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Cryogenics

L/O/G/O
www.themegallery.com
Agenda
Who am I?!
What about you?!
Rules
Grade distribution
Applications
First, second, and third laws of
thermodynamics
Sheet 1
Mobile silent
No side talking
5 min max for being late
Page for your questions and
announcements
Grade distribution

Total points (..)


Final (40%)
Midterm (20%)
Year marks ( 40%)
Attendance and Discipline 10%
Quizzes 15%
Assignments 15%
Applications
Liquefied gases such as liquid nitrogen and liquid helium.
cryogenic fuels for rockets with liquid hydrogen as the most widely
used example
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Electric power transmission in big cities
Frozen food
Forward looking infrared (FLIR)
Blood banking
First law of themodynamics
For a control mass, the total energy is:
E=me=U+KE+PE=m(u+ke+pe)
Where:
u: is the internal energy a control mass posses
due to the microscale motion of individual
molecules.
The energy equation
First law of
thermodynamics
Energy can be transformed, but cant be created or destroyed.

Where:

we can estimate the work term as the area below the process curve in
the PV diagram.
However , it is also useful if the whole process curve can be
approximated with an analytical function.
In that case, the integration can be done mathematically.
First law of
thermodynamics
For polytropic process:

Where:

For n=1:
First law of
thermodynamics
Enthalpy:
For a control mass undergoes a
constant pressure process with no
changes in K.E or P.E:
First law of
thermodynamics
The const.-V and const.-P specific heats:
If . = . = 0:
For const. V:

For const. P:

specific heat: is the amount of heat required per unit mass


to raise the temperature by one degree.
Analysis for a control
volume
Law of mass
Conservation:

First law:
The general form of the first law

For steady state:


The second law of thermodynamics

Entropy (reversible process)

Where: S is an extensive property.


Entropy change of an ideal gas
The second law of
thermodynamics
Entropy (irreversible process)
For a control mass

For a control volume


The third law of thermodynamics

The entropy of all pure substances (in the


appropriate structural form) can be
assigned the absolute value of zero at the
absolute zero of temperature.
LETS SOLVE THE SHEET