KING FAISAL UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL
ENGINEERING
ChE 303 – Separation Processes I

Lecture 01: Introduction and Basic Concepts

Majdi Adel
www.company.com

Instructor Majdi Adel
Office Location Building no 106 – Office no. 2028
Office Hours Open door policy
e-mail malfaiad@kfu.edu.sa

Lecture time Sun. Tue. and Thu. 11:30 – 12: 30
Lecture Location Building no. 31 – Room no.
1088

ChE 303 – Separation Processes I
www.company.com Majdi Adel

• Who are you?

• Why you became chemical engineer?

• What does Separation Processes mean to you?

ChE 303 – Separation Processes I
www.company.com Majdi Adel

PrerequisitesChE204 – Process Fluid Mechanics

Textbook Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7th
ed., W. McCabe, J. Smith and P. Harriott,
McGraw-Hill, 2005

Evaluation
First Exam 20%
Second Exam 20%
Final Exam 30%
Home Works 10%
Quizzes 10%
Project 10%
ChE 303 – Separation Processes I
www.company.com Majdi Adel

Course Policy
1.Errors in fundamental concepts.
2.Serious concept errors in calculus and algebra (math in general).
3.Errors in dimensional quantities and units conversions.
4.Cheating and plagiarism

In addition to the above the following also apply
5.KFU ethics and standards of conduct apply.
6.Students are expected to arrive on time for all examinations; a valid excuse is
required for not attending any exam.
7.The use of laptops, iPads for taking notes is allowed during the lectures but the sound
must be muted and the use of them is not allowed during the exams and quizzes.
8.Examinations will be open book and notes
9.Late reports and home works are not accepted
10.No absence is allowed unless there is an official permission. KFU regulations of
attendance are applied.
11.Students are required to check their university e-mails regularly.

ChE 303 – Separation Processes I
www.company.com Majdi Adel

company.com . LET US BEGIN www.

suspensions....) 2.company.. . in disposal of waste slurry: waste solids must be separated from waste liquid prior to disposal in order not to block the sinks) www. the desired product could be: • The solid • The liquid • Both of them • Neither of them (For example. blocks.com . Properties of particulate solids Materials can be classified into three categories: 1. Solids (particles.) In any separation process. Mixtures of Solids and Fluids (slurries. Fluids (liquids or gases) 3. . powders.

com . Solid particles NaOH Detergent Sand Coffee Beans www.company.

com . Industrial applications Cement Catalysts www.company.

company. Separation processes that will be covered  Screening or classification  Size reduction  Filtration  Settling or sedimentation  Centrifuging  Evaporation-crystallization-flotation www.com .

company. Screening or classification Calculations: • Sieve analysis • Average diameter • Number of particles • Surface area www.com .

company. Size reduction Design: • Efficiency • Processing time • Power www.com .

company. Filtration Design: • Filter resistance • Processing time www.com • Efficiency .

Settling and sedmentation Design: • Processing time • Vessel size www.com .company.

Centrifuging Design: • Processing time • Efficiency www.company.com .

www.company.com . Characterization of solid particles  Most important characteristics of an individual solid particle:  Shape (regular or irregular)  Size (diameter)  Density Size and shape are easily specified for regular particles For irregular particles (such as sand) the term size and shape are not so clear and must be defined.

com . 1. Particle shape The shape is expressed in terms of the sphericity  s. s Roundness www. and surface roundness.company.

s D p vp = volume of one particle. v a  sp = surface area of one particle.company.com . The sphericity is defined as: (surface area/volum e) for a sphere of diameter D p s  (surface area/volum e) for a particle whose equivalent diameter is D p D 2p / 16 D3p 6 / Dp s   sp / v p sp / v p sp/vp is defined as the specific surface area a v: (surface of a particle) s p av   (volume of a particle) v p Dp = nominal (or equivalent) diameter of the 6 particle. The sphericity  s is independent of particle size. www.

it is difficult to determine the exact volume and surface area of a particle.0. and D p is usually taken to be the equivalent size based on screen analyses or microscopic examinations.company. One technique to measure the surface area of a particle is adsorption measurement.  For many crushed materials:  s = 0. The equivalent diameter is the diameter of a sphere having the same volume as the particle:  3 Vp  Dp  Dp 6  For a spherical particle:  s = 1.6 . however.com .8 For fine granular materials. www.

2.company.com . Particle size (volume) Regular-shaped particles: can be accurately described by giving the shape and a number of dimensions: Shape Sphere Cube Cylinder Cone Radius and Radius and Dimension (s) Radius Side length height height Irregular-shaped particles: No single physical dimension can accurately describe the size. www.

3-5 mm Particulate solid: coarse powder 100-300 m fine powder 10-100 m superfine 1-10 m powder < 1 m Ultrafine ultrafine particles can be described in terms of their powder area per unit mass (m2/g).com .5-10 cm Granular solid 0. surface www. Terms used to describe the size of particles Term Typical Size Range Coarse solid 0.company.

75 m Optical 1m .800 m Laser diffraction 1m .150 m microscopy Electron 0.com .company.01m .100 mm Electrical sensing 1m .1 m microscopy www. Techniques used for size analysis Technique Approximate Useful Range Screen analysis dry 50 m .200 m spectrometry Sedimentation 2m .100 mm wet 10 m .

com . pan www.company.

327  The area of the opening in a 8 2..589 35 0.362 screen is twice that in the next 10 1. 12 1.104 200 0.168 of a screen to that of the next 20 0. .397  The ratio of the mesh dimension 14 1.. 6 3.699 established at 0.company.833 smaller screen is √2.651 smaller screen.074 mm. Taylor standard screen analysis Specifications of Taylor Screen Series: Mes Screen opening h (mm)  Based on 200-mesh which is 4 4. 28 0.074 www. 150 0.com .417 .

Size representation (1) Coarse 10 Particles 10/14 14 through mesh 10. on mesh 14 (2) – 10 + 14 – : under mesh 10 Fine 100 + : over mesh 14 Particles 200 Pan www.company.com .

0.0041 0.com 3 150 0.2570 0.178 Exp.013 0.208 0.295 0.833 1.company.327 4.104 0.0077 0.651 2.0147 Calculated www.8499 2 1 10 1.0251 0.0205 4 100 0.0000 4 Table 28.1132 8 28 0.711 0.0102 0.147 Calculated 0.0594 7 35 0.356 0.417 0.2722 0 9 20 0.0000 1.252 0. Mass Cumulative mass Mes Dpi i Ďpi fraction fraction smaller h (mm) xi than Dpi Example: 1 4 4.409 0.2: 1 6 3.9749 Sieve 3 Analysis 1 8 2.007 0.168 1. 0.001 0.1251 0.5292 1 1 14 1.699 .0106 .0058 0.589 0.845 0.0282 5 65 0.0538 0.1590 0.0210 0.3207 0.0384 6 48 0.503 0.126 Results 0.362 2.

com . analysis data is tabulated  Information from sieve analysis is tabulated to show the mass fraction in each size range as a function of the average particle size (or size range) in the increment. Dpi www. Ďpi size. (a))  A second way to present the information is through a cumulative analysis (Fig. and tabulating or plotting the cumulative sums against the maximum particle diameter in the increment Average particle Particle size. An analysis tabulated in this way is called a differential analysis (Fig.company. (b)) obtained by adding the individual increments starting with that containing the smallest particles.  Usually.

company.com . Uniform particles same Dp Consider a sample of uniform particles of diameter D p: m: total mass of the sample. Number of particles and surface area 1. kg  p: density of the particles. kg/m 3 total volume of the particles = m /  p If vp = volume of one particle  mass of a single particle =  p vp The number of particles in the sample is: total mass of the particles m N   mass of a sin gle particle  pv p Total surface area of the particles is: 6/ Dp 6m s  A  N sp  sp / v p s p D p www.

Each fraction can then be weighed and equations can then be applied to each fraction and the results added. x1 D p1 Ai  i 1 s p D p i Pan www. Dp2 i=2 The surface x2 6m area of particles in each fraction: fraction i = m1. Non-uniform particles To apply equations D pn i=n mn.company. each of approximately constant size. the mixture is sorted into fractions. N m 6m xn  pv p A  N sp  s p D p to mixtures of particles having various sizes.com . Number of particles and surface area 2. m2.

..  s  p D p  s p D p 1 2 s p D p n total surface area The specific surface area of the mixture = total mass of particles Aw  A 6 n xi mT Aw     i 1 D s p pi xi = mass fraction in a given increment n = number of increments Ďpi = average particle diameter.com .company. Thus. the total surface area of the mixture is the summation: 6m1 6m2 6mn A   . taken as arithmetic average of smallest and largest particle diameters in increment www..

com . The volume-surface mean diameter (Sauter diameter). Ďs 6 Ds  s Aw p Substituting for Aw: 1 Ds   Dp  n  xi i 1 i If the number of particles in each fraction Ni is known (instead of the mass fraction). Average particle size (diameter) 1. is given by: n  N i D 3p Ds  i 1 i n  N i D p2 i 1 i www.company.

Ďw n Dw   xi D p i 1 i 4. The mass mean diameter. ĎN n n  Ni Dp  Ni Dp DN  i 1  i 1 i i n  Ni NT i 1 NT = the TOTAL number of particles in the entire sample 3. The arithmetic mean diameter.com .company. 2. Ďv 1   3 1 Dv        n   xi D 3p  i 1  i www. The volume mean diameter.

Total number of particles in a mixture For a given particle shape. the volume of any particle is proportional to its “diameter” v  D 3 cubed:v  a* D 3 p p p p where a* is the volumetric shape factor Recall equations m mi N Ni   pv p  pv p i Divide over the total mass mT xi xi N wi  Nw  Nwi = number of  pv p i i  p a* D 3p i particles in fraction i per unit mass otal number of particles per unit mass is: 1 n xi Nw  *  3  p a i1 D p i www.company.com .

Ďw 2.00265 g/mm3 a* = 2 Фs = 0. number of particles and surface area Using the screen analysis shown in Table 28.The fraction of the total number of particles in the 150 / 200 mesh increment ρp = 2650 kg/m3 = 0. calculate: 1. Ďv. Ďs. Nw.The number of particles Ni in the 150 / 200 mesh increment 3.Aw. Example: Average particle sizes.2.company.com .571 www.

0439 0.699 0.1597 0.417 0.0417 0.503 0.589 0.0102 0.845 0.35591 7 43 11 10 1.356 0.0077 0. .327 0.039 0.00363 5 07 5 65 0.165 0.168 0.15916 4 52 8 28 0.0538 0.091 0.0251 4.00194 www.158 0.1251 2.01056 5 01 6 48 0.10073 5 39 12 8 2.2570 1.com .208 0.409 0.226 0.001 0.1588 0.0756 0.005 0.000 0.833 0.3207 2. i Mesh Dpi xi Ďpi xi / Ďpi xi / xi Ďpi (mm) Ďpi3 14 4 4.007 0.362 0.0000 . .36211 0 88 9 20 0.1590 1.252 0.651 0.481 0.0286 0.0062 0.0305 0.03825 7 68 7 35 0. - 13 6 3.company.711 0.149 0.1824 0.295 0.64364 9 67 10 14 1.0210 0.013 0.

147 mm 2 /g  29 596 particles/g   1 1 1 3 Ds  Dv    Dp   n    xi   n   xi D 3p  i 1  i i 1 i 1 1   1  3 = 0.97494mm  156.1854 mm   0.678 mm i 1 i www.0257 n Dw   xi D p  1.00265 0. A  6 n xi 1 n xi w  Nw   s  p i1 D p i  p a i 1 D 3p * i 6 1   1.company.86 1.0257   156.com .00265  2 = 4067.Solution:1.86 0.571 0.

028 or 2.00265  2  0.0893 3. The number of particles Ni in the 150 / 200 mesh increment xi 4 Nw   p a* D 3p i i 6 x2 0.com .0031 N w2    830 particles/ g  p a * D p32 0.8% N w 29596 100 150 200 Pan www. The fraction of the total number of particles in the 150 / 200 mesh increment N w2 830   0. 2.company.

volume of voids Vvoids voidage    total volume of particles and voids Vsolids  Vvoids Voidage depends on the following: • Particle size • Particle size distribution • Particle shape • Particle surface roughness • The method of packing • The size of the container relative to the particle size www.company.com . Voidage ε Voidage: the fraction of the total volume which is made up of the free space between the particles.

e. particle    b  V V density. 3. Particle Density ( p) The density of a particle including the voids within the individual solid msolids p  b  f  p (1  ) Vsolids Relatively small www. Density 1. 2.com .company. moisture content and inter-particle solids voids separation (i. Bulk Density ( b) The mass of the material divided by its total volume (particles and msolidsvoids)  mvoids Depends on: particle size.. degree of solids packing).

Solid particle hardness Mohr Scale of Hardness Mohr Chemical Material Explanation scale formula 1 Talc Mg3(OH)2.com .F) Can scratch a knife blade with difficulty 6 Feldspar KAlSi3O8 Can scratch a knife blade 7 Quartz SiO2 8 Topaz Al2F2SiO4 All products harder than 6 9 Corundu Al2O3 will scratch window glass m www. can scratch lead 3 Calcite CaCo3 Can scratch fingernail 4 Fluorite CaF2 Can scratch a copper coin 5 Apatite Ca5(PO4)3(Cl. can be powdered with the (Si2O5)2 finger 2 Gypsum CaSO4.2H2O Moderately soft.company. very soft.

db  mass of water mass of dry solids mass of water m.company.wb  Moisture content (wet basis):  Moisture mass of solids and water Balance Moisture content measurement:   Drying  initial mass of sample  final mass of sample initial mass of sample  final mass of sample m.c.c.wb  final mass of sample initial mass of sample www.c.db  m.com . Moisture content Defined as the ratio: mass of water / mass of dry or wet solids  Moisture content (dry basis):m.c.

company.com . Angle of repose The angle of repose.  r. is: The angle between a line of repose of loose material and a horizontal plane www.

com .company. particulate solids are divided into two classes:  Cohesive: wet clay  Non-cohesive: dry sand. plastic chips Angle of Explanation repose 25-30o very free- flowing 30-38o free-flowing 38-45o fair flowing 45-55o cohesive > 55o very cohesive www. Depending on flow properties.

company. Angle of internal friction The angle of internal friction. is: The angle between flowing particles and bulk or stationary solids in a bin   It is a measure of frictional forces between the particles www.com .  m.

com .company. Storage of solid particles – Bulk storage Coarse solids like gravel are stored outside in large piles This is the most economical method when large amounts of material are involved www.

company. Storage of solid particles – Container storage Valuable or soluble solids are stored in silos.com . bins or hoppers Silos Bins www.

com . Storage of solid particles – Hopper storage Used for temporary solids storage before feeding to a process Hopper www.company.

2 storage silo.company. Truck loading system 3 storage silo. 1 storage silo.com . www.

Pressure in bulk of particles Solid particles. depending on the degree of packing of the particles www. behave like a fluid in terms:  They exert pressure on the side walls of a container and on the floor  They can flow through openings and pumped They differ from fluids in several ways:  Usually there is friction between the wall and the solid particles. and because of the interlocking of the particles. The friction force at the wall reduces the pressure exerted by the mass on the floor of the container  The pressure is not the same in all directions. the effect of this friction is felt throughout the mass. especially when dry and not sticky.com .  The density of the solid particles (the bulk density) may vary.company.

com .company.  m is given by: 1 K sin   m   1 K or 1  sin   m   K  1  sin   m  K’ depends on: Shape of the particles Stickiness of the surface Degree of particle packing www. In a homogeneous mass of solids the ratio of the normal pressure (PL) to the applied pressure (Pv) is a constant K’ : P normal or lateral pressure K  L  PV PV applied or vertical pressure The relationship between K’ and the angle of PL internal friction.

Force balance z F v = PV  r 2 Ff dz FL = PL dA = PL (2  r dz) zT Fv = Fv +d Fv F B = PB  r 2 r www.company.com .

company.com . The vertical force at level z Fv  r 2 Pv is given by: and dFv  r 2 dPv The net increase in downward force caused by the differential layer is the force of gravity (dFg) minus the frictional force (dFf) between the wall and the solids: dFv  dFg  dF f  dFg  mg  r 2 dz b g  dF f  dFL  dF f   dFL     PL 2 rdz  : coefficient of friction (0.35-0.55) www.

company. Combini dFv  r 2 dPv  r 2  b gdz   ' (2rPL dz ) ng Divide by rdPv  (r b g  2  ' PL )dz πr PL Noting K  or PL  K PV PV that z P rdPv  dz   rdPv   rb g  2K Pv  dz v 0 0 rb g  2K Pv r b g   2K z  Pv   1  exp   2K    r    r b g    2  ' K ' zT   At z = zT: Pv = PB PB   1  exp    2 ' K '   r   www.com .

com . as it does in a liquid. instead. not by the floor of the container  A high pressure on the particles does not always increase the tendency of the material to flow. the pressure often packs the particles more tightly and makes flow more difficult www.company. when the height of the solids column is greater than about three diameters of the container. additional solids have no effect on the pressure at the base  The additional mass is carried by the walls. NOTES  In general.

Example: A packed tower (ZT = 15.037 PL PB  13930 N/m 2 r P K   L  at the base PV  PB  PL  K PB  4276.5 N/m 2 PV www. Calculate the vertical and lateral pressures at the floor caused by the particles Solution: r b g    2 ' K ' zT   PB   1  exp    2 ' K '   r   1  sin   m  zT K  1  sin   m  sin(  m )  sin( 32 o )  0.5).5299 PB K '  0.company.82 m) is filled with particles (b = 481 kg/m3. m = 32o. D = 1.com . µ' = 0.24 m.

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