Family Theory


set of perspectives from the family s point of view 
Helps nurses address important health issues of the childbearing and childrearing family

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Nursing Process: Promotion of Family Health
Assessment  Nursing Diagnosis  Outcome identification and planning  Implementation  Outcome evaluation 

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Nursing Diagnoses 

Generally relate to the family s ability to handle stress and to provide a positive environment for individual growth and development

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Nursing Diagnoses:    

Parental role conflict related to prolonged separation from child during long hospital stay Impaired parenting related to unplanned pregnancy HealthHealth-seeking behaviors related to birth of first child Ineffective family coping related to inability to adjust to child s illness
MLNGCeleste, RN MD 4


A group of people related by blood, marriage, or adoption living together (USCB 2005) Two or more people who live in the same household, share a common emotional bond and perform certain interrelated social tasks (Allender and Spradley)

MLNGCeleste, RN MD



How well a family works together and how well it can organize itself against potential threats depend on its structure (who its members consist of) and its function (the activities or roles family members carry out)

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Family Types
Family of orientation  Family of procreation  The dyad family  The nuclear family  The cohabitation family  The extended family 

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Family Types
The  The  The  The  The  The 

singlesingle-parent family blended family communal family gay or lesbian family foster family adoptive family
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Family Types 

Family of orientation: - the family one is born into Family of procreation: - a family one establishes 

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Nuclear family: - family composed of husband, wife and children
MLNGCeleste, RN MD 10 

Dyad family: - family consists of 2 people living together usually man and woman without children

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Single parent family: - family with one parent

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Cohabitation family: - composed of heterosexual couples who live together like a nuclear family but remain unmarried (may be temporary or lasting)
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Extended (multigenerational) family: -includes not only nuclear family but also other family members

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Blended family: - divorced or widowed person with children marries someone who also has children

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Communal family: - group of people who have chosen to live together as an extended family

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Gay or lesbian family: - homosexual union, individuals of the same sex live together as parents for companionship, financial security, and sexual fulfillment

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Foster family: - children whose parents can no longer care for them may be placed in a foster or substitute home by child protection agency; temporary arrangement
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Adoptive family: - families who adopt children for various reasons:
inability to have children biologically biological parents are unable to provide care and are willing to have their children adopted
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Methods of Adoption 
Agency  International

adoption program  Private resources

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Family Functions and Roles
from one generation to the next  Changing and not well defined 

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


FAMILY ROLES AND FUNCTIONS: -WAGE EARNER (supplies the bulk of the income of the family) -FINANCIAL MANAGER (pays the bills) -PROBLEM SOLVER -DECISION MAKER -HEALTH MANAGER / NURTURER -GATE KEEPER ( allows information into and out of the family)
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8 Essential Family Tasks 

Physical maintenance - provides food, shelter, clothing and health care Socialization of family members - prepares children to live in a community and to interact with people outside the family Allocation of resources - determines which needs will be met first and their order of priority Maintenance of order -opening an effective means of communication between family members, establishing family values and enforcing common regulations for all family members MLNGCeleste, RN MD 23

8 Essential Family Tasks 

Division of labor who will fulfill certain roles Reproduction, recruitment and release of family members changing circumstances more often determine who live in a family Placement of members into the larger society selecting community activities such as school, religious affiliation or political group which correlate with the family s beliefs and values Maintenance of motivation and morale a sense of pride in the family helps members defend the family against threats and serve as support people during crises
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Family Life Cycles
Stage 1:  Stage 2:  Stage 3: children  Stage 4: children 

Marriage and the family The early child-bearing family childThe family with preschool The family with school-aged school-

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Family Life Cycles
Stage 5: The children  Stage 6: The  Stage 7: The  Stage 8: The older age 

family with adolescent launching center family family of middle years family in retirement or

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Patterns of Family Life
Mobility patterns  Poverty  Reduced government aid programs  The homeless family  Increasing number of one-parent onefamilies 

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Patterns of Family Life
Increasing divorce rates  Decreasing family size  Dual-parent employment Dual Increased family responsibility for health monitoring  Increased abuse in families 

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Changing patterns of family life: 

Factors : Increased mobility of families An increase in the number of families in which both parents work outside the house (dual(dualearner family) An increase in the number of one-parent family oneAn increase in shared childrearing responsibilities
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Assessment of family structure and function:
Tools :
Genogram-a diagram that details family Genogramstructure, provide information about the family s history and roles of various family member 

MLNGCeleste, RN MD



MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Family Structure 

family  Family in crisis Assessment:  Genogram  Family APGAR
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MLNGCeleste, RN MD


Family as Part of a Community 

Geographical areas in which residents relate and interact among themselves

MLNGCeleste, RN MD


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