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# BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

CHAPTER 3

PAVEMENT DESIGN:
Flexible Pavement Design
(JKR Method)
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## FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PAVEMENT DESIGN

Wheel configuration
Volume and composition of axle loads
Tyre pressure and contact area

## (3) Climate or Environment

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Tandem Axle

## Each tyre has point of load

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4
Lx
LS = 80kN, 8.16 tonne,

LS
18,000 lb

4 4
1.5 Car 1.5 tonne
Lorry 9 tonnes 9

8.16 8.16
0.00114 1.48

4
4 26
18
8.16
8 . 16
103.07
23.67 Bus 18 tonnes Trailer 26 tonnes
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## Climatic / Environmental Effect

////////////////////////////////
////////////////////////////
Seepage
from ///////////////////////////
highlands Water ponding

## Seepage through Seepage through pavement

shoulder
If subgrade is too weak, pavement will fail
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PROCEDURE:

## 1. Design life is usually taken as 10 years.

2. Traffic Estimation:

## Initial Annual Commercial Vehicle Traffic per direction, Vo

Pc
100
where ADT = average daily traffic
Pc = percentage of commercial vehicles
D = directional distribution (usually 0.50)
L = lane distribution (usually 1.00)
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## Total Number of Commercial Vehicles per direction, Vc

Vo [(1 r ) x 1]
Vc
r
where r = traffic growth rate
x = design life

## Total Equivalent Standard Axles, ESA

ESA = Vc x e where e = equivalent factor (Table 3.5)

## Daily Traffic Flow at the end of the design period, Vx

Vx = V1 (1 + r)x where V1 = ADT / 2 (per direction)
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3. Capacity Estimation
Maximum Hourly Capacity, c
c=IxRxT

## where I = ideal hourly capacity (Table 3.6)

R = roadway reduction factor (Table 3.7)
T = traffic reduction factor (Table 3.8)
Daily Capacity, C
C = 10 x c (assume c is 10% of C)

Check C > Vx
If C > Vx capacity will not be exceeded at the end of the design period (OK)
If C < Vx capacity will be exceeded by the end of the design period (not OK)

## When C < Vx happens, need to reduce design period.

log C
Vx
n
Years required to reach capacity, log1 r
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## 4. Calculate thickness, TA.

TA = a1 D1 + a2 D2 + a3 D3

## where a1, a2, a3 = structural coefficients (Table 3.9)

d1, d2 , d3 = layer depth (based on Tables 3.10, 3.11, 3.12)

## 5. Determine the equivalent thickness, TA using Thickness Nomograph

Based on subgrade CBR, ESA and TA values (Figure 3.5).
If CBR varies within the 1 m depth of the subgrade, the mean CBR is calculated:
h CBR 13 h CBR 13 ... h CBR 13
CBR 1 1 2 2 n n
100

## Make sure TA > TA

BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Basil David Daniel

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Yeah!
BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Basil David Daniel

## Table 3.5: Guide for Equivalence Factor

Percentage of 51
selected heavy 0 15% 16 50%
100%
goods vehicles
Equivalence Factor 3.0 3.7
1.2 2.0

## Road Type Passenger Vehicle Unit

per hour
Multilane 2000 per lane
Two Lanes (bothways) 2000 total for bothways
Three Lanes (bothways) 4000 total for bothways
BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Basil David Daniel

## Table 3.7: Carriageway Roadway Reduction Factor

Shoulder Width
Carriageway Width 2.00 m 1.50 1.25 m 1.00
m m
7.5 m 1.00 0.97 0.94 0.90
7.0 m 0.88 0.86 0.83 0.79
6.0 m 0.81 0.78 0.76 0.73
5.0 m 0.72 0.70 0.67 0.64

## Table 3.8: Traffic Reduction Factor

Type of Terrain Factor
Flat T = 100/(100+Pc)
Rolling T = 100/(100+2Pc)
Mountainous T = 100/(100+5Pc)
BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Basil David Daniel

## Type of Layer Property Coefficient

Component
Wearing and Binder
Asphalt Concrete 1.00
Course
Type 1 : Stability
0.8
Dense Bituminous > 400 kg
0.55
> 300 kg

## Base Course Unconfined compressive

Cement Stabilized strength (7 days) 30 -40 0.45
kg/m2
Mechanically
Stabilized crushed 80% 0.32
aggregate
Sand, Laterite etc 20% 0.23
Subbase Crushed aggregate 30% 0.25
Cement Stabilized 60% 0.28
BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Basil David Daniel

## Table 3.10: Structural Layer Coefficient

Minimum
Type of Layer
Thickness
Wearing Course 4 cm
Binder Course 5 cm
Bituminous 5 cm
Base Course Wet Mix 10 cm
Cement Treated 10 cm
Granular 10 cm
Subbase
Cement Treated 15 cm
BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Basil David Daniel

## Table 3-11: Standard and Construction Layer Thickness

Standard
Type of Layer Thickness One layer lift

## Wearing Course 4-5 cm 4-5 cm

Binder Course 5-10 cm 5-10 cm
Bituminous 5-20 cm 5-15 cm
Base Course Wet Mix 10-20 cm 10-15 cm
Cement Treated 10-20 cm 10-20 cm
Granular 10-30 cm 10-20 cm
Subbase
Cement Treated 15-20 cm 15-20 cm

## Table 3.12: Minimum Thickness of TA Total thick of

Bituminous Layer bituminous layer
< 17.5 cm 5.0 cm
17.5 22.5 cm 10.0 cm
23.0 29.5 cm 15.0 cm
> 30.0 cm 17.5 cm
BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Basil David Daniel