You are on page 1of 33
Gravitation Gravitation Home Slide Home Slide Science Std IX 1

Gravitation

Gravitation

Home Slide

Home

Slide

Science

Std IX

Gravitation Gravitation Home Slide Home Slide Science Std IX 1

1

Introduction Introduction • AnAn object dropped from aa height always falls always falls towards towards the

Introduction

Introduction

AnAn object

object dropped

dropped from

from aa height

height

always falls

always

falls towards

towards the

the earth.

earth.

Planets

Planets gogo around

around the

the sun,

sun, moon

moon

goes around

goes

around the

the earth.

earth.

There

There must

must bebe aa force

force acting

acting onon

the object,

the

object, planets

planets and

and moon.

moon.

This

This force

force isis called

called gravitational

gravitational

force.

force.

Observation

Observation

< Before the thread is released,stone moves in a circular path with a certain speed, and
<
Before the thread is released,stone moves in a
circular path with a certain speed, and
changes direction at every point.The change
in direction involves change in velocity or
acceleration.The force that keeps the body
moving along the circular path is acting

Stone is released

towards the center. This force is called centripetal force. In absence of this force the stone flies off along a straight line. This straight line will be a tangent to the circular path.

Gravitational Gravitational Force Force • All objects inin the universe attract each attract each other. other.

Gravitational

Gravitational Force

Force

All

All objects

objects inin the

the universe

universe

attract each

attract

each other.

other. This

This force

force of

of

attraction between

attraction

between objects

objects isis

called the

called

the gravitational

gravitational force.

force.

Universal Law Universal Law of of Gravitation Gravitation • Every object inin the universe attracts other

Universal Law

Universal

Law of

of

Gravitation

Gravitation

Every

Every object

object inin the

the universe

universe attracts

attracts

every other

every

other object

object with

with aa force

force which

which

isis proportional

proportional toto the

the product

product of

of

their

their masses

masses and

and inversely

inversely

proportional toto the

proportional

the square

square of

of the

the

distance between

distance

between them.

them.

Universal Law Universal Law of of Gravitation Gravitation A B > < d F F M

Universal Law

Universal

Law of

of

Gravitation

Gravitation

A

B

Universal Law Universal Law of of Gravitation Gravitation A B > < d F F M
Universal Law Universal Law of of Gravitation Gravitation A B > < d F F M

>

<

d

 

FF

 

MM

 

GG

mm

   

==

Science

Std IX

dd 22

6

Universal Law

Universal

Law of

of Gravitation

Gravitation

Universal Law Universal Law of of Gravitation Gravitation M A B M M F F =

M

A

B

 

MM

FF == GG

mm

dd

22

Universal Law Universal Law of of Gravitation Gravitation M A B M M F F =

m

>

<

d

Let two objects A and B of masses M and m lie at a distance d

from each other. Let force of attraction between then be F. According to the universal law of gravitation, the force between two objects is directly proportional to the product of their masses. F α M x m. And the force between the two objects is inversely proportional to the square of the distance

between them. F α 1 / d 2 . Combining the two equations we

get…

F

α M x m / d 2

 

Or… ..

 

MM

Where G is constant of proportionality

 

and is

 

FF

GG

mm

called the universal gravitational

   

==

dd

22

constant. By multiplying crosswise we get F x d 2 = GM x m .

Science

Std IX

7

Universal Law

Universal

Law of

of Gravitation

Gravitation

A B > < d M m MM FF == GG mm dd 22
A
B
>
<
d
M
m
MM
FF == GG
mm
dd 22

or

 

FF dd 22

G=

G=

MM

xx

mm

SI unit for G is N m 2 kg -2

Accepted value of G is 6.673 x 10 -11

N m 2 kg -2 . This was found out by

Henry Cavendish.

Importance of

Importance

of the

the Universal

Universal

Law of

Law

of Gravitation

Gravitation

Importance of Importance of the the Universal Universal Law of Law of Gravitation Gravitation • The

The

The force

force that

that binds

binds usus toto the

the

earth.

earth.

The

The motion

motion of

of moon

moon around

around the

the

earth.

earth.

The

The motion

motion of

of earth

earth round

round the

the

sun.

sun.

The

The tides

tides due

due toto the

the moon

moon and

and

the

the sun.

sun.

Free Fall Free Fall • Whenever Whenever the the objects objects fall fall towards towards the

Free Fall

Free

Fall

Whenever

Whenever the

the objects

objects fall

fall towards

towards the

the

earth under

earth

under the

the gravitational

gravitational force

force

alone,

alone, we

say that

that objects

objects are

are inin aa

we say

free fall.

free

fall.

Whenever

Whenever object

object falls

falls towards

towards the

the

earth,there isis acceleration

earth,there

acceleration due

due toto

gravitational force,

gravitational

force, and

and isis denoted

denoted byby

g.

g.

Unit

Unit of

of gg isis same

same asas that

that of

of

acceleration i.e.

acceleration

i.e. mm ss -2. -2.

Free Fall.

Free

Fall.

Free Fall. Free Fall. Take a stone,throw it upwards, it reaches a certain height and starts

Take a stone,throw it upwards, it reaches a certain

height and starts falling down.

Let its mass be m. g is acceleration involved due to

gravitational force. So the magnitude of

gravitational force F will be…

F = m g

m g = G ( M x m / d 2 )

or

g = G ( M / d 2 ) where M

is the mass of the earth and d is the distance between

the object and the earth.

Object on on or or Near the Surface of of Earth Earth Let an object be

Object

Object onon oror Near

Near the

the Surface

Surface

of

of Earth

Earth

Let an object be near or on the surface of the

earth.The distance d now will be equal to R

the radius of the earth. Thus for objects on or

near the earth’s surface….

mg = g (M x m / R 2 )

i.e. g = G ( M / R 2 )

Earth is not a perfect sphere. As the radius of

earth increases from poles to the equator, the

value of g becomes greater at the poles than

at the equator.

To To Calculate the Value of G G G = 6.7 x 10 N m kg

ToTo Calculate

Calculate the

the Value

Value of

of GG

G = 6.7 x 10 11 N m 2 kg 2

M, the mass of the earth = 6 x 10 24 kg.

Radius of earth R = 6.4 x 10 6 m.

g = G ( M / R 2 )

=

6.7 x 10 -11 N m 2 kg -2

x 6 x 10 24 kg

( 6.4 x 10 6 m)2

g = 9.8 m s -2

Motion of Motion of Objects Objects Under Under the the Influence of Influence of Gravitational Gravitational

Motion of

Motion

of Objects

Objects Under

Under the

the

Influence of

Influence

of Gravitational

Gravitational

Force of

Force

of the

the Earth

Earth

AnAn object

object experiences

experiences acceleration

acceleration

during free

during

free fall

fall which

which isis independent

independent

of

of itsits mass.

mass. This

This means

means that

that all

all

objects hollow

objects

hollow oror solid,

solid, big

big oror

small,fall

small,fall atat the

the same

same rate.

rate. AsAs gg isis

constant

constant near

near earth

earth all

all equations

equations for

for

the uniformly

the

uniformly accelerated

accelerated motion

motion of

of

objects become

objects

become valid

valid with

with

acceleration aa replaced

acceleration

replaced with

with g.

g.

Motion of Motion of Objects Objects Under Under the the Influence of Influence of Gravitational Gravitational

Equations :: Replace

Equations

Replace aa With

With gg

vv == uu ++ atat ss == utut ++ ½½ atat 22 vv 22 == u2u2
vv ==
uu ++ atat
ss ==
utut ++ ½½ atat 22
vv 22 ==
u2u2 ++ 22 asas
vv ==
uu ++ ggtt
ss ==
utut ++ ½½ ggtt 22
vv 22 ==
uu 22 ++ 22 ggss
Mass and Mass and Weight Weight The mass of an object is the measure of its

Mass and

Mass

and Weight

Weight

The mass of an object is the measure of

its inertia.It remains the same whether

the object s on earth,the moon or in

outer space.

Thus the mass of an object is constant

and does not change from place to place.

Mass and Mass and Weight Weight The earth attracts every object with a certain force and

Mass and

Mass

and Weight

Weight

The earth attracts every object with a certain force and

this force depends on the mass of the object m and

acceleration due to gravity g. The weight of an object

is is the force with which it is attracted towards the

earth.

F = m x a

i.e. F = m x g …and this force of attraction

is known as weight of the object and is denoted by

W…. So

W =

m x g

SI unit of weight is the same as

that of force and is newton N.

Mass and Mass and Weight Weight The value of g is constant at a given place

Mass and

Mass

and Weight

Weight

The value of g is constant at a given place and hence

the weight of an object is directly proportional to its

mass. So……

W α m . Hence at a given place the

weight of an object is taken as measure of its mass.

Weight of

Weight

of anan Object

Object onon Moon

Moon

of Weight an an Object on on Moon The weight on an object on moon

The weight on an object on moon is the force with

which the moon attracts that object.

Let mass of an object be m, let its weight on moon be

W m . Let the mass of the moon be W m and its radius be

R m .

 

MM mm xx

WW mm

mm

==

GG

(( RR mm )) 22

Weights of

Weights

of anan Object

Object onon Earth

Earth

and Moon

and

Moon

of Weights an an Object on on Earth and Moon and Moon Celestial Celestial body

Celestial

Celestial

body

body

Mass inin kgkg

Mass

Radium inin mm

Radium

       
 

Earth

Earth

  • 5.98 5.98 xx 1010 2424

  • 6.37 6.37 xx 1010 66

 

Moon

Moon

  • 7.36 7.36 xx 1010 2222

  • 1.74 1.74 xx 1010 66

WW ee == GG

MM xx mm

   

MM mm xx

 

RR 22

WW mm

GG

mm

   
 

Earth

Earth

 

==

(( RR mm )) 22

   
 

Science

Std IX

Moon

Moon

20

of Weights an an Object on on Earth and Moon and Moon M M x

Weights of

Weights

of anan Object

Object onon Earth

Earth

and Moon

and

Moon

 

MM xx mm

 

MM mm xx mm

WW ee ==

GG

RR 22

WW mm ==

GG

(( RR mm )) 22

 

Earth

Earth

 

Moon

Moon

2.431 2.431 xx 1010 1010 WW mm == 1.474 1.474 xx 1010 1111 WW ee WW
2.431
2.431 xx 1010 1010
WW mm ==
1.474
1.474 xx 1010 1111
WW ee
WW mm == 0.165
0.165
WW ee

Science

Weight of object on moon is

1/6 th of its weight on moon

but mass of that object

remains the same on earth

or moon.

WW mm

 

11

WW ee

==

66

Std IX

21

Thrust and Thrust and Pressure Pressure • Weight isis the force acting vertically and downwards isis

Thrust and

Thrust

and Pressure

Pressure

Weight

Weight isis the

the force

force acting

acting vertically

vertically

downwards and

downwards

and isis perpendicular

perpendicular toto

the surface

the

surface of

of the

the object

object touching

touching

the earth.

the

earth. This

This isis called

called thrust.

thrust.

IfIf you

are standing

standing your

your weight

weight

you are

becomes the

becomes

the trust

trust acting

acting onon the

the area

area

of

of your

your feet

feet and

and ifif you

you lielie down,

down, then

then

same force

same

force acts

acts onon the

the area

area of

of your

your

body that

body

that isis touching

touching earth.

earth. The

The trust

trust

onon unit

unit area

area isis called

called pressure.

pressure.

Thrust and Thrust and Pressure Pressure • Pressure == thrust // area. • SI unit for

Thrust and

Thrust

and Pressure

Pressure

Pressure

Pressure == thrust

thrust // area.

area.

SI

SI unit

unit for

for pressure

pressure isis NN // mm 22

and inin honour

and

honour of

of scientist

scientist

Pascal isis isis called

Pascal

called asas pascal

pascal

toto bebe denoted

denoted byby Pa.

Pa.

in in Fluids Pressure • Pressure exerted byby any confined mass of fluid isis transmitted

Pressure inin Fluids

Pressure

Fluids

Pressure

Pressure exerted

exerted byby any

any

confined

confined mass

mass of

of fluid

fluid isis

transmitted UNDIMINISHED

transmitted

UNDIMINISHED

inin all

all directions.

directions.

Buoyancy Buoyancy Glass bottle with closed mouth floats on water.But when it is pushed into the

Buoyancy

Buoyancy

Glass bottle with closed mouth floats on

water.But when it is pushed into the

water, we feel an upward thrust. Water

exerts an upward force on the bottle.

When the bottle is immersed the upward

force exerted by bottle is greater than the

weight of the bottle and hence the bottle

floats.

Science

Std IX

25

Buoyancy Buoyancy To keep the bottle just completely immersed, the upward force on the bottle due

Buoyancy

Buoyancy

To keep the bottle just completely

immersed, the upward force on the bottle

due to water must be balanced. This can

be achieved by an externally applied force

acting downwards. This force must at

least be equal to the difference between

the upward force and the weight of the

bottle.

Science

Std IX

26

Buoyancy Buoyancy The upward force exerted by water on the bottle is known as upthrust or

Buoyancy

Buoyancy

The upward force exerted by

water on the bottle is known as

upthrust or buoyant force.The

magnitude of this buoyant force

depends on the density of the

fluid.

Why Objects

Why

Objects Float

Float oror Sink

Sink when

when

placed onon the

placed

the Surface

Surface of

of Water

Water ??

Objects Why Float or or Sink when on on the placed Surface of Water ?

Place a nail on the surface of water, it

sinks.Gravitational force on the nail pulls

it down, while upthrust of water on nail

pushes it upwards. Since downward force

acting on nail is greater than upthrust, it

sinks.

Why Objects

Why

Objects Float

Float oror Sink

Sink when

when

placed onon the

placed

the Surface

Surface of

of Water

Water ??

Objects Why Float or or Sink when on on the placed Surface of Water ?

Place a cork on the surface of water, it

floats.Gravitational force on the cork pulls

it down, while upthrust of water on cork

pushes it upwards. Since downward force

acting on cork is lesser than upthrust, it

floats. WHY ?

Answer toto Why

Answer

Why ??

to to Why Answer ? ? Cork floats while nail sinks. This happens due to

Cork floats while nail sinks. This happens due to the difference

in their densities. The density of a substance is defined as the mass per unit volume.The density of cork is less than the density of water.This means that the upthrust of water on cork is greater than the weight of the cork. So it floats. The density of nail is more than the density of water.This means that the upthrust of water on nail is less than the weight of the cork. So it sinks.

Therefore objects of density less than that of a liquid float on that liquid and objects of density greater than that of a liquid will sink in that liquid.

Nail will float over mercury.

Archimedes’ Archimedes’ Principle Principle • When aa body isis immersed fully oror inin aa fluid, partially

Archimedes’

Archimedes’ Principle

Principle

When

When aa body

body isis immersed

immersed fully

fully oror

partially inin aa fluid,

partially

fluid, itit experiences

experiences

anan upward

upward force

force that

that isis equal

equal toto

the weight

the

weight of

of the

the fluid

fluid displaced

displaced

byby it.

it.

Relative Density Relative Density • Density isis mass of aa unit volume. :: kgkg mm -3-3

Relative Density

Relative

Density

Density

Density isis mass

mass of

of aa unit

unit volume.

volume.

Units :: kgkg mm -3-3

Units

..

Density of

Density

of aa

substance under

substance

under specified

specified

conditions remains

conditions

remains the

the same

same and

and

hence density

hence

density becomes

becomes

characteristic property

characteristic

property of

of aa

substance. Its

substance.

Its can

can bebe used

used toto

determine the

determine

the purity

purity of

of that

that

substance. Relative

substance.

Relative density

density of

of aa

substance isis the

substance

the ratio

ratio of

of itsits

density toto that

density

that of

of water.

water.

Gravitation Gravitation End Slide End Slide Science Std IX 33

Gravitation

Gravitation

End Slide

End

Slide

Science

Std IX

Gravitation Gravitation End Slide End Slide Science Std IX 33

33