Systems Analysis

and Design
Alan Dennis and Barbara Haley Wixom
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Slides by Fred Niederman

Slide 1 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design
Copyright 2000 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Slide 2 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis &

System Design
Chapter 8

Slide 3 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom, Systems Analysis and
Design
Copyright 2000 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Key Definitions The purpose of the design phase is to translate the “what” of the analysis phase to the “how” of new system development Logical DFDs and ERDs are converted into physical DFDs and ERDs Structured English is turned into psuedocode and CASE repositories are expanded Slide 4 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

Design Strategies Custom development (build from scratch) Purchase and customize Outsource development Slide 5 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

Classical Mistakes Reducing design time Feature creep Silver bullet syndrome Switching tools in mid-project Slide 6 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

Inc. All rights reserved. .Design Strategies Slide 7 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom. Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2000 © John Wiley & Sons.

Custom Development Pros Cons Allows flexibility Requires significant time and creativity and effort Builds technical May exacerbate existing skills and functional backlogs knowledge in-house May require missing skills Often costs more Often takes more calendar time Risk of project failure Slide 8 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

Packaged Software Include small single-function tools All-encompassing enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems Rarely a perfect fit with business needs May allow for customization Manipulation of system parameters Changing way features work Synchronizing with other application interfaces Slide 9 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

legacy systems. and custom pieces Integrating data is the key Slide 10 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .Systems Integration Building systems by combining packages.

Outsourcing Hiring an external vendor. developer. or service provider May reduce costs or add value Risks include possibly Losing confidential information Losing control over future development Losing learning opportunities Slide 11 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

Outsourcing Contracts Time and arrangements Fixed-price Value-added Slide 12 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

or provider carefully Assign someone to manage the relationship Don’t outsource what you don’t understand Emphasize flexible requirements Slide 13 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & . developer.Outsourcing Guidelines Keep lines of communication open Define and stabilize requirements before signing the contract View the relationship as a partnership Select vendor.

Selecting a Design Strategy Consider each of the following: Business need In-house experience Project skills Project management Time frame Slide 14 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

. Inc.Developing The Actual Design Slide 15 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom. All rights reserved. Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2000 © John Wiley & Sons.

Developing an Alternative Matrix What tools and technologies are needed for a custom development project? What vendors make products that address the project needs? What service providers would be able to build this application if outsourced? Slide 16 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

or service providers Explains the system and criteria for selecting among applicants Request for Information (RFI) -- a shorter version Slide 17 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .Requests for Proposals (RFP) Solicits proposals from vendor. developer.

Request for Proposal Contents Description of desired system Special technical needs or circumstances Evaluation criteria Instructions on how to respond Desired schedule Other information that will help the submitter to make a more complete or accurate proposal Slide 18 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

would you recommend -- Building it in-house? Buying a package? Outsourcing the project? What is the basis for your recommendation? Slide 19 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .Your Turn If your university were investing in an on-line registration system.

Moving From Logical To Physical Models Slide 20 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & Haley Wixom. Inc. Systems Analysis and Design Copyright 2000 © John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved. .

the physical DFD and ERD will show the implementation details and how the system will work.Key Definition In contrast to the logical DFD and ERD which shows the business view of the new system. Slide 21 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

The Physical DFD Contains the same components as the logical DFD The same rules pertaining to balance and decomposition apply Contains additional details describing how the system will be built Slide 22 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

Steps to Create the Physical DFD Add implementation references Draw a human-machine boundary Add system related data stores. data flows and processes Update data elements in the data flows Update the metadata in the CASE repository Slide 23 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

Contrasting Logical and Physical DFDs Slide 24 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

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The Physical ERD Contains the same components as the logical ERD The same rules pertaining to cardinality and modality apply Contains additional details describing how the data will be stored. in a file or database table Slide 27 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

Steps to Create the Physical ERD Slide 28 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

Steps to Create the Physical ERD Slide 29 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

Metadata For a Cust_State Field PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .

and outsourcing. Physical DFDs and ERDs add details about the implementation of the system to the “business view” Slide 31 PowerPoint Presentation for Dennis & .Summary The design phase is where the blueprint of the system is developed The Project team considers and selects among custom application development. buying a package and customizing it.