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Flexural analysis

- Composite Beams
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You are on page 1of 15

Concrete-1

CE-313

Lecture # 4

14th Feb 2012

Design of Beams

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior of Beams Under Service Load

When loads are applied on the beam stresses are produced

in concrete and steel reinforcement.

elastic range.

If stress in concrete is less than 0.6fc concrete is assumed

to be with in elastic range.

Following are important points related to Elastic Range:

Loads are un-factored

Materials are in elastic range

All analysis and design are close to allowable stress analysis

and design.

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Assumption for the Study of Flexural Behavior

Stress Strain

Perfect bond exists between steel & concrete so whatever strain

is produced in concrete same is produced in steel.

internal forces developed in the material.

At the strain of 0.003 concrete is crushed.

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Assumption for the Study of Flexural

Behavior (contd)

capacity to resist tension is considered zero.

simplified.

Stress 0.6fc

Stress

Stee Concret

l e

Strain Strain

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior Beams

General Procedure for the Derivation of Formula

Step # 1 Draw the cross section of beam with reinforcement.

C

T

Step #5 Write down the equation for given configuration

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior Beams (contd)

Range

fc

c

C

N.A.

la

T

fs

Strain s Stress Resultant

Diagram Diagram Force Diagram

applied action

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior Beams (contd)

fc

C

c

N.A.

la

fs T

Resultant

Strain s Stress Force Diagram

Diagram Diagram

ineffective but the strains goes on increasing. The steel

comes in to action to take the tension.

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior Beams (contd)

Stress

Cross Elastic Range fc 0.85fc

Strain

0.85f

c

C

c

N.A.

la

fs T

Resultant

Strain Stress

Diagram s Diagram Force Diagram

It is clear that the stress diagram is infact obtained by rotating

the stress strain diagram of concrete.

Strains keeps on changing linearly in all three cases.

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural Behavior Beams (contd)

Mr = T x la = C x la

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Flexural/Bending Stress Formula

Only)

f = M/(I/y)

f = M/S

f = Flexural Stress

S = Elastic Section Modulus

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Shear Stress Formula

= VAY/(Ib)

(Valid in Elastic Range Only)

= VQ/(Ib)

= Shear Stress b

Q = First moment of area d

h

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Notation

b As (Compression Face) b

hf

h d, Effective Depth d

As (Tension

Face)

bw

fc = concrete stress at any load level at any distance form

the N.A

fc= 28 days cylinder strength

c = Strain in concrete any load level

cu = Ultimate concrete strain, 0.003

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Notation (contd)

fy = Yield strength of concrete

fs = Steel stress at a particular load level

s = strain in steel at a particular level, s = fs/Es

y = Yield strain in steel

Es = Modulus of elasticity of steel

Ec = Modulus of elasticity of concrete

,Roh = Steel Ratio, = As/Ac = As/(bxd)

T = Resultant tensile force

C = Resultant compressive force

Plain & Reinforced

Concrete-1

Notation (contd)

b

C

h c=k

N.A d

la = jd

d

j and k are always less than 1.

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