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BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

CHAPTER 3

PAVEMENT DESIGN:
Flexible Pavement Design
(JKR Method)
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FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE PAVEMENT DESIGN

(1) Traffic Loading


Magnitude of axle load ?
Wheel configuration
Volume and composition of axle loads
Tyre pressure and contact area

(2) Material Characteristics

(3) Climate or Environment


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Single Axle Tridem Axle

Tandem Axle

Each tyre has point of load


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4
Lx
LS = 80kN, 8.16 tonne,

LS
18,000 lb

4 4
1.5 Car 1.5 tonne
Lorry 9 tonnes 9

8.16 8.16
0.00114 1.48

4
4 26
18
8.16
8 . 16
103.07
23.67 Bus 18 tonnes Trailer 26 tonnes
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Climatic / Environmental Effect

////////////////////////////////
////////////////////////////
Seepage
from ///////////////////////////
highlands Water ponding

Seepage through Seepage through pavement


shoulder
Water content rises in subgrade
Subgrade looses strength and stability
If subgrade is too weak, pavement will fail
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JKR ARAHAN TEKNIK (JALAN) 5/85 DESIGN METHOD

PROCEDURE:

1. Design life is usually taken as 10 years.


2. Traffic Estimation:

Initial Annual Commercial Vehicle Traffic per direction, Vo

Pc
Vo ADT 365 D L
100
where ADT = average daily traffic
Pc = percentage of commercial vehicles
D = directional distribution (usually 0.50)
L = lane distribution (usually 1.00)
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Total Number of Commercial Vehicles per direction, Vc

Vo [(1 r ) x 1]
Vc
r
where r = traffic growth rate
x = design life

Total Equivalent Standard Axles, ESA


ESA = Vc x e where e = equivalent factor (Table 3.5)

Daily Traffic Flow at the end of the design period, Vx


Vx = V1 (1 + r)x where V1 = ADT / 2 (per direction)
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3. Capacity Estimation
Maximum Hourly Capacity, c
c=IxRxT

where I = ideal hourly capacity (Table 3.6)


R = roadway reduction factor (Table 3.7)
T = traffic reduction factor (Table 3.8)
Daily Capacity, C
C = 10 x c (assume c is 10% of C)

Check C > Vx
If C > Vx capacity will not be exceeded at the end of the design period (OK)
If C < Vx capacity will be exceeded by the end of the design period (not OK)

When C < Vx happens, need to reduce design period.


log C
Vx
n
Years required to reach capacity, log1 r
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4. Calculate thickness, TA.


TA = a1 D1 + a2 D2 + a3 D3

where a1, a2, a3 = structural coefficients (Table 3.9)


d1, d2 , d3 = layer depth (based on Tables 3.10, 3.11, 3.12)

5. Determine the equivalent thickness, TA using Thickness Nomograph


Based on subgrade CBR, ESA and TA values (Figure 3.5).
If CBR varies within the 1 m depth of the subgrade, the mean CBR is calculated:
h CBR 13 h CBR 13 ... h CBR 13
CBR 1 1 2 2 n n
100

Make sure TA > TA


BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Basil David Daniel

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Yeah!
BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Basil David Daniel

Table 3.5: Guide for Equivalence Factor

Percentage of 51
selected heavy 0 15% 16 50%
100%
goods vehicles
Type of road Local Trunk
Equivalence Factor 3.0 3.7
1.2 2.0

Table 3.6: Maximum Hourly Capacity under ideal conditions

Road Type Passenger Vehicle Unit


per hour
Multilane 2000 per lane
Two Lanes (bothways) 2000 total for bothways
Three Lanes (bothways) 4000 total for bothways
BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Basil David Daniel

Table 3.7: Carriageway Roadway Reduction Factor


Shoulder Width
Carriageway Width 2.00 m 1.50 1.25 m 1.00
m m
7.5 m 1.00 0.97 0.94 0.90
7.0 m 0.88 0.86 0.83 0.79
6.0 m 0.81 0.78 0.76 0.73
5.0 m 0.72 0.70 0.67 0.64

Table 3.8: Traffic Reduction Factor


Type of Terrain Factor
Flat T = 100/(100+Pc)
Rolling T = 100/(100+2Pc)
Mountainous T = 100/(100+5Pc)
BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Basil David Daniel

Table 3.9: Structural Layer Coefficient

Type of Layer Property Coefficient


Component
Wearing and Binder
Asphalt Concrete 1.00
Course
Type 1 : Stability
0.8
Dense Bituminous > 400 kg
Macadam Type 2: Stability
0.55
> 300 kg

Base Course Unconfined compressive


Cement Stabilized strength (7 days) 30 -40 0.45
kg/m2
Mechanically
Stabilized crushed 80% 0.32
aggregate
Sand, Laterite etc 20% 0.23
Subbase Crushed aggregate 30% 0.25
Cement Stabilized 60% 0.28
BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Basil David Daniel

Table 3.10: Structural Layer Coefficient

Minimum
Type of Layer
Thickness
Wearing Course 4 cm
Binder Course 5 cm
Bituminous 5 cm
Base Course Wet Mix 10 cm
Cement Treated 10 cm
Granular 10 cm
Subbase
Cement Treated 15 cm
BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Basil David Daniel

Table 3-11: Standard and Construction Layer Thickness

Standard
Type of Layer Thickness One layer lift

Wearing Course 4-5 cm 4-5 cm


Binder Course 5-10 cm 5-10 cm
Bituminous 5-20 cm 5-15 cm
Base Course Wet Mix 10-20 cm 10-15 cm
Cement Treated 10-20 cm 10-20 cm
Granular 10-30 cm 10-20 cm
Subbase
Cement Treated 15-20 cm 15-20 cm

Table 3.12: Minimum Thickness of TA Total thick of


Bituminous Layer bituminous layer
< 17.5 cm 5.0 cm
17.5 22.5 cm 10.0 cm
23.0 29.5 cm 15.0 cm
> 30.0 cm 17.5 cm
BFC 3042 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Mr. Basil David Daniel