaimed the
independenceof the Philippines on June 12,
1898 at his home in Cavite
American Era

William Howard Taff-was an American jurist and statesman who served

as both the27th President of the United States(19091913) and later
the 10thChief Justice of the United States(19211930)
The Americans gave Filipinos limited self-
government at the local level by 1901, and the
Americans passed thePhilippine Organic Actin
1902 to introduce a national government.
by 1907,an electionto thePhilippine Assemblywas
held. Led bySergio Osmea.
the assembly was held predominantly by
theNacionalista Party (Sergio Osmea), which
advocated independence.
they were opposed by theProgresista Party
(Arsenio Cruz-Herrera), which advocated
statehood within the United States
ThePhilippine Organic
Act(c. 1369,
32Stat.691) was a basic
law for theInsular
Government that was
enacted by theUnited
States Congress on July 1,
1902. It is also known as
thePhilippine Bill of
1902and theCooper
Act,after its
authorHenry A. Cooper.
The approval of the act
coincided with the official
end of thePhilippine
Congressman Henry A. Cooper
American War.
The Americans controlled thePhilippine Commission, the upper
house of thePhilippine Legislature
The Nacionalista-dominated Philippine Assembly, and later
thePhilippine Senate, which was created by theJones Lawand
replaced the Philippine Commission, was often at odds with
However, the Nacionalistas were split into camps loyal to
Osmea and Senate PresidentManuel L. Quezon
Several independence missions were sent toWashington, D.C.;
theOsRox Mission resulted in theHareHawesCutting Act
However, the Senate rejected this; a new law, theTydings
McDuffie Actwhich was marginally different, was approved and
paved the way for the Commonwealth of the Philippines
Quezon and Osmea reconciled, and both were easily elected
as president and vice president respectively, in1935
The Nacionalistas controlled the nowunicameralNational
Assemblyfor the entirety of the Commonwealth, with the
understanding that the Americans would grant independence
in the near future.
TheJones Law(39Stat.545,
c. 416), also known as
theJones Act, thePhilippine
Autonomy Act, and theAct
of Congress of August 29,
1916, was anOrganic
Actpassed by theUnited
States Congress.

The law replaced thePhilippine

Organic Act of 1902 and acted
like aconstitution of the
Philippinesfrom its enactment
until 1934 when theTydings
McDuffie Actwas passed
(which in turn led eventually to
theCommonwealth of the
toindependence from the
United States). The Jones Law
CongressmanWilliam Jones created the first fully elected
Quezon pressed for constitutional amendments that
would allow him to obtain a second term, and the
restoration of a bicameral legislature
Quezon did obtain both amendments, with the newly
restored Senate now being electedat-largeinstead of
per districts, as what was done during the pre-
Commonwealth era
Quezon, Osmea and the Nacionalista Party as a whole
both won theelections in 1941in much larger margins.
TheJapanese invasion of 1941at the onset ofWorld
War IIdelayed this granting of independence, forced
the Commonwealth government to go into exile, and
subjected the country to a puppet government
TheKALIBAPIbecame the sole legal political party,
andJose P. Laurelwas declared president of
theSecond Philippine Republic
This nationalist government espoused anti-
American sentiment. However, the Americans
reconquered the country in 1944, and Osmea,
who had succeeded Quezon upon the latter's
death, restored the Commonwealth
government. The first meeting of a bicameral
Commonwealth Congress occurred
The Nacionalistas were split anew in the1946
presidential election, withManuel
Roxassetting up what would later be
theLiberal Party. Roxas defeated Osmea, and
became the last president of the
Commonwealth; the Americans agreed to
grant independence on July 4, 1946.
Map of the Philippines
Geography of the Philippines
ThePhilippinesis an archipelago comprising 7,107
with a total land area of 300,000 square kilometers
11 largest islands contain 94% of the total land area
The largest of these islands isLuzonat about
105,000 square kilometers (40,541sqmi)
The next largest island isMindanaoat about 95,000
square kilometers (36,680sqmi)
The islands are divided into three
groups:Luzon,Visayas, andMindanao
The archipelago is around 800 kilometers
(500mi) from theAsian mainland and is
located betweenTaiwan andBorneo
The Philippine archipelago lies in Southeast Asia in a
position that has led to its becoming a cultural crossroads
a place where Malays, Hindus, Arabs, Chinese, Spaniards,
Americans, and others had interacted to forge a unique
cultural and racial blend
The nation claims anexclusive economic zone(EEZ) of 200
nautical miles (370km) from its shores.
Only approximately 1,000 of its islands are populated.
Topographically, the Philippines is broken up by the sea,
which gives it one of the longest coastlines of any nation in
the world
Off the coast of eastern Mindanao is thePhilippine Trench,
which descends to a depth of 10,520 meters (34,571.2ft)
The Philippines is part of a western Pacific arc system
characterized by active volcanoes. Among the most notable
peaks areMount MayonnearLegazpi City,Taal
Volcanosouth ofManila, andMount Apoin Mindanao. All of
the Philippine islands are prone to earthquakes
The northern Luzon highlands, or Cordillera
Central, rise to between 2,500 meters
(8,200ft) and 2,750 meters (9,020ft), and,
together with theSierra Madrein the
northeastern portion of Luzon and the
mountains of Mindanao, boast rain forests
that provide refuge for numerous upland
tribal groups.
The rain forests also offer prime habitat for

more than 500 species of birds, including

thePhilippine eagle(or monkey-eating
eagle), some 800 species of orchids, and
some 8,500 species of flowering plants
The country's most extensive river systems are
thePulangi River, which flows into theMindanao
River(Rio Grande de Mindanao)
theAgusan, in Mindanao which flows north into
theMindanao Sea; theCagayanin northern Luzon;
and thePampanga, which flows south from east
Central Luzon intoManila Bay
Laguna de Bay, east of Manila Bay, is the largest
freshwater lake in the Philippines
Several rivers have been harnessed for
hydroelectric power
To protect the country's biological resources, the
government has taken a first step of preparing
aBiodiversity Action Planto address conservation
of threatenedspecies
Philippine Government
The Philippines adopts the democratic form of government based
on the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines (constitutional
This form of government has three branches, namely: executive,
legislative and judicial
The executive branch is composed of the president and his or her
cabinet; the president is the country's head of state
The legislative branch (Philippine Congress) is composed of the
senators and congressional district and party-list representatives.
The senators belong to the upper house (Senate) while the
congressional district and party-list representatives make up the
lower house (House of Representatives). The Senate and the
House of Representatives form the bicameral legislature or
The judicial branch is composed of the chief justice, associate
justices and all the judges and members of the various courts. The
Supreme Court, which is composed of the chief justice and
associate justices, heads the judiciary, and judicial power resides
in the Supreme Court and all the lower courts as provided by law
The Philippines as a State
The State- is a community of persons
more or less numerous, permanently
occupying a definite portion of
territory, having a government of
their own to which the great body of
inhabitants render obedience, and
enjoying freedom from external
The Philippines is a state.
Elements of State
The modern state has four (4) essential elements.
They are:
People- This refers to the inhabitants living within
the state. Without people there can be no
functionaries to govern and no subjects to be
governed. There is no requirement as to the
number of people that should compose a state.
Ideally, it should be neither too small nor too large:
small enough to be well-governed and large
enough to be self-sufficing.
Reputedly the smallest state in point of population
is the Vatican.
Itincludes not only the fixed portions
of land over which the jurisdiction of
the state extends (territorial domain),
but also the rivers and lakes therein,
a certain area of the sea which abuts
upon its coast (fluvial and maritime
domain). Thus, the domain of the
state may be described as terrestrial,
fluvial, maritime and aerial.
It refers to the agency through which the will of
the state is formulated, expressed and carried
The word is sometimes used to refer to the
person or aggregate of those persons in whose
hands are placed for the time being of the
function of political control.
This body of men is usually spoken of as
The ordinary citizens of a country are a part of
the state, but are not part of the government.
The term may be defined as the supreme power of the state
to command and enforce obedience to its will from people
within its jurisdiction and corollarily, to have freedom from
foreign control. It has, therefore, two (2) manifestations:
A. internal or the power of the state to rule within its
territory; and
B. external or the freedom of the state to carry out its
activities without subjection to or control by other states.
External sovereignty is often referred to as independence.
These internal and external aspects of sovereignty are not
absolutely true in practice because of the development of
international relations and consequently, of international
Socio-Political Structure
Essentially, the existing socio-political
structure in the Philippines is barangay-
based (community-based)
A barangay (community) or a barrio
(village) elects its barangay captain and
councilors who will manage the socio-
political affairs of the barangay as provided
by law
A group of communities constitutes a
municipality, a town or a city which is
headed by its duly-elected mayor and
A group of municipalities and towns comprises a
district whose constituents elect a person who will
represent the district in the House of
The city, by itself, consists of two or more
congressional districts
A bigger group of municipalities and towns
constitutes a province (state) whose constituents
elect the governor and vice-governor for the
province while the entire Filipino voters elect the
senators, vice-president and president of the
Languages and Dialect
The national language of the Philippines is
Filipino, although the official languages are
Filipino and English.
These official languages are also the media

of instruction in schools.
Two other foreign languages Spanish and

Arabic are to be promoted on a voluntary

and optional basis as stated in the
Philippine Constitution of 1987
There are many regional languages
(dialects) and these languages are the
auxiliary official languages which can be
used in schools for the purpose of
enhancing and facilitating the learning
There are eight major dialects and these

are: Bikol (Bikolano), Cebuano, Hiligaynon

(Ilonggo), Ilocano, Pampango
(Kapampangan), Pangasinense, Tagalog and
Political Geography
The Philippines is divided into a hierarchy of
local government units (LGUs)
with the 80provincesas the primary unit
Provinces are further subdivided
intocitiesandmunicipalities, which are in turn
composed ofbarangays
The barangay is the smallest local government
The Philippines is divided into 17 regions with
all provinces grouped into one of 16regionsfor
administrative convenience
TheNational Capital Regionhowever, is
divided into four special districts
Most government offices establish regional

offices to serve the constituent provinces

The regions themselves do not possess a

separate local government, with the

exception of theAutonomous Region in
Muslim Mindanao
Regions of the Philippines
Ilocos Region (Region I)
Ilocos Region
It is located in the northwest ofLuzon, bordering to
the east the regions of theCordillera Administrative
RegionandCagayan Valley and to the south the
region ofCentral Luzon
To the northwest is theSouth China Sea
The region is composed of fourprovinces
namely:Ilocos Norte,Ilocos Sur,La
Its regional center isSan Fernando, La Union
Ilocanospeakers compose 66% of the
region,Pangasinanspeakers are 27%,
andTagalogcompose 3%
It has a total land area of
The region is composed of 9 cities, 116

municipalities, 3,265 barangays and 12

congressional districts
Languages of Ilocos regions are Ilocano,

Pangasinan, Bolinao, Tagalog and English

Places of Interest
Marcos Museum and Mausoleum
integrates both memorabilia storage and the
current resting place ofFerdinand Edralin Marcos.
It is situated in the heart ofBatac City, Ilocos Norte
The museum shows memorabilia of the late
president, from his stint in the armed forces down
to his presidency
The large and solemn mausoleum contains the
glass-encased coffin in which Marcos' embalmed
body has been on public display since shortly after
his remains were brought home in 1993
Paoay Church
TheSaint Augustine Church(Spanish:Iglesia de San
Agustn de Paoay), commonly known as thePaoay
It is theRoman Catholicchurchof
themunicipalityofPaoay,Ilocos Nortein
Completed in 1710, the church is famous for its distinct
architecture highlighted by the enormousbuttresseson
the sides and back of the building
t is declared as aNational Cultural Treasureby the
Philippine government in 1973 and aUNESCO World
Heritage Siteunder the collective group ofBaroque
Churches of the Philippinesin 1993.
Paoay Lake
Paoay Lake, historically known asLago de Nanguyudan
commonly referred to locally asDacquel a Danum
(Ilokanofor "big water")
is a horseshoe-shaped lake located in the municipality
ofPaoayin the northwest region ofLuzonin thePhilippines
It is the largest lake in the province ofIlocos Norteand one
of the largest natural lakes in the northern Luzon region
The freshwater lake and its 1km surroundings was declared
a national park in 1969 by virtue of Republic Act 5631
In 1978 through Presidential Decree 1554, the park was
reduced to an area of 340 hectares concentrated on the
lake itself around its highest water level
The lake covers a surface area of 386 hectares with an
average depth of 6 meters
Bangui Wind Farm
Bangui Wind Farmis awind farminBangui, Ilocos
The wind farm uses 20 units of 70-metre (230ft) highVestas
V82 1.65MWwind turbines, arranged on a single row
stretching along a nine-kilometer shoreline off Bangui Bay,
facing theWest Philippine Sea.
Phase I of the NorthWind power project in Bangui Bay consists
of 15 wind turbines, each capable of producing electricity up to
a maximum capacity of 1.65MW, for a total of 24.75MW. The
15 on-shore turbines are spaced 326 metres (1,070ft) apart,
each 70 metres (230ft) high, with 41 metres (135ft) long
blades, with a rotor diameter of 82 metres (269ft) and a wind
swept area of 5,281 square metres (56,840sqft)
Phase II, was completed on August 2008, and added 5 more
wind turbines with the same capacity, and brought the total
capacity to 33MW. All 20 turbines describes a graceful arc
reflecting the shoreline of Bangui Bay, facing the West
Philippine Sea.
Vigan(UNESCO World Heritage Site)
Vigan, officially theCity of Vigan(Ilokano:Ciudad ti
Bigan;Tagalog:Lungsod ng Vigan) is a fourth
classcityand capital of theprovinceofIlocos Surin
The city is located on the western coast of the large
island ofLuzon, facing theSouth China Sea
According to the 2010Philippines census, it has a
population of 49,747 people
t is aWorld Heritage Sitein that it is one of the
fewHispanic (broadly refers to the peoples, nations
and cultures with a historical link toSpain)towns left
in the Philippines where its structures remained
intact, and is well known for its cobblestone streets
and a unique architecture that fuses Philippine and
Oriental building designs and construction, with
colonial European architecture
In May 2015, Vigan City was officially recognized as
one of theNew7Wonders Citiestogether
withBeirut,Doha,Durban,Havana,Kuala Lumpur,
andLa Paz
Former Philippine presidentElpidio Quirino, the
sixthpresident of the Philippines, was born in Vigan,
at the former location of the Provincial Jail (his father
was a warden); and resided in the Syquia Mansion.
The city's full name at the time of its Spanish
foundation was "Villa Fernandina", or "Town of
Ferdinand", in honor of Prince Ferdinand, the firstborn
son of KingPhilip II of Spain. As the city grew, and
the seat of theArchdiocese of Nueva Segovia
transferred to Vigan, it was later renamed "Ciudad
Fernandina de Vigan" ("Ferdinand's City of Vigan").
Tirad Pass
Mount Tiradis a 1,154-metre (3,786ft)
mountain peak nearCervantes, Ilocos Sur,
Philippines. It ranks as the 3rd highest
mountain in Ilocos Sur and the 446th
highest mountain in the Philippines
Tirad Pass on the mountain holds a
significant place in Philippine history,
having been the site of the 1899battle of
Tirad Pass.
Hundred Islands National Park
TheHundred Islands National
Bakes) is anational parkin thePhilippines
Theprotected areais located in
thecityofAlaminos, in
theprovinceofPangasinan in
The islands, totaling 124 at low tide and 123 at
high tide, are scattered inLingayen
Gulfcovering an area of 16.76 square
kilometres (6.47sqmi)
Only three of them have been developed for
tourism: Governor Island, Quezon Island, and
Children's Island.
The islands are believed to be about two million
years old. They are actually ancientcorals that
extend well inland, in an area previously comprising
the seabed of an ancient sea
The lowering of the sea level have exposed them to
the surface
The peculiar "mushroom-like" shapes of some of the
islands were caused by theeroding actionof the
ocean waves
The national park was created by Presidential
Proclamation No. 667, covering an area of 16.76
square kilometres (6.47sqmi) and signed by
PresidentManuel L. Quezonon January 18, 1940, for
the benefit and enjoyment of the people of the
Philippines and known as theHundred Islands
National Park(HINP).
Cagayan Valley(Region II)
Cagayan Valley Region
It is composed of
fiveprovinces:Batanes,Cagayan,Isabela,Nueva Vizcay,
It has four cities: industrial centerCauayan, its regional
its primary growth center and investment hubIlaganand its
premier citySantiago
Most of the region lies in a large valley in northeasternLuzon,
between theCordillerasand theSierra Madremountain ranges
The eponymousCagayan River, the country's longest, runs
through its center and flows out from its source in theCaraballo
Mountains in the south to theLuzon Straitin the north, in the
town ofAparri, Cagayan
The Babuyan and Batanes island groups that lie in the Luzon
Strait belong to the region.
Cagayan Valley, contains two landlocked provinces,
Quirino and Nueva Vizcaya
Cagayan Valley is now thePhilippinestilapiacapital
Region II is composed of fiveprovinces, one
independentcity, three componentcities,
89municipalities, and 2,311 barangays
Languages of region 2 are
d,Isinay,Ilongot,Tagalog,English, others
It has a total land area of 31,159km2(12,031sqmi)
Places of InterestTuguegaraois a 1st-class city and
capital of the province ofCagayanin
Tuguegarao City thePhilippines.
It is the regional and institutional
center ofCagayan Valleyregion. The
city is politically subdivided into
49barangays. There are several
versions of legends looming about
the origin of the name of the city of
Tuguegarao. One is the abundance of
"tarrao" trees in the area. Another is
from the word "tuggi" meaning fire.
Still another is that the name
Tuguegarao comes from two Ibanag
words "tuggi" (fire) and "aggao"
(day), possibly referring to a daytime
fire that happened in the townThe
most accepted version of the legend
is the Ibanags' reply to the Spaniards
when the latter asked for the name of
the place - "Tuggi gari yaw", meaning
"This used to be fire", or the town
was carved out of the wilderness by
clearing and burning
Buntun Bridgeis a river
bridge fromTuguegarao
Buntun Bridge City proper. It is the
second longest bridge in
the country and offers an
unobstructed view of
theCagayan River. This
1.098km-long bridge
links Tuguegarao City to
the 2nd and 3rd District
ofCagayanProvince & the
Apayao Province. Buntun
Bridge is considered as
the longest river bridge in
the Philippinnes. It
stretches from
Tuguegarao City to
Solana, Cagayan and
spans the Cagayan River,
the largest river basin in
the Philippines.
Basco Lighthouseis
alighthousein the town

Basco Lighthouse
ofBascoinBatanes, the
northernmost province in
thePhilippines. Located in Naidi Hills
inBarangaySan Antonio, the lush
green hills and the open sea provide
a beautiful backdrop for the
lighthouse. The place can easily be
reached by a 1.2-km (3/4 mile) hike
from the Port of Basco. Basco
Lighthouse is one of the three
lighthouses proposed by former
Congressman Florencio Abad of
Batanes, not only as working
lighthouses, but possibly as tourist
attractions. he structure is a 6-story
building with agalleryor viewing
deck on the fifth floor. Located next
to the 66 feet (20m) tower is a
dwelling of vernacular architecture.
TraditionalIvatanhouses are made
with stone orrubble masonry. The
viewing deck is a perfect
location to view the whole
ofBatan Island(the main island
where Basco is located) from
Region 3 (Central Luzon)
Central Luzon(Filipino:Gitnng Luzon, also
known asRegion III), is an administrative division
orregionof the Republic of thePhilippines,
primarily serve to organize the 7 provinces of the
vast central plain of the island ofLuzon(the
largest island), for administrative convenience.
The region contains the largestplainin the country
and produces most of the country'sricesupply,
earning itself the nickname "Rice Granary of the
Philippines". Its provinces
Ecija,Pampanga,Tarlac, andZambales.
There are fourteencitiesnamely:Balangain
Bataan;Malolos,MeycauayanandSan Jose del Montein
Josein Nueva Ecija;Angeles,Mabalacat andSan
Fernandoin Pampanga;Tarlacin Tarlac; and Olongapoin
Central Luzon produces the most rice in the whole
country. Excess rice is delivered and imported to other
provinces of the Philippines.
TheCity of San Fernando, in Pampanga, is the regional
Aurora was transferred from Region IV by Executive
Order No. 103
Region 3 is composed of 7provinces, 14cities,
116municipalities, 3,102 barangays
Mount Pinatubo is
Places of Interest
theCabusilan Mountainson the
island ofLuzon, near
thetripointof thePhilippine
Mount Pinatubo provincesofZambales,Tarlac,
andPampanga. Before the
volcanic activities of 1991, its
eruptive history was unknown to
most people. he
eruption on 15 June 1991
produced the second largest
terrestrial eruption of the 20th
century after the 1912 eruption
ofNovaruptain theAlaska
Peninsula. The effects of the
eruption were felt worldwide. It
ejected roughly 10,000,000,000
tonnes(1.11010short tons) or
10km3(2.4cumi) of magma,
and 20,000,000 tonnes
(22,000,000 short tons)SO2,
bringing vast quantities of
minerals and metals to the
surface environment.
Mount Samat
Mount Samatis a historic mountain in
thetownofPilr,ProvinceofBataan, in the
Republic of thePhilippines. Located near its
summit is theMount Samat National Shrine,
a nationalshrinededicated to the fallen
Filipino and American fallen duringWorld
War II.
Mount Samat is aparasitic coneofMount

Mariveleswith no record of historical

The summit of Mount Samat is 9.2km

(5.7mi) NNE of the Marivelescaldera

Mount Samat itself has a 550-metre

(1,800ft) wide crater that opens to the

At the start ofWorld War IIin 1942 after suffering heavy
losses against theImperial Japanese Armyall overLuzon,
the Filipino and American soldiers retreated toBataan
Peninsulato regroup for a last valiant but futile stand.
After four months of fighting, the 78,000 exhausted, sick
and starving soldiers under Major GeneralEdward P.
Kingsurrendered to the Japanese on April 9, 1942 known
asthe fall of Bataan.
t is the single largest surrender of U.S. soldiers in history

andMariveles, a town in the Bataan province, was their

last stronghold after which, together with the Philippine
soldiers, they were led on to the 80-mile (130km) march
toCapas, Tarlacknown as theBataan Death March
TheMount Samat National Shrineshrine was erected as

a fitting memorial to the heroic struggle and sacrifices of

those soldiers who fought and died in that historic
bastion of freedom
Roosevelt Protected Landscape
TheRoosevelt Protected Landscape, also known
asRoosevelt Park, is aprotected areain theCentral
Luzonregion in the Philippines.
It occupies an area of 786.04 hectares (1,942.3
acres) of grasslands and old growth forest in
northernBataan province nearOlongapoand
theSubic Bay Freeport Zone
The park was established as Roosevelt National Park
covering an area of 1,485 hectares (3,670 acres) on
30 March 1933 through Proclamation No. 567 signed
by Governor-GeneralTheodore Roosevelt, Jr
In 1965, the national park was reduced to 1,334
hectares (3,300 acres).
On 23 April 2000, the park was reclassified as a
protected landscape area and was further reduced to
its present area of 786.04 hectares (1,942.3 acres)
It is composed of 87% grassland dominated by
cogonandtalahib, and 13% remnants of old growth
forest andmahoganyandteakplantations.
The park is a habitat for several endangered
species and game animals which include
pythons,monitor lizards,cloud rats,
quails,kingfishers,flycatchers and fruit bats.
The Roosevelt Protected Landscape area sits on a
narrow valley at the foot of Mount Santa Rita and
Mount Malasimbo in theZambales Mountain
Rangeat the border between the municipalities
ofDinalupihanandHermosain Bataan.
Philippine Arena
ThePhilippine Arenais a multipurposeindoor
arenaatCiudad de Victoria, a 140-hectare tourism
enterprise zone inBocaueandSanta
It has a maximum capacity of 55,000 people.
That made it is the world'slargest indoor arena. the
centerpiece of the manycentennialprojectsof
theIglesia Ni Cristo(INC) for their centennial
celebration on July 27, 2014.The legal owner of the
arena is the INC'seducational institution,New Era
The initial design concept of the Philippine arena is
inspired byNarra tree, the mother tree of the
Philippines, and the root of the Banyan tree.
The roof was inspired by that of aNipa Hut
Angat Dam
Angat Damis aconcretewater
supplies theManila metropolitan areawater.
It was a part of the Angat-Ipo-La Mesawater

The reservoir supplies about 90 percent of raw

water requirements for Metro Manila through the

facilities of theMetropolitan Waterworks and
Sewerage Systemand it irrigates about 28,000
hectares of farmland in the provinces
Angat dam has a normal high water level of 210

meters, according to the Philippine Atmospheric,

Geophysical and Astronomical Services
Administration (Pagasa).
is one of theregionsof thePhilippines. It is
designated asRegion IV-Aand its regional center
isCalamba CityinLaguna.
The region is composed of fiveprovinces,
andQuezon; whose names form
The region is also more formally known
asSouthern Tagalog Mainland
The region is in southwesternLuzon, just south and
east ofMetro Manilaand is the second most
densely populated region
CALABARZON andMIMAROPAwere previously together
known asSouthern Tagalog, until they were separated in
2002 by virtue of Executive Order No. 103
Executive Order No. 246, dated October 28, 2003,
designatedCalamba Cityas the regional center of
CALABARZON. The largest city of the CALABARZON Region
and the second most highly urbanized city is Antipolo City,
with Lucena Citybeing the first.
CALABARZON is the most populated region in the
Philippines, with a population of 12,609,803 inhabitants
The region is also home to a host of important Philippine
historical figures, most notable of which is the
Philippines'national hero,Jose Rizal, who was born
The region is home to 18cities, two of
which are highly urbanized.Antipolo, in
particular, is known as the seventh most
populous city in the Philippines.
A large part of Calabarzon is considered a

part ofGreater Manila, and Batangas is

home to theMetro Batangasmetropolitan
It has agross regional productof1.65

trillion (at current prices), which accounts

for 17% of the nationalGDP.
Places of Interest
is acomponent cityin theprovinceofCavite, in the
Philippines. It is one of the country's most popular tourist
destinations because of its outstanding scenery and
cooler climate provided by its high altitude.
Tagaytay overlooksTaal LakeinBatangasand provides
one of the iconic views of the Philippines, the view
ofTaal Volcano Islandin the middle of the lake, viewable
from several vantage points in the city.
Tagaytay is relatively close to the capital city ofManila,
only 55km (34mi) away viaAguinaldo Highway,
providing an easy escape for the locals from the heat of
the big city.
The southern and eastern portions of Tagaytay City are
covered by hills and mountains which is generally forests
and open grasslands.
Antipolo City
is acityin thePhilippineslocated in theprovinceof
Rizal; about 25 kilometres (16mi) east ofManila.
It is the largest city in theCALABARZONRegion. It is
also the seventh most populous city in the country
with a population of 677,741 in 2010.
Antipolo was converted from amunicipalityinto a
component city of Rizal Province on April 4, 1998,
underRepublic Act No.8508. A new provincial
capitol building was inaugurated in the city in March
2009 to replace the old capitol inPasigwhich has
long been outside the jurisdiction of Rizal Province;
after Pasig was included inMetro Manilain 1975.
With the transfer of the provincial government
to Antipolo, it is highly favored to be officially
designated as the new capital of the province
On March 14, 2011, Antipolo was declared a
"highly-urbanized city" byPresidentBenigno
Aquino; such proclamation however still needs
to be ratified in a plebiscite.
The city is popular for being a pilgrimage site.
It prides itself as the "Pilgrimage Capital of the
Antipolo is in the northern half of Rizal Province
It is found on the slopes of theSierra Madre
Mountain Range. Much of the city sits on a plateau
averaging 200 meters. It has the second largest
area in the province with an area of 306.10km.
The northern and southern sections of the city are in
the dense forest areas of the Sierra Madre.
Antipolo is landlocked; bounded to the north bySan
MateoandRodriguez; to the east byTanay; to the
south byAngono,Taytay andTeresa; and to the
west byCaintaandMarikina CityinMetro Manila.
Antipolo is politically divided into 16barangays.
and often referred to asCalamba City, is acomponent
It is the regional center of theCALABARZONregion. It is
situated 54 kilometres (34mi) south ofManila, the city is
known as the Resort Capital of the Philippines
because of its numerous hot spring resorts, which are
mostly located in Barangay Pansol, Bucal and Bagong
It is the 5th densest city in the province with more than
2,600 people per square kilometer after San Pedro,
Bian, Cabuyao and Santa Rosa. Based on the overall
rankings of the 2014 Cities and Municipalities Index, the
city ranked 18th in the overall competitiveness (cities
ranking) and 1st among cities in
Calamba lies on the northern slopes ofMount
Makiling, a dormant volcano. The southern
terminus of theSouth Luzon Expresswayis in
Calamba and this geographic position makes the
city a gateway to the southern provinces of
Luzon. The highway at the end of the South Luzon
Expressway leads east to the other towns of
Laguna and south towards the provinces
Calamba covers a total land area of 14,950
hectares (36,900 acres) making it is the 2nd
largest city in Laguna province in terms of land
area afterSan Pablo City
Los Baos
is a first class urban municipality in
theprovinceofLaguna,Philippines. According to
the 2010 census, it has a population of 101,884
It has a total land area of 56.5 square kilometers
and is bordered on the south and southwest
byMount Makiling, on the north byLaguna de
Bay, on the northwest byCalamba Cityand on
the east by the town ofBay. The town is located
63 kilometres (39mi) southeast ofManilaand is
accessible via theSouth Luzon Expressway.
The municipality lies on the northern slopes of the
long dormant volcanoMount Makilingand is known
among tourists for its hot spring resorts. Los Baos
also hosts theUniversity of the Philippines, along
with other foreign and local and international
research centers, such as theInternational Rice
Research Institute, theASEANCenter for
Biodiversity, thePhilippine Rice Research Institute,
Philippine Carabao Center at UPLB, and SEAMEO-
SEARCA, making the town a temporary home for
tens of thousands of undergraduate and graduate
students, researchers and expatriates.
Los Baos is nestled between two of Southern Luzon's
most dominant geographical features -Mount
Makilingto the south and southwest andLaguna de
Bayto the north.
In fact, Laguna de Bay's southernmost tip is at

Barangay Bambang, and Barangay Bagong Silang is

already halfway up Mount Makiling
Both the mountain and the lake are volcanic features -

Makiling being a potentially active volcano whose

geothermal activities gave birth to the hot springs
after which the town was named, and Laguna de Bay
being the filled-in caldera of a massive prehistoric
Aguinaldo Shrine (Kawit, Cavite)
TheAguinaldo Shrineis the national
shrine located inKawit,Cavitein
theRepublic of the Philippines, where
theindependence of the
PhilippinesfromSpainwas declared on June
12, 1898.
To commemorate the event, now known

asAraw ng Kalayaanor Independence Day,

anational holiday, thePhilippine flagis
raised here by top government officials on
June 12 each year. The house is now a
MIMAROPAis anadministrative regionin
thePhilippines, designated asRegion IV-B. It is
one of two regions in the country having no land
border with another region, the other
beingEastern Visayas.
The name is anacronymcombination of its
constituentprovinces, which
are:Mindoro(divided intoOccidental
Mindoro),Marinduque,Romblonand Palawan.
The region is also formally known as
theSouthern Tagalog Islands
The region was part of the now-
defunctSouthern Tagalog region9 (Region IV)
until 17 May 2002.
On 23 May 2005, Palawan and thehighly

urbanized cityofPuerto Princesawere moved

to the region ofWestern Visayasby Executive
Order No. 429.
However, on 19 August 2005, then-

PresidentArroyoissued Administrative Order

No. 129 to put in abeyance Executive Order
No. 429 pending a review.
Region IV-B, together withRegion IV-A, were
officially created with
thepartitioningofRegion IV (Southern
Tagalog)into the two regions on 17 May 2002
with the issuance of Executive Order No. 103
by then-PresidentGloria Macapagal-Arroyo;
for the purpose of promoting efficiency in the
government, accelerating social and
economic development and improving public
services in the provinces covered.
On 23 May 2005, Executive Order 429 was issued,
moving the province ofPalawanto the region
ofWestern Visayas, designating Region IV-B
asMIMARO. However, Palawan residents criticized
the move, citing a lack of consultation, with most
residents inPuerto Princesaand nearly all
municipalities preferring to stay with Region IV-B.
Consequently, Administrative Order No. 129 was
issued on 19 August 2005 to address this backlash.
This order directed the abeyance of Executive Order
429 pending the approval of an implementation plan
for the orderly transfer of Palawan from MIMAROPA to
Region VI
Places of Interest
Puerto Princesa Subterranean River
National Park
is aprotected areaof thePhilippineslocated about
80 kilometres (50mi) north of the city centre of
Puerto Princesa,Palawan. The river is also
calledPuerto Princesa Underground River
The national park is located in the Saint Paul

Mountain Range on the western coast of the

island. It is bordered by St. Paul Bay to the north
and the Babuyan River to the east. The City
Government of Puerto Princesa has managed the
National Park since 1992. The entrance to the
subterranean river is a short hike or boat ride from
the town Sabang.
In 2010, a group of environmentalists and geologists
discovered that the underground river has a second floor,
which means that there are small waterfalls inside the
cave. They also found a cave dome measuring 300m
(980ft) above the underground river, rock formations,
largebats, a deep water hole in the river, more river
channels, another deep cave, as well as marine creatures
and more. Deeper areas of the underground river are
almost impossible to explore due to oxygen deprivation
On November 11, 2011, Puerto Princesa Underground
River was provisionally chosen as one of the
New7Wonders of Nature. This selection was officially
confirmed on January 28, 2012
The park has alimestonekarstmountain landscape. St. Pauls
Underground River Cave is more than 24km (15mi) long and
contains an 8.2km (5.1mi) long underground section of the
Cabayugan River.
The river winds through the cave before flowing directly into the
West Philippine Seaand is navigable by boat up to 4.3km (2.7mi)
in from the sea. The cave includes major formations ofstalactites
andstalagmites, and several large chambers, including the 360-
meter-long Italian's Chamber with approximate 2.5 million square
meters volume. It is one of the largest cave rooms in the world.
The lower portion of the river up to 6km from the sea, is subject
totidalinfluences. Until the 2007 discovery of an underground
river inMexico'sYucatn Peninsula,[4]the Puerto Princesa
Subterranean River was reputed to be the world's longest
underground river.
International reception
Puerto Princesa Underground River was entered
as the Philippine entry - and topped the first
round of voting - in theNew7Wonders of Nature
competition. On July 29, 2011, after the second
round of voting, it was declared 1 of 28 finalists.
Mayor Edward S. Hagedorn extended his
gratitude to all those who supported and voted
for the PPUR.On November 11, 2011 it was
provisionally chosen as one of the New7Wonders,
together with theAmazonia,Halong Bay,Iguazu
Falls,Jeju Island,Komodo Island, and
Table Mountain.
On January 28, 2012, Malacaang expressed
elation on Saturday over the official inclusion
of the Puerto Princesa Underground River
(PPUR) in the worlds New Seven Wonders of
Nature. "Confirmation that the Puerto
Princesa Underground River is one of the New
Seven Wonders of Nature is welcome news
indeed. Throughout the competition, Filipinos
from all walks of life have given time, energy,
and resources to this campaign," Presidential
Spokesperson Edwin Lacierda said.
Department of Tourism spokesman and Assistant
Secretary Benito Bengzon Jr. said the underground
estuary made it into the worlds New Seven Wonders of
Nature after the validation process conducted by the
New7Wonders Foundation last year. The voting was
criticized, especially the Philippine voting. Nothing in the
New7Wonders voting procedure prohibited repetitive
voting, making the results subject to government and
tourism industry campaigns to vote often for local sites
with the financial incentive of increased tourism.
Philippine PresidentBenigno Simeon Aquino III, in his
speech during the official proclamation launch of the
Puerto Princesa Underground River as one of the 28
finalists, urged the country's 80 million cellphone
subscribers to vote PPUR via text
Mount Malindig(also known as Mount Malindik and Mount
Marlangga) is a large potentially activestratovolcanoon
the island ofMarinduquein thePhilippines.
The name Marinduque itself may have been derived from
"Marindik" or "Malindik".
The tale told by the people of Buenavista, the town that sits
at the foot of Malindig, is that during the Spanish times, a
Spanish soldier got lost. He came upon a girl sitting down
sorting rice. He asked her what was the name of this place.
She replied in Tagalog "matindig" (translation: "Let me
stand up") so she could get a better view of the area. The
Spaniard mistook the girl and thought the mountain was
called "Matindig", and unable to ennunciate Tagalog, he
called it "Malindig".
Calamian Islands
TheCalamian IslandsorCalamianesisagroupof
Historically, the Calamianes was site of the Spanish
politico-militar Provincia de Calamianes. The
Spanish Empirelater purchased mainland Paragua from
theSultan of Borneo. During theAmerican occupation
(1898-1948), the old Provincia de Calamianes was
dissolved and jointly administered with the Island of
Paragua as the new Province of Palawan.
During the American occupation and up until recently,
Culion Island was host to aleper colony. Busuanga Island
hosts the largest town, Coron, in the Calamian Islands.
Coron Island is known for having the cleanest inland body
of water in the Philippines, calledKayangan Lake. Calauit
Island is known for hosting a number of endangered
African animal species. Finally, one of the world's best
diving spots, with beautiful coral reefs and sunken World
War II Japanese shipwrecks, also lies within the waters of
these islands.
Region V (Bicol Region)
The Bicol Region(Filipino:Kabikulan;Spanish
:Bicolandia) is one of theRegionsof thePhilippines,
designated asRegion V. Bicol (also spelledBikol)
comprises fourprovincesin theBicol Peninsula: the
southeastern end ofLuzonisland, and two island-
provinces adjacent to the peninsula, namely:Albay,
Camarines Norte,Camarines Sur,Catanduanes,Masbate
The regional capital, political/administrative center, and

largest city isLegazpiwhich is the capital of Bicol Region.

Legazpi City is also considered as the center of tourism,

education, health services, commerceand

transportationin the Bicol Region.
The Bicol Region is located in the southernmost tip of
Luzon Island, the largest island in the Philippine
archipelago. The total land area of the region is derived
from the summation of provincial areas from the table
below which or 5.9% of the total land area of the country.
Around 69.3% of the total land area is alienable and
disposable while the remaining 30.7% is public forest
The region is bounded byLamon Bayto the north,
Pacific Oceanto the east, andSibuyan SeaandRagay Gulf
to the west. The northernmost provinces,Camarines
NorteandCamarines Sur, are bordered to the west by the
province ofQuezon, connecting the region to the rest of
Places of Interest
Legazpi City
Legazpi, officially theCity of Legazpi(Bikol
:Ciudad nin Legazpi;Filipino:Lungsod ng Legaspi;
Spanish:Ciudad de Legazpi) and often referred to
asLegazpi City, is acomponent cityand the
capital of theprovinceofAlbayin thePhilippines.
According to the 2010 census, it has a population of
Legazpi City is the administrative center and largest
city of theBicol Region.
It is a center of tourism, education, health services,
commerceand transportationin the Bicol Region.
Legazpi was named afterMiguel Lpez de Legazpi,
the Basque Spanishconquistadorwho officially
annexed thePhilippine Islandsto the
Spanish Empirein 1565, and whose surname came
froma towninGipuzkoa,Spain.
Mayon Volcano, one of the Philippines' most
popular icons and tourist destinations, is partly
within the city's borders. The city is composed of
two districts: Legazpi Port and Albay district.
Legazpi was recognized as the most business-
friendly city in Southern Luzon in 2007 by the
Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry.In
2013, Legazpi was ranked 11th among the most
competitive cities in the country. In 2014, the city
was adjudged as one of the 20 most livable cities
in the Philippines that joined the APEC competition
Naga City
Naga City is located within the province of
Camarines Sur in the southeastern tip of Luzon at
the near the center of the Bicol Region,
surrounded on all sides by rich agricultural, forest
and fishing areas. It covers a land area of 8,448
hectares (20,880 acres) and is located around the
serpentine and historic Naga River, at the
confluenceof the Naga and Bikol Rivers.
Thus, it has always been an ideal place for trade
and as center for schools, church and government
offices. Included in its territory isMount Isarog, a
declaredprotected areain Region V known
asMount Isarog Natural Park
is an independent component city in the
Bicol Regionof thePhilippines.
The town was established in 1575 on order of
SpanishGovernor-GeneralFrancisco de Sande,
the city, then namedCiudad de Nueva Caceres
(New Caceres City), earned its status as thethird
Spanish Royal Cityin theSpanish East Indies,
It was awarded as theMost Competitive
Component City in the Philippinesalso beingthe
Center of Good Governance in the Philippines.
Naga City isBicol Region's
trade,business,religious, cultural,
industrial, commercial,medical,educational
andfinancial center.
Naga City is known as theQueen City of

Bicol,and as theHeart of Bicoldue to its

central location in theBicol Peninsula; and
as thePilgrimCitybecause Naga City is also
home to the largest Marian pilgrimage in
Mayon Volcano
TheMayon Volcano Natural Parkis a
protected areaof thePhilippineslocated in the
Bicol Region(Region 5) on southeastLuzon Island,
the largest island of the country. TheNatural park
covers an area of 5,775.7 hectares (14,272
acres), which includes its centerpieceMayon
Volcano, the mostactive volcanoin the
Philippines, and its adjacent surroundings. [1]The
volcano is also renowned for having an almost
perfect cone. First protected as aNational Parkin
1938, it was reclassified as aNatural Parkin the
year 2000
It is located in the eight cities and
municipalities that has jurisdiction of the
mountain. These communities areCamalig,
Daraga,Guinobatan,Legazpi City,Ligao
City,Tabaco City,Malilipot, and
Santo Domingo, all in the province of Albay.
The peak of the volcano is the highest
elevation in the Bicol Region at 2,462
metres (8,077ft)
Region 6 (Western
is one of theregionsof thePhilippines. It is
designated as "Region VI". It consists of
GuimarasandIloilo) and one
highly urbanized city(Iloilo City) which
serves as the regional center.
Declared by virtue of Presidential Decree

No. 1 as part of theIntegrated

Reorganisation Planof President
Ferdinand Marcos.
TheProvinceofPalawanwas transferred to Region VI
(Western Visayas) on May 23, 2005 by Executive Order
429.TheDepartment of the Interior and Local Government
announced in June 2005 that the transfer had been
However, Palaweos criticized the move, citing a lack of
consultation, with most residents in Puerto Princesa City
and all municipalities but one preferring to stay with
Region IV-B. Consequently, Administrative Order No. 129
was issued on August 19, 2005 to address this backlash.
This Order directed the abeyance of Executive Order 429
pending the approval of an implementation plan for the
orderly transfer of Palawan from Region IV-B to Region VI.
Hence, Palawan is currently still part of Region IV-B.
Places of Interest
Boracayis a smallislandin thePhilippineslocated
approximately 315km (196mi) south ofManilaand 2km off
the northwest tip ofPanay Islandin theWestern Visayasregion
of thePhilippines.
Boracay Island and its beaches have received awards from
numerous travel publications and agencies.
The island comprises thebarangaysof Manoc-Manoc, Balabag,
and Yapak in themunicipalityofMalay, inAklan Province.
The island is administered by thePhilippine Tourism Authority
and the provincial government of Aklan. Apart from its white
sand beaches, Boracay is also famous for being one of the
world's top destinations for relaxation.
It is also emerging among the top destinations for tranquility
and nightlife
In 2012, Boracay was awarded as the best island in the world
from the international travel magazineTravel + Leisure
La Carlota, Negros
is a fourth classcityin the centralPhilippine provinceofNegros
geographically located at the southwestern portion ofNegros
It has a total land area of 13, 729 hectares, most of it devoted to
According to the 2010 official census, it has a population of
Until two years after its foundation in 1871, it was known as
Simancas, a barrio under the jurisdiction of the neighboring town
of San Enrique, which was led by a Spaniard who was married to
a woman named Carlota.
The city enjoys two distinct seasons like the rest of the
Philippines: The dry season from January through May and the
wet season from June through December.
Salvador Benedicto
The town ofDon Salvador Benedicto, also known
as DSB, or just Salvador Benedicto has been named
as theSummer Capital of Negros.
Don Salvador Benedicto is also known as
the"Little Baguio" of Negrosbecause of its cool
weather, it is absolutely abundant in flowers,
vegetables, and fruits that thrive in cool climate.
Going further from Don Salvador Benedicto, there
arerice terraces similar to those in Banaue and
Chocolate Hillssimilar to those in Bohol, but of
course the lesser-quantity version.
Region VII-Central Visayas
It is located in the central part of theVisayasisland group,
and consists of threeprovincesBohol,Cebu, andSiquijor
and thehighly urbanized citiesofCebu City,Lapu-Lapu, and
The region is dominated by the native speakers ofCebuano.
Cebu City is its regional center.
Regions first came to existence in on September 24, 1972,
when the provinces of the Philippines were organized into 11
regions by Presidential Decree No. 1 as part of theIntegrated
Reorganization Planof PresidentFerdinand Marcos
By virtue of Executive Order No. 183 issued on May 29, 2015
by PresidentBenigno Aquino III, the province ofNegros
Orientalwas transferred to theNegros Island Region
Magellan's Crossis aChristian cross

Places of Interest planted byPortuguese, andSpanish

explorers as ordered by
Ferdinand Magellanupon arriving inCebu
Magellan's Cross in thePhilippineson (depending on
source) March 15 , 1521.
This cross is housed in achapelnext to
theBasilica Minore del Santo Nioon
Magallanes Street (Magallanes being the
Spanish name of Magellan), just in front
of the city center ofCebu City.
A sign below the cross describes the
original cross is encased inside the
wooden cross that is found in the center
of the chapel.
This is to protect the original cross from
people who chipped away parts of the
cross for souvenir purposes or in the
belief that the cross possesses
miraculous powers.
Some people, however, believe that the
original cross had been destroyed or had
disappeared after Magellan's death, and
the cross is a replica that was planted
there by the Spaniards after they
successfully colonized the Philippines.
Sandogo Monument
TheSandugowas ablood compact,
performed in the island ofBoholin
thePhilippines, between theSpanish
explorerMiguel Lpez de Legazpi
andDatu Sikatunathe chieftain of
Bohol on March 16, 1565, to seal
their friendship as part of the tribal
This is considered as the firsttreaty
of friendship between the Spaniards
and Filipinos. "Sandugo" is aVisayan
word which means "one blood.
TheSandugois depicted in both the provincial flag and the official seal of
the government in Bohol. It also features the image of the blood compact.
The top of the seal explains the history behind theSandugoevent that
occurred in Bohol, the fleet and the location where the Spaniards anchored
and the place where the treaty was conducted which was dated on March
16, 1565.
Chocolate Hills
TheChocolate Hills(Filipino:Tsokolateng Burol)
are a geological formation in theBoholprovince of
There are at least 1,260hillsbut there may be as
many as 1,776 hills spread over an area of more
than 50 square kilometers (20sqmi).
They are covered in greengrassthat turns brown
(likechocolate) during the dry season.
The Chocolate Hills are a famoustourist attraction
of Bohol. They are featured in theprovincial flag
and seal to symbolize the abundance of natural
attractions in the province.
They are in the Philippine Tourism Authority's list of tourist
destinations in the Philippines; they have been declared the
country's third National Geological Monument and proposed
for inclusion in theUNESCOWorld HeritageList.
The Chocolate Hills form a rolling terrain of haycock hills
mounds of a generally conical and almost symmetrical
These cone-shaped or dome-shaped hills are actually made
of grass-covered limestone.
The domes vary in sizes from 30 to 50 metres (98 to 164ft)
high with the largest being 120 metres (390ft) in height.
These unique mound-shaped hills are scattered by the
hundreds throughout the towns ofCarmen,Batuanand
Sagbayanin Bohol
The National Committee on Geological Sciences declared
the Chocolate Hills of Bohol a National Geological
Monument on June18, 1988, in recognition of its special
characteristics, scientific importance, uniqueness, and high
scenic value. As such, this included the Chocolate Hills
among the country's protected areas.
More protection was provided by Proclamation No. 1037
signed by then PresidentFidel V. Ramosupon the
recommendation of the DENR on July 1, 1997 which
establish the Chocolate Hills and the areas within, around,
and surrounding them located in the Municipalities of
Carmen, Batuan and Sagbayan, Bilar, Valencia and Sierra
Bullones, Province of Bohol as a natural monument to
protect and maintain its natural beauty and to provide
restraining mechanisms for inappropriate exploitation.
Negros Island Region
is the 18thregionof thePhilippinescomposed
of theprovincesofNegro Occidentaland
Negros Orientalwith thehighly urbanize
cityofBacolodin the island ofNegros.
The region was created by virtue of Executive

Order No. 183 issued by PresidentBenigno

Aquino IIIon May 29, 2015.
Currently, it is the only region in the Philippines

that includes only two provinces, the least in

the country
Region VIII- Eastern
is one of the 18regionsof thePhilippines,
designated asRegion VIII.
It is composed of three main
The region has sixprovinces, oneindependent
cityand onehighly urbanize
citynamely,Biliran,Leyte,Northern Samar,
Samar,Silangang Samar,Southern
Thehighly urbanized cityofTaclobanis the
Eastern Visayas Regional Center (EVRC).
Eastern Visayas directly faces thePacific Ocean. The
region is known for its famous landmark, theSan Juanico
Bridgewhich dubbed as the "Most Beautifully Designed
and Longest Bridge in the Philippines.
It is bounded by the Philippine sea on the east and north
with San Bernardo Strait separating Samar island from
southeastern Luzon: Camotes sea and Visayas sea on
the west: Bohol sea on the south with Surigao Strait
separating Leyte island from northwestern Mindanao.
It has a total land area of 2,156,285 hectares or 7.2% of
the countrys total land area.52% of its total land area
are classified as forestland and 48% as alienable and
disposable land.
There are two types of climate prevailing in the region under the
Corona system of classification: Type II and Type IV.
Type II climate is characterized by having no dry season but a
pronounced maximum rainfall from November to January. Samar
Island and the eastern part of Leyte Island fall under this type of
Type IV on the other hand has an even distribution of rainfall the
year round and a short period of dry season that can be
observed starting February up to May. This type of climate is well
exhibited at the western half of Leyte island and some portion of
Samar which covers the municipality of Motiong up to San Isidro
of Northern Samar
In November 2013, the region was hit with the highest death toll
in the country byTyphoon Haiyan (Yolanda), the second deadliest
typhoon ever to hit the Philippines.
Places of Interest
San Juanico Bridge
is part of thePan-Philippine Highwayand stretches
fromSamartoLeyte across theSan Juanico Straitin
With a total length of 2.16 kilometers (1.34mi)
it is the longest bridge in the Philippines spanning a body of
The Philippine government's project of the 21.9 million-dollar
bridge was contracted to the Construction and Development
Corporation of the Philippines (now the Philippine National
Construction Corporation), which together with Japanese
engineers conducted studies and designed the actual
project. Construction commenced in 1969 over San Juanico
Strait from Cabalawan, Tacloban City to the municipality of
Santa Rita, Samar, with completion in 1973.
Agas-Agas Bridge
Lake Danao
Lake Danaois a guitar-shaped
lakeon the island ofLeyte,
Philippinesin the province of
The lake is covering an area of
148 hectares (370 acres). It is
situated in the 2,193 hectares
(5,420 acres)Lake Danao
Natural Park, which also includes
theAmandiwinmountain range.

The lake is 18 kilometres (11mi) northeast ofOrmoc City, half an hour

drive along the San Pablo -Tongonanand Milagro - Lake Danao roads.
It was originally named "Lake Imelda" and was declared a national park
on June 2, 1972 by virtue of presidential memorandum issued by then
PresidentFerdinand Marcos. Later it was renamed and declared as Lake
Danao National Park on February 3, 1998 through Proclamation No. 1155
and is now protected by Republic Act No. 7586 otherwise known as the
National Integrated Protected Area System (NIPAS) Act of 1992.
The lake is volcanic in origin and is probably agrabenor
depression produced by thePhilippine Fault(or Leyte
Central Fault), an activefaulttraversing the lake area in
a N-S direction.
Various sectors of the local community had been
studying the lake and its ecosystem. The major threat of
avifaunal species in Lake Danao Natural Park is hunting.
Key informants revealed that hunters are not only the
local residents but many of them also come from other
places. Birds that are mostly hunted arehornbills, doves,
and pigeons.Slash-and-burnof forest for agricultural
cultivation and illegal logging also has contributed to the
degradation of some parts of the protected area.
MacArthur Landing Memorial
National Park
is a protected areaof thePhilippinesthat
commemorates the historic landing of
GeneralDouglas MacArthurinLeyte Gulfat the start
of thecampaign to recapture and liberate the
PhilippinesfromJapanese occupationon 20 October
This event led to thelargest naval battle of World War
IIand Japan's eventual defeat and surrender after
almost three years. The war memorial is located in the
municipality ofPaloonLeyteisland inEastern
Visayasand is one of the region's major tourist
attractions. It was declared a national park on 12 July
1977 through Letter of Instructions No. 572 signed by
PresidentFerdinand Marcos.
The MacArthur Landing site sits on a 6.78 hectares (16.8
acres) coastal plain in the barangay of Candahug, some
5 kilometers south of Leyte's provincial capitalTacloban.
It was formerly named Imelda Park after former First
LadyImelda Marcoswho hails fromLeyte Province.
The park's focal point are the seven double-life-sized
bronze statues on a shallow manmade pool depicting
MacArthur and his entourage during the historicA-
DayLanding as captured in the iconic photo byGaetano
Faillace. They were President-in-exileSergio Osmea,
Lieutenant GeneralRichard Sutherland, Brigadier
GeneralCarlos P. Romulo, Major GeneralCourtney
Whitney, Sergeant Francisco Salveron andCBS
Radiocorrespondent William J. Dunn.
Region IX- Zamboanga
is anadministrative regionin thePhilippines,
designated as "Region IX".
The region consists of
threeprovinces(Zamboanga del
Norte,Zamboanga del Sur, andZamboanga
Sibugay) and two independent cities
(IsabelaandZamboanga City).
The region was previously known asWestern
Mindanaobefore the enactment ofExecutive
Order No. 36on September 19,
2001.Pagadianis the regional center
The region is located on the eponymousZamboanga
PeninsulaofMindanaoIsland, that lies between
theMoro Gulf(part of the Celebes Sea) and theSulu
Sea. Along the shores of the peninsula are numerous
bays and islands. The peninsula is connected to the
rest of Mindanao through anisthmussituated
betweenPanguil Bayand Pagadian Bay.
Its territory consists of the three Zamboanga
provinces and the city of Zamboanga, and the
boundary between the peninsula and mainland is
artificially marked by the border between the
provinces ofZamboanga del SurandLanao del Norte.
Places of Interest
Zamboanga Sibugay (Sea snake Sanctuary
and Oyster Haven) Due to its rich and unpolluted
waters, the province of
Zamboanga Sibugay has
caught the attention of
tourist and local media. Sea
snakes, locally called walo
walo swin freely on its seas
and crawls on its shores.
Oysters found in the province
can grow as long as 12
inches in length, making
them the biggest, and as
some say, the juiciest in the
country. But more than
snakes and oysters,
Zamboanga Sibugay takes
pride in its rich and unspoiled
natural wonders. These
include Sibuguey Bay,
Tantanan Bay, and
Zamboanga del Norte
(Twin City Province)
As the name implies, Zamboanga del Norte has two
cities, Dipolog and Dapitan, which are rich in history and
culture. Dapitan is dubbed as the Shrine Capital of the
Philippines since this is where Philippine National Hero
Dr. Jose P. Rizal stayed in exile and brought progressive
changes in the city. Dipolog on the other hand is known
as the Orchid City since most households have this
plant growing in their yard. Here in Zamboanga del
Norte, history, culture, and progress blend well together.
Aside from cultural and historical landmarks, the
province has started to show signs of progress and
development brought about by the rise of tourism in the
province. Soon, Zamboanga del Norte will become one of
the prime destinations in the country.
Zamboanga del Sur
(Fusion of Diverse Cultures)
Zamboanga del Sur, one of the province in the
Zamboanga Peninsula, is perhaps the best
example on how diverse cultures have seemingly
fused together in one place. The culture of the
Subanons, the first inhabitants of the province,
and Spaniards are well reflected in their ways and
celebrations. This fusion is very evident in the
tourist attractions of the province; from Spanish-
era forts to cultural villages showcasing
indigenous arts and crafts, Zamboanga del Sur
has a lot to offer to anyone seeking to know more
about the rich culture of the Philippines.
Region X-Northern
is aregionof thePhilippines, designated
asRegion X.
It is composed of fiveprovinces,
namely:Camiguin,Misamis Oriental,Lanao
del Norte,BukidnonandMisamis
Occidentaland two cities that are classified
as highly urbanized, all occupying the
north-central part ofMindanaoisland, and
the island-province of Camiguin.
The regional center isCagayan de Oro.
Northern Mindanao has a total land area of
2,049,602 hectares (5,064,680 acres).More
than 60% of Northern Mindanao's total land
area are classified asforestland. Its seas
abound with fish and other marine products.
Rainfall in Northern Mindanao is evenly

distributed throughout the year. Its

abundant vegetation, natural springs and
high elevation contribute to the region's
cool, mild and invigorating climate
Places of Interest
Camiguin Island
is an island provincein thePhilippineslocated
in theBohol Sea, about 10 kilometres (6.2mi)
off the northern coast ofMindanao.
It is politically part of theNorthern
MindanaoRegionof the country and formerly a
part ofMisamis Orientalprovince.
Camiguin is the second-smallest province in the
country both in population and land area
Mambajaois the provincial capital and it is the
largest municipality both in area and population
The name Camiguin is derived from the native
word Kamagong, a species of theebonytree
that thrives nearLake Mainitin the province
ofSurigao del Norte, the region from which the
earlier inhabitants of the islands, theManobos,
Kinamigin, the local language of Camiguin, is
closely related to theManobo language
An earlier Spanish geography book writes the
island as "Camiguing". There is reason to
suppose the Spaniards dropped the final g.
Camiguin Island is a pearl-shaped island with an area of
approximately 238km2(92sqmi).
The island measures about 23 kilometres (14mi) at its
longest and 14.5 kilometres (9.0mi) at its widest
The island is mountainous with the highest elevation
reaching over 5,000ft (1,500m). It is encircled by a
national road with a total length of about 64 kilometres
Each year in October, a festival is held celebrating
theLanzones, a small grape-sized tropical fruit grown
all over the island. The week-long Lanzones Festival is
one of the more colorful events in the Philippines
El Salvador
El Salvador is acityin theprovinceofMisamis
Orientalon theMindanaoisland, southern part
of thePhilippines.
The city serves as a pilgrimage site for
theDivine Mercydevotees, that is why it is also
called "The City of Mercy", "City of The Saviour",
and "The Christ City of the Philippines".
It is bordered by the Municipality of Alubijidto
the west,Opolto the east
andManticaoandNaawanto the south. On the
north, liesMacajalar Bayof theBohol Sea.
The shrine has a 50-foot statue of the
Divine MercyChrist, the biggest in Asia. It
serves as a pilgrimage site for the Divine
Mercy devotees. As a pilgrimage and sacred
site, visitors are not allowed to wear shorts
and other revealing clothing. Those who do
so will be forced to cover themselves with a
blue cloth provided by the shrine
Dahilayan Forest and Adventure
Dahilayan Forest and Adventure Parkin
Bukidnon is one the countrys most promising
outdoor destinations, featuring a wide range of
exciting activities for all ages.
Perfect for families and tour groups, the Forest Park
offers a wide range of amenities and lots of exciting
activities for them to try.
The place is the perfect spot to commune with
nature, simply enjoying the cool, scenic ambience,
and marveling at the beauty of Gods creation. The
Adventure Park takes pride in its Dual Zipline,
currently the longest in Asia and a must-try for all
outdoor enthusiasts.
Cagayan River
Cagayan River, often called theCagayan de Oro
River, is one of theriversdraining the northern central
part of theislandof Mindanoin thePhilippines.
The river has its headwaters in theKalatungan Mountain
RangeandKitanglad Mountain Rangefound in the
central part of the province ofBukidnon.
It traverses
connecting tributaries along the way. It finally empties
into theMacajalar BayatCagayan de Oroin
theprovinceofMisamis Oriental.
It flows northward towards Cagayan de Oro for about 90
kilometersbefore emptying into theMacajalar Bay.
The river serves as thenatural boundarybetween the
province of Bukidnon andIliganand between Bukidnon
and Cagayan de Oro, based on the administrative
order issued by the defunct Department of Mindanao
and Sulu during the American occupation of the
The Cagayan River is a very popular site
forwhitewater raftingin the Philippines and has been
promoted by theDepartment of Tourismas the main
tourist attraction of Cagayan de Oro.
Whitewater Rafting, Kayaking and River Trekking has
been one of the tourism activities being promoted in
the river.
Region XI-Davao Region
Davao Regionor formerly
calledSouthern Mindanao s one of
theregionsof thePhilippines, designated
asRegion XI.
It is located on the southeastern portion

ofMindanao, and consists of fiveprovinces,

namely:Compostela Valley,Davao del
Norte,Davao del Sur,Davao Oriental, and
the newly created,Davao Occidental.
The region encloses theDavao Gulf and its

regional center isDavao City.

Many historians believe that the name
"Davao" is actually the mixture of the three
names that three different tribes, the
earliest settlers in the region, had for the
Davao River. The Manobos, an aboriginal
tribe, referred to the Davao River
asDavohoho. Another tribe, the Bagobos,
referred to the river asDavohaha, which
means "fire", while another tribe, the
Guiangan tribe, called the river as Duhwow
Davao Region is the most populous region
in Mindanao and the 11th most populous in
the country, with a total of 4,468,563
inhabitants in 2010 making it the fourth
most populous city in the country and the
most populous city proper in the
entireVisayas-Mindanao region.
Places of Interest
Philippine Eagle Center
The Center is home to 36 Philippine Eagles,
18 of which are captive-bred. It also houses
10 other species of birds, 4 species of
mammals and 2 species of reptiles.
Simulating a tropical rain forest environment,
the Center offers the visitor a glimpse into
the countrys forest ecosystem. Although the
exhibits are used primarily to help educate
the Filipino people on conservation, the
facility is also considered a major tourist
attraction in Davao City.
Nestled at the foothills of the majestic Mt. Apo, the
Philippine Eagle Center is the Philippine Eagle
Foundations facility for the care and propagation of
the endangered Philippine Eagle. Primarily a research
facility, the Center is also a vital education venue and
a key tourist attraction where visitors are given a
glimpse of the countrys forest ecosystem.
The Center houses Philippine Eagles and many other
animal and plant species that are unique to the
Philippines. Guests have a chance to appreciate the
beauty of the rainforest and interact closely with
various wildlife through lectures, tours and engaging
The Philippine Eagle Foundation is a non-
profit organization dedicated to saving the
endangered Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga
jefferyi) and its rainforest habitat.
Organized in 1987, it had before that time
been operating as a project undertaking
research, rehabilitation and captive breeding.
Staffed by highly trained and dedicated
personnel, it has today evolved into the
countrys premiere organization for the
conservation of raptors.
Eden Nature Park Mountain Resort,
Toril, Davao City
A mountain resort located at 3,000 feet above
sea level, Eden Nature Park is 95% human-
made! It is a great model of how humans can
re-create nature and rebuild a lost
Discovered sometime in 1971, the resort used
to be a logged-over area covered only by a
blanket of wild grass. Its potential was,
however, readily seen by the owners as the
property provided an imposing view of Davao
City and the Davao Gulf.
Davao Crocodile Park
TheDavao Crocodile Parkis a tourist destination
inDavaothat showcases a state of the art crocodile
farming system in the Philippines, equipped with modern
facilities and equipment. Apart from crocodiles, other
exotic animal species such as raptors, monkeys, bearcats,
snakes, birds, and various reptiles can be found in the
Davao Crocodile Park was originally started by Philip
Dizon, due to his fascination with
Philippinesaltwaterandfreshwater crocodiles. He did not
think of it as a possibly lucrative business until he learned
that crocodiles are raised in United States not just for
public viewing but for production of leather as well.
In November 1995, the government gave
him the accreditation and permit to operate
the 1st Davao Crocodile Park. 10 years
later, on August 18, 2005, the world-class
Davao Crocodile Park was opened with the
help of consultant Dr. Gilbert Buenviaje.
The Davao Crocodile Park Inc. is currently

owned and operated by a group of

businessmen headed by Mr. Sonny Dizon, a
resident of Davao City.
Garden of Eden Restored
Visiting the Garden of Eden Restored, one must
wear proper clothing.
No flipflops, no short pants, and sleeveless shirts
or spag-straps, NO!After all this is a religious
sanctuary where proper decorum must be
A visit to the Garden require planning way in
advance, a Letter of Request must be submitted
and approved at their office at the Jose Maria
College located along Phil-Japan Friendship
Highway, Davao City, at least 1 week or two
before your intended visit.
this place is a huge parkland, a theme park, a
botanical haven, a Disneyland minus the rides
and Mickey Mouse.
Its a well-maintained garden estate,
manicured lawns speckled with all sorts of
trees, foliage, shrubs, bushes, bursting in
colors with all varieties of flowers and rare
orchid species.Several gazeebos, cemented
footpaths, ponds, fountains and fruit
plantation, resting benches with porch
Mount Apo
Mount Apois a largesolfataric,potentially
activestratovolcanoin the island
With an elevation of 2,954 metres (9,692ft)above
sea level, it is the highestmountainin thePhilippine
Archipelagoand is located betweenDavao
CityandDavao del SurprovinceinRegion XIand
Cotabato province inRegion XII.
The peak overlooksDavao City45 kilometres
(28mi) to the northeast,Digos City25 kilometres
(16mi) to the southeast, andKidapawan City20
kilometres (12mi) to the west.
On May 9, 1936, Mount Apo was declared a
national parkwith Proclamation no. 59 by
PresidentManuel L. Quezon, followed by
Proclamation no. 35 of May 8, 1966 then
Proclamation no. 882 of September 24, 1996.
Republic Act no. 9237 established Mount Apo as a
protected area under the category of natural park
with an area of 54,974.87 hectares (135,845.9
acres); with two peripheral areas of 2,571.73
hectares (6,354.9 acres) and 6,506.40 hectares
(16,077.7 acres) as buffer zones, provided for its
management and for other purposes
The Mt. Apo 1 and Mt. Apo 2 geothermal plants, each
possess a rated capacity of 54.24 megawatts. Owned
and operated by Energy Development Corporation (EDC)
the power plants were commissioned in February 1997
(Mt. Apo 1) and June 1999 (Mt. Apo 2) respectively,
under a build-operate owner contract arrangement.
Six indigenous groups, the Manobos, Bagobo, Ubos, Atas,
KIagans and Tagacaolo, live in the area of Mount Apo.
They consider the mountain to besacred groundand a
place of worship. A number of genealogies of Lumad
leaders in South Central Mindanao trace their roots to
Mount Apo. For the Lumads, the term "Apo" was coined
from the name of their great grandparentApo Sandawa.
TheDepartment of Environment and Natural
Resources(DENR) submitted Mount Apo on
December 12, 2009 for inclusion in
theUNESCOworld heritagelist. The mountain is
considered by DENR as the center
It has one of the highest land-based biological
diversity in terms of flora and fauna per unit
area. It has three distinct forest formations, from
lowlandtropical rainforest, to mid-mountain
forests, and finally to high mountain forests.
In March 2015, it was taken out from the
UNESCO List of Tentative Sites due to the
dramatic changes (such as logging,
intrusion of companies and urban and
agricultural landscape, exploitation, and
poaching, among others) it experienced
which does not constitute the UNESCO
documents that describes the park. Better
conservation and a change in the content of
documents was recommended by UNESCO.
Region XII-
is aregionof thePhilippines, located in
centralMindanao. It is designated asRegion
XII. The name is anacronymthat stands for
the region's fourprovincesand one of
darat,Sarangani andGeneral Santos.
The region used to be calledCentral Mindanao.
The regional center isKoronadal located in the
province ofSouth Cotabatoand the center of
commerce, industry, transportation and the
most populous city isGeneral Santos.
Cotabato City, though geographically within the
boundaries of the province ofMaguindanao, itself is
part of SOCCSKSARGEN, and is independent of that
province. Maguindanao province is, in fact, a part of
theAutonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)
which has its seat in Cotabato City.
The region has extensive coastlines, valleys and
mountain ranges. Known for its river system, the region
is the catch basin of Mindanao. The system is a rich
source of food, potable water and energy
production.Cotabatocontains theRio Grande de
Mindanao, which is the longestriverin Mindanao and
the second longest in the Philippines.
With the creation of ARMM, Lanao del Sur
(excludingMarawi) and Maguindanao (excludingCotabato
City) were removed from the region, leaving Lanao del
Norte, Cotabato and Sultan Kudarat, and Marawi and
Cotabato City as constituent provinces and cities. Lanao
del Norte was later transferred toNorthern Mindanao,
while Marawi became part of the ARMM.
With the addition ofSouth CotabatoandSaranganior the
(SocSarGen Province), transferred fromSouthern
Mindanao, the region was renamed as SOCCSKSARGEN.
The "Central Mindanao" name lives on as a description to
the provinces populated by 65% Christians and 30%
Muslim and 5% other Filipinos.
Places of Interest
Lake Sebuis a
naturallakelocated in
Lake Sebu Sebu,South Cotabatoand
within theAlah Valleyregion.
The Philippine government
has recognized it as one of
the country's most
Lake Sebu is one of the many
bodies of water supplying
importantirrigationto the
provinces ofSultan
KudaratandSouth Cotabato.
TheDepartment of
Tourismand the local
government unit ofLake
Sebuhas promoted the lake
as one of the primeeco-
tourismdestinations in the
General Santos City
General Santos, officially theCity of General
Santos previously known asDadiangs is
thesouthernmost cityin thePhilippines.
Classified as ahighly urbanized first class city,
General Santos is the 15th most populous city in
the country with 538,086 inhabitants as per census
data of 2010.
General Santos City is the regional center for
commerce and industry of
theSOCCSKSARGENregion, and geographically in
the province ofSouth Cotabatobut administered
independent of it.
Caragais an administrativeregionof
thePhilippines, on the northeastern portion of the
island ofMindanao, designated as Region XIII.
The Caraga Region was created through Republic
Act No. 7901 on February 23, 1995. The region is
composed of five provinces:Agusan del
Norte,Agusan del Sur,Surigao del Norte,Surigao
del SurandDinagat Islands;six
City,Tandag,BisligandBayugan; 67 municipalities
and 1,311barangays.Butuanis the regional
administrative center.
The etymology of the word "Caraga" is said to have
originated from the native word "Kalag" which means
"spirit of soul". Hence, the wholeProvincia de
Caragaof AD 1622 was called "region de gente
animosa", that is "region of spirited men". Another
fictional etymology of the name "Caraga" flows from a
local legend as coming from the word "Cagang", a
numerous small crabs matting the beach of Caraga,
which is also known as "katang" to the native
Caraguenos. Legend goes that the town was named
as such because the first Spanish missionaries who
came in the early years of 1600 found numerous small
crabs matting the beach.
Caraga Region, situated in the northeast
section of Mindanao, is between 800' to
1030' N. latitude and 12515' to 12630' E.
longitude. It is bounded on the north by the
Bohol Sea; on the south by the provinces of
Davao, Compostela Valley and Davao
Oriental of Region XI; on the west by
Bukidnon and Misamis Oriental of Region X;
and on the east by thePhilippine Seaand
the Pacific Ocean.
The region has a total land area of
18,846.97km. This represents 6.3% of the
country's total land area and 18.5% of the
island of Mindanao. 47.6% of the total land
area of the region belongs to the province
of Agusan del Sur. Of the total land area,
71.22% is forestland and 28.78% is
alienable and disposable land. Major land
uses include forestland comprising 31.36%
and 23.98% of agricultural and open
Caraga Region has Type II climate, with no pronounced wet
and dry season. During the months of November to
February, heavy rains are usually experienced in the region.
Rich in natural resources, the region has large tracts of land
available for development. The region is noted for its wood
based economy, its extensive water resources and its rich
mineral deposits such as iron, gold, silver, nickel, chromite,
manganese and copper. Its leading crops are palay, banana
and coconut.
It has excellent tourism potentials because of its unspoiled
and beautiful beaches, abundant and fresh seafood,
ancient and historical landmarks, hot and cold springs,
evergreen forests and balmy weather.
Places of Interest
Siargaois a tear-drop shapedislandin
thePhilippine Seasituated 800 kilometers
southeast ofManilain the province
ofSurigao del Norte.
The island is composed
Carmen,General Luna,San
Benito,Pilar,San Isidro,Santa Monicaand
Siargao Island contains the
largestmangrove forestreserves
inMindanao, atDel Carmen.
Long stretches ofwetlandsindicate a potential for
commercialseaweedpropagation. Siargao Island is greatly
influenced by the winds and currents coming
uninterrupted from thePacific Ocean, intensified by the
Mindanao current running westward through the Siargao
Offshore, a classic tropical island lies protected within its
surroundingcoral reefwith dozens ofcoconutpalms
dressed in the center circle of the island. Off to the right,
well within the massive coastal reef, lies a shining
whitesand bar, (Pansukian, or Naked island) some 200
meters long. Thetideof Siargao isdiurnalwith tidal curves
typically present, especially on the east coast of the
The Island's Pacific-facing reefs are situated
on the edge of thePhilippine Trench, and
the extremely deep offshore waters assure
the ocean swells have undiluted power
when they encounter the many coral and
rock reefs. Siargao has
excellentsurfingconditions, particularly
during the southwest
"habagat"monsoonfrom August to
November, when theprevailing windis
One of the best known surfing waves on Siargao
and thePhilippines, with a worldwide reputation
for thick, hollowtubesis "Cloud 9". This right-
breaking reef wave is the site of the annual
Siargao Cup, a domestic and international surfing
competition sponsored by the provincial
government ofSurigao del Norte.
Siargao, particularly the municipality of General
Luna, is well known as "The Surfing Capital of the
Philippines" with a reputation among surfers
within thePhilippinesand the International scene.
Hinatuan Enchanted River
TheHinatuan Enchanted Riveris a deep spring
river on the island ofMindanaoin the Philippines. It
flows into thePhilippine Sea and thePacific Oceanat
Barangay Talisay,Hinatuan,Surigao del Sur. It is
found between the boundaries of Barangays of
Talisay and Cambatong.It earned the moniker
"enchanted river" from the diplomat Modesto Farolan
who described the river in his poem entitled "Rio
Hinatuan Bay, which is the habitat of various species
of turtles, is located at its mouth.Its mouth also
offers a safe anchorage against storms and typhoons
The first exploration to the underground cave of the
Hinatuan Enchanted River was made by Alex Santos in
1999.The major exploration to the underground cave
system started eleven years later when a group of three
cave divers led by Dr.Alfonso Amoreswith team
members Bernil Gastardo and Emgee Guillermo entered
the cave in February 2010. The major exploration led to
the discovery of a hidden underground cave opening at
30 meters depth.Succeeding expeditions have been
made that led to the discovery of the underwater cave's
chamber. During its sixth expedition on June 17, 2014,
Dr. Amores perished after failing to exit the narrow
entrance to the cave due to a cardiac arrest at 40-meter
depth inside the narrow tunnel to the Mayor's Chamber
of the underground cave in the Hinatuan Enchanted
The river's unusual colors and unexplored
depths has inspired various local legends. One
story tell of fairies that added the colors of
sapphire and jade to the river to make its
unique shade. Local fisherfolk also report
seeing fish in the river that cannot be caught
through any means.According to locals, the
river was called the Enchanted River because
of theengkantosthat dwell there.Their
legends also say that the river is haunted by
supernatural beings which act as its protectors
Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary
Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuaryis
aprotected areain thePhilippinesdeclared
by the former PresidentFidel V. Ramos. The
marshland acts like a sponge, as it is
nestled in the midwaters of theAgusan
Riverdrainage basin. Within its lakes,
several floating communities can be found.
The sanctuary was home to the 20.24 feet
(6.17 meter)saltwater crocodileLolong, the
world's largest captive crocodile.
The Agusan Marsh covers the municipalities
cogon,La Pazand Santa Josefain the province
ofAgusan del Sur.
Agusan Marsh is one of the most ecologically
significant wetlands in the Philippines. Found in
the heart ofMindanao's Agusan Basin, this vast
expanse of marsh covers an area roughly the size
of Metro Manila. It contains nearly 15% of the
nation's fresh water resources in the form of
swamp forests.
During the rainy season, when the water
rises to create large lakes, vast number of
ducks come to Agusan Marsh to nest. In the
dry months, thousands of birds come from
as faraway as Japan, China and Russia to
escape the chilly winter winds of Northern
Asia. Over 200 individual species have been
known to spend at least part of the year in
the marsh, making it one of Asia's most
important transit points for wild birds.
List of landlocked provinces in
the Philippines
Alandlockedprovince is one that has no coastline, meaning no
access toseaorocean
There are 16landlockedprovinces in the Philippines:
All provinces ofCordillera Administrative
Two provinces ofCagayan Valley(Region II):Nueva
Two provinces ofCentral Luzon(Region III):Nueva EcijaandTarlac.
Four provinces ofMindanao:
BukidnonofNorthern Mindanao(Region X)
South Cotabato ProvinceofSoccsksargen(Region XII)
Agusan del SurofCaraga(Region XIII), and
Similarly,LagunaandRizal ProvinceofCALABARZON(Region IV-A)
have coastlines on Laguna de Bay
List of island provinces in the
Anisland provincecompletely surrounded by water, is the
opposite of a landlocked one.
There are 16 island provinces in the Philippines:
One province of Cagayan Valley (Region II):Batanes
Three provinces ofMIMAROPA(Region IV-
B):Marinduque,Romblon, andPalawan
Two provinces of Bicol (Region V):CatanduanesandMasbate
One province of Western Visayas (Region VI):Guimaras
Three provinces of Central Visayas (Region
One province of Eastern Visayas (Region VIII):Biliran
One province of Northern Mindanao (Region X):Camiguin
One province of Caraga (Region XIII):Dinagat Islands
Three provinces ofAutonomous Region in Muslim
Subnational enclaves and
Inpolitical geography, anenclaveis a
territory or part of a territory lying wholly
within the boundaries of another.
exclaveis one which is politically attached

to a larger piece but not actually contiguous

with it.
Many entities are both enclaves and

exclaves, but the two are not synonymous.

Natural Resources and
Environment in the Philippines
The Philippines, Pearl of the Orient Seas, is
very rich in natural resources. Filipinos are
by nature creative and intelligent. The
richness of the environment is an
advantage for their livelihood