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THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

Evy Sulistyoningrum

Histology Department
Medical Faculty of UII
Outlines
Introduction
Hypophysis
Adrenal glands
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Pancreas
Pineal gland
The Endocrine System
Function: synthesis and secretion or
excretion of hormones
Coordinate with nervous system
Integrate functions of physiologic
systems
Endocrine system: a system composed
of specialized glands and group of cells
which secretes hormones
Regulatory system

Nervous system Endocrine system


Neurotransmitters Hormones
Direct Indirect
communication communication via
via synapsis bloodstream
Longer response
Brief response Long lasting effect
Transient effect
Means of cell signaling
Endocrine Glands
Structure
Ductless x Exocrine
Ectodermal or endodermal origin
Hormones secreted directly into the
vascular system (circulation)
Glands often have special
microcirculation
Secretions absorbed from interstitium
into blood
Target cell express proper receptor
Endocrine vs Exocrine
Gland
ENDOCRINE GLANDS
HYPOTHALAMUS PARATHYROID
GLAND

HYPOPHYSIS (PITUITARY) SUPRARENAL


(ADRENAL)

PINEAL GLAND PANCREAS


(EPIPHYSIS CEREBRI)

THYROID GLAND
Other non-specific
endocrine glands
Stomach
Heart
Kidney
Thymus
Gonads

DNES (diffuse neuro-endocrine


system)
Hypothalamus
Control Center for internal
environment
Acts via 3 mechanisms:
1. ANS centers exert nervous control on
adrenal medulla
2. ADH and oxytocin production (direct
acting)
3. Regulatory hormone production (RH
and IH) controls pituitary gland directly
and all other endocrine glands
indirectly
Hypothalamus
Consists of neurons arranged into nuclei
Neurons secrets many hormones in
neurosecretoric vesicles
Neurosecretoric vesicles are transported
via axon to:
Hypothalamohypophyseal tract
released absorbed by capilarries
transported into hypophysis (IH or RH)
Pass hypothalamohypophyseal tract
Neurohypophysis released (ADH &
oxytocin)
Hypothalamic
hormones/factors
TRH
CRH
SRH
GnRH
PRH
PIF

ADH
Oxytocin
The Pituitary
Hypophysis
Location: sella tursica
Was known as the major regulation of
other endocrine tissues (The Master
Gland)
Thyroid
Adrenal gland
Gonads
Others
2 Major area: (embryological based)
Adenohypophysis (oral ectoderm)
Neurohypophysis (neural
ectoderm)
Embryology of hypophysis
Hypophysis

Lobus
Adenohipofisis Pars distalis Anterior
Pars tuberalis
Pars intermedia
Lobus
Poster
Neurohipofisis Pars nervosa ior
Infundibulum
Eminentia mediana
Hypophysi
s
Zona
Intermedia

Hipofisis anterior/Adenohipofisis Hipofisis


posterior/Neurohipofisis
Hipofisis
anterior/Adenohipofisis

Hipofisis Zona Intermedia


posterior/Neurohipofisis
Anterior Pituitary
IHC () Neurofilament protein

Posterior Pituitary
IHC (+) Neurofilament protein
Adenohypophysis
Pars distalis
Pars intermedia
Pars tuberalis
Adenohypophysis: pars
distalis
Fibrous capsule
Parenchymal cells surrounded by
reticular fibers
Sinusoidal capillaries +++
Fenestrated endothelial lining

Connective tissues
Adenohypophysis: pars
distalis
Cells
Cell types (based on dyes affinity)
Chromophils
Acidophils (>>>)
Basophils

Chromophobes
Very little cytoplasm dont
take up stain well
Small resting cells
Not produce any hormones
Probably degranulated
chromophils
Adenohypophysis: pars
distalis

Azan, A: Acidophil, B: basophil, C: chromophob


Adenohypophysis: pars
distalis
1.Acidophil
2.Basophil
3.Chromophob
4.Kapiler

Hematoxilin
(carazzi)-
Eosin
Adenohypophysis: pars
distalis
Cells (based on secretory granules
within)

Acidophils
Somatotrophs
GH (somatotropin)
Secretary granules: 300 nm in diameter
Centrally placed nucleus
Mitochondria, Golgi, RER >>

Mammotrophs
Prolactin
Secretory granules: 600-900 nm in
Cells (based on secretory
granules within)
Basophils
Corticotrophs
ACTH
Secretory granules 200-500 nm in diameter
Round to ovoid cells, eccentric nucleus

Thyrotrophs
TSH
Secretory granules 60-160 nm in diameter

Gonadotrophs
FSH & LH

Cellls of adenohypophisis
Adenohypophysis : Pars
intermedia
Between pars distalis
and pars nervosa
Cuboidal cells
Rathkes cysts (colloid
containing cysts)
Zona intermedia (in
human)
Basophilic cells
Produce POMC
MSH
Corticotropin
-Lipotropin
-Endorphin
Pars Intermedia
Epithelial origin
Contains cells
similar to
corticotrophs
(basophillic cells)
Not well defined in
the human
Often has cystic
structures contain
colloid
Adenohypophysis

Pars tuberalis
Surrounds
hypophyseal stalk
Highly vascularized
Cuboidal or low-
columnar basophilic
cells
Small dense
granules
Colloid droplet
Glycogen
No spesific hormones
ADENOHYPOPHYS
IS

TROPHIC HORMONES HORMONES ACTING DIRECTLY


(TROPHINS) ON PERIPHERAL TISSUES

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Growth Hormone


(GH)/Somatostrophin)
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Prolactin (Luteotrophi
Hormone/LTH)
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

PARS INTERMEDIA*) Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone


(MSH)
Neurohypophysis
Posterior pituitary

Down-growth of hypothalamus

Hypothalamohypophyseal
tract
Axons of neurosecretory
cells extend into the
posterior hypophysis

Neurosecretory cells:
paraventricular & supraoptical
nuclei

Direct acting hormone: ADH,


Neurohypophysis
Non-myelinated nerve fibers (axons) from
neurosecretory cells in hypothalamus
Distentions of axon containing neurosecretory
granules: Herring bodies

Capillaries
Supportive cells: pituicytes (neuroglial cells)
lipid droplet, lipochrome pigment, intermediate
filaments
Cytoplasmic processes
25% volume

Basophillic invasion
Neurohypophysis
Herrings
body

1 = neuron fibers
2 = pituicytes
3 = herrings body
Blood
NEUROHYPOPHYSIS circulation

SUPRAOPTIC ADH
NUCLEUS ADH/
(SON)
OXY
NEUROHYPOPHYSIS
NEURO (sinusoids)
SECRETORY
CELLS
(hypothalamus)
PARAVENTRICULAR OXYTOCIN
NUCLEUS (PVN)
(ADH: antidiuretic
hormone/vasopressin)
VASOPRESSIN (ADH) SON
(OSMORECEPTOR)

COLLECTING TUBULES INCREASED OSMOTIC PRESSURE


OF THE BLOOD (Haemoconcentration)
INCREASED REABSORPTION
OF WATER 1.
STRENOUS WORK
(in a hot environment)
CONCENTRATED URINE
(retain water:haemodilution) 2. HYPOTHALAMUS
RF/IF (RF/IF)

ADENOHYPOPHYSIS
(cords/clumps of endocrine cells)
Hypothalamohypophyseal
portal system
Trophic hormone
(Trophin)
TARGET GLAND HORMONE TARGET CELLS/TISSUES
THE TYROID GLAND
LOCATION
ANTERIOR AND LATERAL TO THE TRACHEA AND
LARYNX

BUTTERFLY-SHAPED
2 LATERAL LOBES
ISTHMUS
OUTER CAPSULE (dense connective tissue)
LOBULES
(Contain: numerous follicles,
lined by a simple cuboidal epithelium

THYROID HORMONE (THYROXIN)


BOUND TO TRACHEA BY PRETRACHEAL FASCIA
MOVES WITH LARYNX (when swallowing)
Thyroid glands

Stores large amount of


hormone
Functional unit : the
follicle
simple cuboidal
epithelium
Contain colloid
inactive hormone
bound to a
glycoprotein
(thyroglobulin)
Thyroid
Follicular cells
Endodermal origin
Squamous to columnar cell (Height of
cells proportional to activity)
Round to ovoid nucleus
Short villi projecs to lumen
Basophilic cytoplasm
RER
Apical lysosomes
Mitochondria
Pre-hormone storage as extracellular
fluid in lumen (colloid)
Thyroid follicular cells

inactive active
Parafollicular cell
C cell
Between follicular
cells
Clear cytoplasm
clear cell
Contain small
secretoric
granules
Produce calcitonin
blood calcium
homeostasis (with
Parathormone)
THYROID GLAND
THYROID GLAND1 THYROXIN (T4)
2. para- 1. follicular Cell TRIIODOTHYRONINE
(T3)
2
follic. cell
HYPERTHYROIDISM OVERPRODUCTION OF
OF THYROXIN
Metabolic rate increase
2. THYROCALCITONINE
(CALCITONINE) (nervous, weight loss, tremor,
tachycardia, active,
intolerance to heat, sweating easily)
CONTROLLED BY HYPOTHYROIDISM INSUFFICIENT AMOUNT
SERUM CALCIUM LEVEL OF THYROXIN
Metabolic rate decrease
(sluggish, long sleeping-16 hr/day, body weight
increase, falling hair, scaly skin, decreased heat
production and sensitivity to cold, myxedema)
PARATHYROID GLAND
Endodermal origin
2 superior + 2 inferior, at the
posterior aspect of thyroid gland
Separated by connective tissue
with the thytoid gland
5 mm in length, 4 mm wide, 2
mm thickness
Fibrous capsule extended into
septa
Clusters of epithelial cells : chief
cells & oxyphil cells
Supported by reticular fiber
Parathyroid
Chief cells
Major functional cell
Secrete PTH
5-8 m in diameter
Small round nuclei
Variably eosinophilic cytoplasm
Secretory granules 200 to 400 nm in
diameter
Oxyphil cells
Larger cell
More lightly eosinophilic cells
Unknown function
Parathyroid
Parathyroid
Parathyroid
Function
Together with calcitonin
regulate calcium and phosphorus
levels
Primarily responds to decreased
calcium in order to raised blood
calcium level
Increase absorption of calcium
from intestine
bone demineralization
Reduce calcium excretion from
Parathyroid
Chief cells
Major functional cell
Secrete PTH
5-8 m in diameter
Small round nuclei
Variably eosinophilic cytoplasm
Secretory granules 200 to 400 nm in
diameter
Oxyphil cells
Larger cell
More lightly eosinophilic cells
Unknown function
Adrenal Gland
Located above kidney suprarenal
gland

Functionally divided into 2 regions


Cortex steroid hormones
Mineralocorticoids
Glucocorticoids
Sex hormones
Medulla neuroendocrine
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine

Regulation
Cortex pituitary (ACTH), Kidney
Adrenal Gland
Enveloped by capsule
Cortex
Mesodermal origin
Functional and
structural zones
Glomerulosa
Fasciculata
Reticularis
Medulla
Neural crest origin
No separate zones
Adrenal gland

1. Capsula
2. Zona
glomerulos
a
3. Zona
fasciculata
4. Zona
reticularis
5. Medulla
6. Medullary
vein
Adrenal gland

Cortex
Capsula Medulla

Glomerulosa
Reticularis
Fasci
culat
a
Glomerulosa
Outermost
13-15% total volume
Irregular clusters of
small collumnar cell
Little glomeruli
Surrounded by
capillary
Acidophillic
cytoplasm, SER >>,
mitochondria >>
Secrete
mineralocorticoids,
mainly Aldosterone
Glomerulosa
Fasciculata
Middle zone
Largest zone (80%)
Cords of cells
arranged in radial
coloumn (fasciculus)
Polyhedral cells
Rich in lipid
vacuolated
(spongiocytes)
Sinusoidal capllaries
Secrete
glucocorticoids,
mainly cortisol &
Fasciculata
Reticularis
Innermost
Thinnest layer (7%)
Small cells in
branching cords make
reticulum
Small dark
eosinophillic cells
Often has significant
amount of
hemosiderin/lipofuchs
in granules
Secretes androgenic
Reticularis
Medulla

Supported by a
highly vascular
stroma

Cells:
Sympathetic
ganglion cells
Chromaffin or
phaeochrome
cells
Chromaffins of the medulla
Large epitheloid
cells
Granules
Synthesize and
store
catecholamines
Adrenalin
Noradrenalin
Also secrete
enchephalins
pain control
Controlled by
sympathetic
H&E stain Chrome salt fixation
SUPRARENAL (ADRENAL)
GLAND
CONSISTS OF (1) CORTEX

GLUCOCORTICOID:
cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone
MINERALOCORTICOID

ACTH ADENOHYPOPHYSIS (CRF)


HYPOTHALAMUS
SUPRARENAL GLAND

GLUCOCORTICOID
STRESS
sympathetic nerve
(2) MEDULLA BRAINSTEM

EPINEPHRINE/ FIGHT/FLIGHT
(CRF: corticotrophic NOREPINEPHRINE
releasing factor)
Pancreas
Exocrine & endocrine gland
25 cm long, 5 cm wide, 1-2 cm
thick
Surrounded by fibrous capsule
that form septa
Septa subdivided glands into
lobules
Exocrine : pancreatic acini
Endocrine: islets of
Pancreas
Endocrine Pancreas
Cells form clusters:
pancreatic islets, or islets of
Langerhans
5 Types of Cells in Pancreatic Islets
Alpha cells: produce glucagon, increase blood
glucose level
Beta cells: secrete insulin, antagonist of
glucagon
Delta cells: produce peptide hormone identical
to GH-IH (somatostatin) & gastrin
F cells: secrete pancreatic polypeptide (PP),
inhibiting acini to produce enzyme
Epsilon cell secreting Ghrelin regulates
appetite
Endocrine Pancreas
Islets cells
cell
70%, scattered but concentrated in the center
of islet
Granules :300 nm in diameter
cell
20%, islet periphery
Granules : 250 nm in diameter
F cell
> 1 %, Scattered
psilon cell
< 1 %, periphery of islets
cell
1 %, scattered
Insulin (Beta cells)

Glucagon (alpha cells)


PANCREAS
PANCREAS
EXOCRINE GLAND DIGESTIVE ENZYMES

ENDOCRINE GLAND ALPHA CELL GLUCAGON


(ISLETS OF GLUCOSE
LANGERHANS BETA CELL INSULIN
GLUCOSE

* somatostatin
F cell : secretes pancreatic polypeptide (regulates the
release of pancreatic digestive enzymes)
Pineal Gland
Epiphysis cerebri
Conical shape, 3-5 mm x
5-8 mm
Surrounded by piamater in
infiltrated to form septa
Function photoreceptor
organ
Secretes melatonin
Neuroendocrine
transducer
Regulates circadian
rhythms
Onset of puberty
Pineal gland
Pineal Gland/pineal body
Stromal tissue with
blood vessels
Cells
Pineal (chief) cells
Neurons
Modified
photoreceptors
Contain melatonin
and serotonin
Neuroglial
cells/interstitial cells
Pineal sand
metaplastic calcification
Epiphysis cerebri
Epiphysis cerebri
MOOD

PINEAL GLAND
SEROTONIN
PINEALOCYTES
&
(EPIPHYSIS CEREBRI)
MELATONIN

CIRCADIAN RHYTHM
&
Thank you..
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