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DET-1600

Detonation Sensing Monitor

Altronic, Inc.
Girard, Ohio USA

When reliability counts


System Overview

The DET-1600 is a cost effective system designed to


avoid engine damage caused by detonation.
System also monitors for cylinder misfire

32-bit microprocessor based instrument that uses low


cost Piezoelectric vibration sensors to listen to the
engine to detect detonation and eliminate it before
damage occurs.

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System Overview

Assists user to detect failures and/or maintenance issues


early to reduce operating costs.

CSA Certified: Class I, Division 2, Groups C & D.

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Theory of Operation and Control

Measures vibration sensor signals during combustion


period.

If input signal exceeds a detonation or misfire setpoint,


DET-1600 sends a signal to adjust the load.
Trips OUTPUT SWITCH 1 (bypass/unloaders)

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Theory of Operation and Control

If detonation continues, the system retards the ignition


timing.
Accomplished via the 4-20mA input or ModBus

If retarding the Ignition timing is ineffective, shut down.


Trips OUTPUT SWITCH 2

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Theory of Operation and Control
The DET-1600 uses low cost
broadband Piezoelectric vibration
sensors mounted on the engine
block to listen to the engine
combustion.
Detonation, as well as the mechanical
engine noises, occurs in the audible
frequency range of 20Hz to 20kHz

The theoretical detonation frequency is


based on the cylinder bore diameter
and the speed of sound at a typical
combustion temperature and pressure

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Normal Gas Engine Combustion
Starts with the spark from the spark plug firing at some
defined point before top-dead-center (BTDC)

The spark ignites the air fuel mixture.

The air/fuel charge burns in a steady, controlled fashion


across the combustion chamber in all three dimensions

This combustion event causes a peak pressure in the


cylinder to be formed, forcing piston downward

Peak pressure usually occurs around 16 ATDC

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Detonation
The disruption of the flame path in the
combustion cylinder caused by the
inability of the end gasses to withstand the
pressure and heat.

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Detonation
This phenomenon causes the end gasses to spontaneously
combust, often leading to substantial force being applied to
the piston, cylinder walls, rods, and crankshaft.
The application of such premature and significant pressures
often causes damage to engine components (cylinders, pistons,
heads, etc.)

When detonation occurs, a knocking or pinging is often, but not


always, heard

Typically occurs after normal combustion is initiated by the spark


plug most often somewhere between 5 and 30 ATDC

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Physical & Mounting Specifications

DSM-style 6.5" x 6.5" rugged


powder-coated aluminum case

16 x 2 backlit LCD display

8-key membrane keypad

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Physical & Mounting Specifications

Up to 16 detonation sensor inputs


on pluggable Phoenix- type
connectors
Detonation sensors are automotive type
broadband piezoelectric vibration sensor
(Bosch/Siemens)

Can operate with a single sensor per


cylinder, one per two cylinders, or one
per bank

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Input/Output/Setpoint Structure
System Inputs

Up to 16 Bosch or similar piezoelectric


vibration sensors on pluggable Phoenix
type connectors

#1 coil primary used for the angular


reference point

Ignition Shutdown lead used for cylinder


firing position and rpm calculation

DC Power, 10-32 Vdc, 0.3A max

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Input/Output/Setpoint Structure
System Outputs

Switch #1: Load control

Switch #2: Ignition Shutdown

4-20mA loop output: Ignition Timing


Control

Modbus RTU Communications

Master: Ignition Timing Control

Slave: Configure DET-1600 or Connect


to a master port on a PLC or controller

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Sensor Mounting: 1 per cylinder

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Sensor Mounting: 1 per cylinder

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Sensor Mounting: 1 per 2 cylinders

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How does it work?
The DET-1600 is a universal product that is individually
configured in the field for a given engine model and
sensor layout.

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How does it work?
Incorporating a windowing technique, the DET-1600
monitors each sensor input for a user defined period of
time only during the expected time frame ATDC.
Windowing is used to suppress the unwanted noises in the
engine such as valves opening and closing, pistons changing
direction, and electrical noise generated each time the spark
plug fires

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How does it work?
Individual cylinder reference numbers are derived and
continually updated for DETONATION and MISFIRE
Setpoints are provided for both detonation and misfire
conditions

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Tunable Parameters
Three parameters are available for each sensor input
Gain: used to amplify the signal to a level that can be readily
used by the system
Bandpass Filter: a configurable bandpass filter is used to
pass the knock induced vibrations (frequencies) and reject the
unwanted normal mechanical engine vibrations
Integrator: the configurable integrator time is the resolution of
the signal seen for a given time period. A shorter integrator
time value will result in a larger output, a longer time will result
in a smaller value.

All windowing and tunables are accessible via the


Windows-based Terminal Program

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Home Screen

Individual cylinder status descriptions:


D a cylinder is detonating
M a cylinder is misfiring
S a cylinder has either a bad sensor, open or shorted wiring
a cylinder channel has been disabled

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No RPM

Displayed on power-up.
Power is applied and the engine is not rotating.
The D and M numbers will be zero.

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Not Armed

Displayed upon engine startup.


DET-1600 is operating in monitor mode and will not
activate the outputs.
This allows the engine to start and stabilize without either of the output
switches or controls interfering with engine start-up and loading.

Individual cylinder status indicators will display in this


mode.
The monitor will remain in this mode until the engine rpm is above the
Control RPM Value and the Control Lockout Time has expired.

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Normal Run

Indicates the DET-1600 is in normal operation mode.


The control lockout time has expired and engine rpm is
above the control rpm.
The reference numbers from the sensors are being
compared to the configured setpoints and the output
switches and timing control will take effect upon a
detonation or misfire condition.

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Det Sensed

Indicates that detonation is sensed on one or more


inputs.
A D will be shown in the lower right corner on each
cylinder channel that is detonating.
sw1 will appear on the first line indicating that switch #1
(the load control switch) is activated.

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Ign Ret xx

If detonation continues to occur, the DET-1600 will send out a signal


to retard the ignition timing (either by current loop or Modbus).
The display will show Ign Ret xx where xx is the current amount of
retard inflicted on the ignition system.
Any one of the cylinder channels that are violating the detonation
setpoint value will cause the DET to retard timing and display Ign
Ret.
The cylinder channel that is detonating will show a D in the lower
right corner of the LCD.

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Ign Ret xx

sw1 will trip and display when switch #1 is activated by


detonation or misfire.
sw2 will trip and display if detonation is sensed, and
continues, causing the ignition retard value to reach the
Max Retard Timing Value Allowed and Switch #2 Trip
Time at Max Retard to time out.

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View Alarms

When switch #2 trips, which is typically used to shut down


the engine, the View Alarms message will blink
alternately with the system status message.

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Press to View the Alarms
Message
VIEW
ALARMS

ENTER
ACK

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BarGraph

ESC

The bargraph screen shows each configured cylinder


channels reference level in graphic form.
It can be used as a quick overview of each cylinder
channels current condition

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Mis Sensed

If misfire is occurring on any input the display will


show Mis Sensed.
An M will be shown in the lower right corner on
each cylinder channel that is misfiring.
sw1 will appear on the first line indicating that
switch #1 (the load control switch) is activated.

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Bad Sensor

ENTER
ACK

If a sensor is determined to be open or shorted on a


configured input, the display will show Bad Sensor.
An S will be shown in the lower right corner on the
respective cylinder channel.
If output switch #1 is configured to trip on fault diagnostic sw1
will appear on the first line indicating that switch #1 is activated.
Press the ENTER/ACK key to acknowledge the
condition and clear the global Bad Sensor status.

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Adjusting Setpoints: MISFIRE

The misfire setpoint is a low setpoint. If the misfire


reference number goes below the misfire setpoint, switch
#1 will activate.

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Adjusting Setpoints: DETONATION

The detonation setpoint is a high setpoint. If the


detonation reference number goes above the detonation
setpoint, switch #1 will activate and the timing will be
adjusted.

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Adjusting Setpoints: BAD SENSOR

The bad sensor setpoint is a low setpoint. If either the


misfire reference number or the detonation reference
number goes below the bad sensor setpoint, switch #1
will activate (Switch #1 must be configured in the
terminal program).

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Adjusting Parameters: Max Retard Value

The Maximum Retard Timing Value Allowed is the


maximum amount of retard that the DET-1600 can inflict
on the engine via the ignition system in order to control
detonation.

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Adjusting Parameters:
SW2 Trip Time @ Max Retard

The DET-1600 upon reaching the max retard value will


wait the Retard Step Time plus the configured Switch
#2 Trip Time at Max Retard before shutting down the
engine (if switch #2 is set up to shut the engine down).

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Configuration: General Setup

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Configuration: Setpoints/Outputs

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Configuration: Detonation/Misfire

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Diagnostics

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Flowchart

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