Introduction
Introduction
• AnAn object
_{o}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t} dropped
_{d}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{p}_{e}_{d} from
_{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} aa height
_{h}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}
always falls
always
falls towards
towards the
the earth.
earth.
• Planets
_{P}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{t}_{s} gogo around
_{a}_{r}_{o}_{u}_{n}_{d} the
_{t}_{h}_{e} sun,
_{s}_{u}_{n}_{,} moon
_{m}_{o}_{o}_{n}
goes around
goes
around the
the earth.
earth.
• There
_{T}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} must
_{m}_{u}_{s}_{t} bebe aa force
_{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e} acting
_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} onon
the object,
the
object, planets
planets and
and moon.
moon.
• This
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} force
_{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e} isis called
_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d} gravitational
_{g}_{r}_{a}_{v}_{i}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l}
force.
force.
Observation
Observation
<
Before the thread is released,stone moves in a
circular path with a certain speed, and
changes direction at every point.The change
in direction involves change in velocity or
acceleration.The force that keeps the body
moving along the circular path is acting
Stone is released
towards the center. This force is called centripetal force. In absence of this force the stone flies off along a straight line. This straight line will be a tangent to the circular path.
Gravitational
Gravitational Force
Force
• All
_{A}_{l}_{l} objects
_{o}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{s} inin the
_{t}_{h}_{e} universe
_{u}_{n}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{e}
attract each
attract
each other.
other. This
This force
force of
of
_{a}_{t}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} between
attraction
_{b}_{e}_{t}_{w}_{e}_{e}_{n} objects
_{o}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{s} isis
called the
called
the gravitational
gravitational force.
force.
Universal Law
Universal
Law of
of
Gravitation
Gravitation
• Every
_{E}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} object
_{o}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t} inin the
_{t}_{h}_{e} universe
_{u}_{n}_{i}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{e} attracts
_{a}_{t}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{s}
_{e}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{y} other
every
_{o}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r} object
_{o}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t} with
_{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} aa force
_{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e} which
_{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h}
isis proportional
_{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l} toto the
_{t}_{h}_{e} product
_{p}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t} of
_{o}_{f}
their
their masses
masses and
_{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{o}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l} toto the
proportional
_{t}_{h}_{e} square
_{s}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{r}_{e} of
_{o}_{f} the
_{t}_{h}_{e}
distance between
distance
between them.
them.
Universal Law
Universal
Law of
of Gravitation
Gravitation
M
A
B
m
>
<
d
Let two objects A and B of masses M and m lie at a distance d
from each other. Let force of attraction between then be F. According to the universal law of gravitation, the force between two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses. F α M x m. And the force between the two objects is inversely proportional to the square of the distance
between them. F α 1 / d ^{2} . Combining the two equations we
get…

F
α M x m / d ^{2}


Or… ..


MM

Where G is constant of proportionality


and is


FF

GG

mm

called the universal gravitational



==
dd

constant. By multiplying crosswise we get F x d ^{2} = GM x m .

Science

Std IX

7

Universal Law
Universal
Law of
of Gravitation
Gravitation
A
B
>
<
d
M
m
MM
FF == GG
mm
dd 22
or

FF dd ^{2}^{2}

G=
G=

MM

xx

mm

SI unit for G is N m ^{2} kg ^{}^{2}
Accepted value of G is 6.673 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{1}
N m ^{2} kg ^{}^{2} . This was found out by
Henry Cavendish.
Importance of
Importance
of the
the Universal
Universal
Law of
Law
of Gravitation
Gravitation
• The
_{T}_{h}_{e} force
_{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e} that
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} binds
_{b}_{i}_{n}_{d}_{s} usus toto the
_{t}_{h}_{e}
earth.
earth.
• The
The motion
motion of
of moon
moon around
around the
the
earth.
earth.
• The
The motion
motion of
of earth
earth round
round the
the
sun.
sun.
• The
_{T}_{h}_{e} tides
_{t}_{i}_{d}_{e}_{s} due
_{d}_{u}_{e} toto the
_{t}_{h}_{e} moon
_{m}_{o}_{o}_{n} and
_{a}_{n}_{d}
the
the sun.
sun.
Free Fall
Free
Fall
• Whenever
Whenever the
the objects
objects fall
fall towards
towards the
the
under the
the gravitational
gravitational force
force
alone,
_{a}_{l}_{o}_{n}_{e}_{,} we
_{s}_{a}_{y} that
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} objects
_{o}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{s} are
_{a}_{r}_{e} inin aa
_{w}_{e} say
free fall.
free
fall.
• Whenever
Whenever object
object falls
falls towards
towards the
the
_{e}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{h}_{,}_{t}_{h}_{e}_{r}_{e} isis acceleration
earth,there
_{a}_{c}_{c}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} due
_{d}_{u}_{e} toto
_{g}_{r}_{a}_{v}_{i}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{l} force,
gravitational
_{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e}_{,} and
_{a}_{n}_{d} isis denoted
_{d}_{e}_{n}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{d} byby
g.
g.
• Unit
_{U}_{n}_{i}_{t} of
_{o}_{f} gg isis same
_{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} asas that
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} of
_{o}_{f}
_{a}_{c}_{c}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} i.e.
acceleration
_{i}_{.}_{e}_{.} mm ss 2. 2.
Free Fall.
Free
Fall.
Take a stone,throw it upwards, it reaches a certain
height and starts falling down.
Let its mass be m. g is acceleration involved due to
gravitational force. So the magnitude of
gravitational force F will be…
F = m g
m g = G ( M x m / d ^{2} )
or
g = G ( M / d ^{2} ) where M
is the mass of the earth and d is the distance between
the object and the earth.
Object
_{O}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t} onon oror Near
_{N}_{e}_{a}_{r} the
_{t}_{h}_{e} Surface
_{S}_{u}_{r}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{e}
of
of Earth
Earth
Let an object be near or on the surface of the
earth.The distance d now will be equal to R
the radius of the earth. Thus for objects on or
near the earth’s surface….
mg = g (M x m / R ^{2} )
i.e. g = G ( M / R ^{2} )
Earth is not a perfect sphere. As the radius of
earth increases from poles to the equator, the
value of g becomes greater at the poles than
at the equator.
ToTo Calculate
_{C}_{a}_{l}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{e} the
_{t}_{h}_{e} Value
_{V}_{a}_{l}_{u}_{e} of
_{o}_{f} GG
G = 6.7 x 10 ^{–}^{1}^{1} N m ^{2} kg ^{–}^{2}
M, the mass of the earth = 6 x 10 24 kg.
Radius of earth R = 6.4 x 10 ^{6} m.
g = G ( M / R ^{2} )
=
6.7 x 10 ^{}^{1}^{1} N m ^{2} kg ^{}^{2}
x 6 x 10 ^{2}^{4} kg
( 6.4 x 10 ^{6} m)2
_{g} _{=} 9.8 m s ^{}^{2}
Motion of
Motion
of Objects
Objects Under
Under the
the
Influence of
Influence
of Gravitational
Gravitational
Force of
Force
of the
the Earth
Earth
• AnAn object
_{o}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t} experiences
_{e}_{x}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{s} acceleration
_{a}_{c}_{c}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
_{d}_{u}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} free
during
_{f}_{r}_{e}_{e} fall
_{f}_{a}_{l}_{l} which
_{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} isis independent
_{i}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{e}_{n}_{t}
of
_{o}_{f} itsits mass.
_{m}_{a}_{s}_{s}_{.} This
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} means
_{m}_{e}_{a}_{n}_{s} that
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} all
_{a}_{l}_{l}
_{o}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{s} hollow
objects
_{h}_{o}_{l}_{l}_{o}_{w} oror solid,
_{s}_{o}_{l}_{i}_{d}_{,} big
_{b}_{i}_{g} oror
small,fall
_{s}_{m}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{,}_{f}_{a}_{l}_{l} atat the
_{t}_{h}_{e} same
_{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} rate.
_{r}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{.} AsAs gg isis
constant
constant near
near earth
earth all
all equations
uniformly accelerated
accelerated motion
objects become
objects
become valid
valid with
with
_{a}_{c}_{c}_{e}_{l}_{e}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} aa replaced
acceleration
_{r}_{e}_{p}_{l}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{d} with
_{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} g.
_{g}_{.}
_{E}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s} :: Replace
Equations
_{R}_{e}_{p}_{l}_{a}_{c}_{e} aa With
_{W}_{i}_{t}_{h} gg
vv ==
uu ++ atat
ss ==
utut ++ ½½ atat 22
vv 22 ==
u2u2 ++ 22 asas
vv ==
uu ++ ggtt
ss ==
utut ++ ½½ ggtt 22
vv 22 ==
uu 22 ++ 22 ggss
Mass and
Mass
and Weight
Weight
The mass of an object is the measure of
its inertia.It remains the same whether
the object s on earth,the moon or in
outer space.
Thus the mass of an object is constant
and does not change from place to place.
Mass and
Mass
and Weight
Weight
The earth attracts every object with a certain force and
this force depends on the mass of the object m and
acceleration due to gravity g. The weight of an object
is is the force with which it is attracted towards the
earth.
F = m x a
i.e. F = m x g …and this force of attraction
is known as weight of the object and is denoted by
W…. So
W =
m x g
SI unit of weight is the same as
that of force and is newton N.
Mass and
Mass
and Weight
Weight
The value of g is constant at a given place and hence
the weight of an object is directly proportional to its
mass. So……
W α m . Hence at a given place the
weight of an object is taken as measure of its mass.
_{W}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} of
Weight
_{o}_{f} anan Object
_{O}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t} onon Moon
_{M}_{o}_{o}_{n}
The weight on an object on moon is the force with
which the moon attracts that object.
Let mass of an object be m, let its weight on moon be
W _{m} . Let the mass of the moon be W _{m} and its radius be
R _{m} .

MM _{m}_{m} xx

WW mm

mm

==

GG

(( RR _{m}_{m} )) ^{2}^{2}

_{W}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{s} of
Weights
_{o}_{f} anan Object
_{O}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t} onon Earth
_{E}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{h}
and Moon
and
Moon
Celestial
Celestial
body
body

_{M}_{a}_{s}_{s} inin kgkg
Mass

_{R}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{u}_{m} inin mm
Radium






Earth
Earth




Moon
Moon



WW _{e}_{e} == _{G}_{G}

MM xx mm



MM _{m}_{m} xx


RR ^{2}^{2}

WW mm

GG

mm




Earth
Earth


==

(( RR _{m}_{m} )) ^{2}^{2}




Science

Std IX

Moon
Moon

20
_{W}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}_{s} of
Weights
_{o}_{f} anan Object
_{O}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t} onon Earth
_{E}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{h}
and Moon
and
Moon

MM xx mm


MM _{m}_{m} xx mm

WW _{e}_{e} ==

_{G}_{G}

RR ^{2}^{2}

WW _{m}_{m} ==

_{G}_{G}

(( RR _{m}_{m} )) ^{2}^{2}


Earth
Earth


Moon
Moon

2.431
2.431 xx 1010 1010
WW mm ==
1.474
1.474 xx 1010 1111
WW ee
WW mm == 0.165
0.165
WW ee
Science
Weight of object on moon is
1/6 ^{t}^{h} of its weight on moon
but mass of that object
remains the same on earth
or moon.
Std IX
21
Thrust and
Thrust
and Pressure
Pressure
• Weight
_{W}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t} isis the
_{t}_{h}_{e} force
_{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e} acting
_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} vertically
_{v}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y}
_{d}_{o}_{w}_{n}_{w}_{a}_{r}_{d}_{s} and
downwards
_{a}_{n}_{d} isis perpendicular
_{p}_{e}_{r}_{p}_{e}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{c}_{u}_{l}_{a}_{r} toto
surface of
of the
the object
_{e}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{h}_{.} This
_{T}_{h}_{i}_{s} isis called
_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d} thrust.
_{t}_{h}_{r}_{u}_{s}_{t}_{.}
• IfIf you
_{a}_{r}_{e} standing
_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} your
_{y}_{o}_{u}_{r} weight
_{w}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{t}
_{y}_{o}_{u} are
_{b}_{e}_{c}_{o}_{m}_{e}_{s} the
becomes
_{t}_{h}_{e} trust
_{t}_{r}_{u}_{s}_{t} acting
_{a}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} onon the
_{t}_{h}_{e} area
_{a}_{r}_{e}_{a}
of
_{o}_{f} your
_{y}_{o}_{u}_{r} feet
_{f}_{e}_{e}_{t} and
_{a}_{n}_{d} ifif you
_{y}_{o}_{u} lielie down,
_{d}_{o}_{w}_{n}_{,} then
_{t}_{h}_{e}_{n}
_{s}_{a}_{m}_{e} force
same
_{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e} acts
_{a}_{c}_{t}_{s} onon the
_{t}_{h}_{e} area
_{a}_{r}_{e}_{a} of
_{o}_{f} your
_{y}_{o}_{u}_{r}
_{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} that
body
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} isis touching
_{t}_{o}_{u}_{c}_{h}_{i}_{n}_{g} earth.
_{e}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{h}_{.} The
_{T}_{h}_{e} trust
_{t}_{r}_{u}_{s}_{t}
onon unit
_{u}_{n}_{i}_{t} area
_{a}_{r}_{e}_{a} isis called
_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d} pressure.
_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e}_{.}
Thrust and
Thrust
and Pressure
Pressure
• Pressure
_{P}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e} == thrust
_{t}_{h}_{r}_{u}_{s}_{t} // area.
_{a}_{r}_{e}_{a}_{.}
• SI
_{S}_{I} unit
_{u}_{n}_{i}_{t} for
_{f}_{o}_{r} pressure
_{p}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e} isis NN // mm 22
_{a}_{n}_{d} inin honour
and
_{h}_{o}_{n}_{o}_{u}_{r} of
_{o}_{f} scientist
_{s}_{c}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{s}_{t}
_{P}_{a}_{s}_{c}_{a}_{l} isis isis called
Pascal
_{c}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{e}_{d} asas pascal
_{p}_{a}_{s}_{c}_{a}_{l}
toto bebe denoted
_{d}_{e}_{n}_{o}_{t}_{e}_{d} byby Pa.
_{P}_{a}_{.}
_{P}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e} inin Fluids
Pressure
_{F}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d}_{s}
• Pressure
_{P}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s}_{u}_{r}_{e} exerted
_{e}_{x}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{e}_{d} byby any
_{a}_{n}_{y}
confined
_{c}_{o}_{n}_{f}_{i}_{n}_{e}_{d} mass
_{m}_{a}_{s}_{s} of
_{o}_{f} fluid
_{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d} isis
transmitted UNDIMINISHED
transmitted
UNDIMINISHED
inin all
_{a}_{l}_{l} directions.
_{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{s}_{.}
Buoyancy
Buoyancy
Glass bottle with closed mouth floats on
water.But when it is pushed into the
water, we feel an upward thrust. Water
exerts an upward force on the bottle.
When the bottle is immersed the upward
force exerted by bottle is greater than the
weight of the bottle and hence the bottle
floats.
Science
Std IX
25
Buoyancy
Buoyancy
To keep the bottle just completely
immersed, the upward force on the bottle
due to water must be balanced. This can
be achieved by an externally applied force
acting downwards. This force must at
least be equal to the difference between
the upward force and the weight of the
bottle.
Science
Std IX
26
Buoyancy
Buoyancy
The upward force exerted by
water on the bottle is known as
upthrust or buoyant force.The
magnitude of this buoyant force
depends on the density of the
fluid.
_{W}_{h}_{y} Objects
Why
_{O}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{s} Float
_{F}_{l}_{o}_{a}_{t} oror Sink
_{S}_{i}_{n}_{k} when
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{n}
_{p}_{l}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{d} onon the
placed
_{t}_{h}_{e} Surface
_{S}_{u}_{r}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{e} of
_{o}_{f} Water
_{W}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r} ??
Place a nail on the surface of water, it
sinks.Gravitational force on the nail pulls
it down, while upthrust of water on nail
pushes it upwards. Since downward force
acting on nail is greater than upthrust, it
sinks.
_{W}_{h}_{y} Objects
Why
_{O}_{b}_{j}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{s} Float
_{F}_{l}_{o}_{a}_{t} oror Sink
_{S}_{i}_{n}_{k} when
_{w}_{h}_{e}_{n}
_{p}_{l}_{a}_{c}_{e}_{d} onon the
placed
_{t}_{h}_{e} Surface
_{S}_{u}_{r}_{f}_{a}_{c}_{e} of
_{o}_{f} Water
_{W}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r} ??
Place a cork on the surface of water, it
floats.Gravitational force on the cork pulls
it down, while upthrust of water on cork
pushes it upwards. Since downward force
acting on cork is lesser than upthrust, it
floats. WHY ?
_{A}_{n}_{s}_{w}_{e}_{r} toto Why
Answer
_{W}_{h}_{y} ??
Cork floats while nail sinks. This happens due to the difference
in their densities. The density of a substance is defined as the mass per unit volume.The density of cork is less than the density of water.This means that the upthrust of water on cork is greater than the weight of the cork. So it floats. The density of nail is more than the density of water.This means that the upthrust of water on nail is less than the weight of the cork. So it sinks.
Therefore objects of density less than that of a liquid float on that liquid and objects of density greater than that of a liquid will sink in that liquid.
Nail will float over mercury.
Archimedes’
Archimedes’ Principle
Principle
• When
_{W}_{h}_{e}_{n} aa body
_{b}_{o}_{d}_{y} isis immersed
_{i}_{m}_{m}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{e}_{d} fully
_{f}_{u}_{l}_{l}_{y} oror
_{p}_{a}_{r}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{l}_{l}_{y} inin aa fluid,
partially
_{f}_{l}_{u}_{i}_{d}_{,} itit experiences
_{e}_{x}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{s}
anan upward
_{u}_{p}_{w}_{a}_{r}_{d} force
_{f}_{o}_{r}_{c}_{e} that
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} isis equal
_{e}_{q}_{u}_{a}_{l} toto
weight of
of the
the fluid
fluid displaced
displaced
byby it.
_{i}_{t}_{.}
Relative Density
Relative
Density
• Density
_{D}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} isis mass
_{m}_{a}_{s}_{s} of
_{o}_{f} aa unit
_{u}_{n}_{i}_{t} volume.
_{v}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{m}_{e}_{.}
_{U}_{n}_{i}_{t}_{s} :: kgkg mm 33
Units
..
_{D}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} of
Density
_{o}_{f} aa
substance under
substance
under specified
specified
conditions remains
conditions
remains the
the same
same and
and
hence density
hence
density becomes
becomes
_{c}_{h}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{c}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{s}_{t}_{i}_{c} property
characteristic
_{p}_{r}_{o}_{p}_{e}_{r}_{t}_{y} of
_{o}_{f} aa
_{s}_{u}_{b}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{.} Its
substance.
_{I}_{t}_{s} can
_{c}_{a}_{n} bebe used
_{u}_{s}_{e}_{d} toto
the purity
purity of
_{s}_{u}_{b}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e}_{.} Relative
substance.
_{R}_{e}_{l}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{v}_{e} density
_{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} of
_{o}_{f} aa
_{s}_{u}_{b}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{c}_{e} isis the
substance
_{t}_{h}_{e} ratio
_{r}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o} of
_{o}_{f} itsits
_{d}_{e}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{t}_{y} toto that
density
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} of
_{o}_{f} water.
_{w}_{a}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{.}