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VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP
(VIW) Introduction

• Review slides - Introduction
• Review AWS Part B Specification
• Review plastic weld replicas
• Practice use of hand tools
• Practice Exercise and Review
• Practical Exam and Review
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VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP

Visual Inspection (VT) is the basic element
of any Quality Control System. It must be
done, however, by trained personnel.

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VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP

“It has been shown repeatedly that an
effective program of Visual Inspection (VT),
conducted by properly trained personnel,
will result in the discovery of a majority of
those defects which would otherwise be
discovered later by some more expensive
nondestructive test method.”

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it should be recognized that the external surfaces of the components most often see the highest stresses in service.VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP While VT is limited to the visible. external surfaces only. and are most often the more critical portions of the components. Education Services .

VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP VT Is Very Cost Effective …. • Relatively simple to perform • Minimal equipment required • Problems found as they occur • Early repairs easier to accomplish Education Services .

VT Must Be Applied: • Before welding • During welding • After welding Education Services .VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP For Welding Inspection.

VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP Organizing The Inspection Effort …. • Become familiar with welding requirements • Specify timing for inspections • Develop appropriate ‘Hold Points’ • Develop applicable VT techniques • Develop repair/re-inspection procedures • Develop procedure for reports and maintenance of records Education Services .

VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP Hold Points: Points in the fabrication sequence where inspection must be performed before fabrication can continue. Education Services .

type. etc.VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP Applying The Inspection Effort ‘Before’…. root opening. • Preheat requirements • Others Education Services . storage. • Welding equipment .type.bevels. condition • Weld joint cleanliness • Weld joint fitup . faces. suitability. condition • Filler metals . size.

VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP Applying The Inspection Effort ‘During’…. • Tack weld quality – feathering • Root pass quality – size • Intermediate pass cleaning • Gouging to remove defects • Distortion • Preheat/interpass temperature maintenance Education Services .

• Final pass cleaning.VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP Applying The Inspection Effort ‘After’…. finishing • Weld sizes • Post-weld heat treatment • Distortion & final dimensions • Other NDE • Reports Education Services .

and lighting • Indirect (Remote) VT – Eyes only see image of surface – Use aids like mirrors. like eyeware. magnifying glasses.VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP Types of VT • Direct VT – Eyes have direct path to surface – Aids may be used. borescopes. or optical system Education Services .

VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP Borescopes • Rigid • Sight Pipes (polished optical glass with angled surfaces) • Fiberscopes – Optic bundles – Straight-view or side-viewing mirrors – CCD chip for video capability Education Services .

VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP VT-Distance • Eye cannot sharply focus on objects closer than 10 inches • Most inspections should be conducted with the object between 12 and 18 inches away from the eyes • The angle between the eye and the test surface should be no less than 30 degrees • Always best to view directly down on surface • ‘Up close and personal’ Education Services .

VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP Education Services .

VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP VT-Lighting • Room lighting is typically 100 to 150 lux (10 to 15 ftc) • For VT. lighting should be a minimum of 500 lux (50 ftc) • Illumination Engineering Society (IES) requires light for visual testing at 1000 to 3000 lux (100 to 300 ftc) for ‘critical’ work • For VT. most codes and standards do not state minimum lighting requirements (Section V of ASME BPVC does) Education Services .

VISUAL INSPECTION WORKSHOP VT-Lighting (continued) • Shining light at a 30 degree angle from horizontal can show shadows – useful for undercut/overlap conditions • Excessive brightness can cause ‘glare’ or ‘white- out’ the object • Inadequate light can cause excessive shadowing obscuring the details of the surface Education Services .

6GR Test Weldment Education Services .VIW .

VIW .Backed and Non-backed Joint Education Services .

VIW .Scattered Surface Porosity Education Services .

Piping Porosity Education Services .VIW .

Linear Surface Porosity with Connecting Crack Education Services .VIW .

Locations of Incomplete Fusion Education Services .VIW .

VIW .Incomplete Fusion Education Services .

VIW .Incomplete Fusion at Weld Face Education Services .

VIW .Incomplete Fusion open to Surface Education Services .

VIW .Incomplete Fusion Education Services .

VIW .Locations of Incomplete Joint Penetration Education Services .

Incomplete Joint Penetration Education Services .VIW .

VIW .Incomplete Joint Penetration Education Services .

VIW .Typical Appearance of Undercut Education Services .

Overlap & Undercut on a Fillet Weld Education Services .VIW .

page 568 Education Services . 9th Ed.Lamination in Tube Wall from Volume 17. ASM Handbook. VIW ..

page 476 Education Services . 2005 Ed. ASM Handbook.. VIW .Lamination in Rolled Steel Sheet from Volume 14A.

Transverse Cracks Education Services .VIW .

VIW - Centerline, Face, Weld Metal
or Longitudinal Cracks

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VIW - Crater Cracks in
Aluminum Weld

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VIW - Propagation of Crater Crack in
Aluminum Fillet Weld

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VIW - Toe Crack

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5X Education Services . ASM Handbook..D/W Ratio Crack in SAW in 4340 Steel From Volume 9. page 586 – Original was 1. 9th Ed.VIW .

Slag Inclusion Education Services .VIW .

VIW .Fillet Weld Convexity Education Services .

Fillet Weld Convexity Education Services .VIW .

VIW .‘Sugaring’ on Unpurged SS Weld Education Services .

Radiograph Film Incomplete Joint Penetration Education Services .VIW .

Radiograph Film Incomplete Joint Penetration Education Services .VIW .

VIW .Radiograph Film Incomplete Joint Penetration Wire Image Quality Indicator Education Services .

Radiograph Film Undercut .Should find Visually. VIW . not on RT Wire Image Quality Indicator Education Services .

VIW .Radiograph Film Scattered Porosity Wire Image Quality Indicator Education Services .

VIW .Radiograph Film Elongated or Wormhole Porosity Education Services .

Radiograph Film Slag Lines Education Services .VIW .

Radiograph Film Slag Lines on Root Pass Face – ‘Wagon Tracks’ Education Services .VIW .

VIW .Radiograph Film Tungsten Inclusions Education Services .

Radiograph Film Severe Incomplete Fusion Education Services .VIW .

VIW .Radiograph Film Longitudinal Crack Wire Image Quality Indicator Education Services .

Radiograph Film Transverse Crack Education Services .VIW .

VIW .Radiograph Film Multiple Transverse Cracks Education Services .

Radiograph Film Pipe Socket Weld – Stand-Off Distance Education Services . VIW .

Radiograph Film DWE of Pipe– Weld Appears Elliptical Hole-Type Image Quality Indicator Education Services .VIW .

Radiograph Film DWE of Pipe Elbow – Weld Appears Elliptical Hole-Type Image Quality Indicator Education Services . VIW .

Radiograph Film Branch and Butt Welds in Pipe Hole-Type Image Quality Indicator Education Services . VIW .

but don’t forget to subtract the 1” from result! Education Services . for best accuracy • Best to measure starting from the 1” mark rather than the end. which may be worn. 0. VIW Six-Inch Machinist’s Scale • Accuracy to 1/64” or about 15 mils.015” • Align vertically on part. not flat.

VIW 1-Inch Micrometer • Identification of the parts of the micrometer: Education Services .

003” from result. • Use ‘Tare’ approach.003 inch. close Education Services . (converse if it ‘zeroes’ at a minus value. VIW 1-Inch Micrometer • Zero micrometer or. • If micrometer ‘zeroes’ at a plus 0.) • Clean jaw faces. take the measurement and subtract the 0.

1 mil.001” • Each small. VIW 1-Inch Micrometer • Accuracy to +/. 0. unmarked thimble division is 1 mil.0005 • Further accuracy is not necessary Education Services .001” • Can estimate to nearest 1/2 mil. 0. 0.

or 0.025” • Four complete thimble rotations equals 100 mils.100” Education Services . or 0. VIW 1-Inch Micrometer • One complete thimble rotation equals 25 mils.

Micrometer Use Education Services .VIW .

Micrometer Use Education Services .VIW .

VIW .Micrometer Use Education Services .

1 mm.Metric Dial Caliper • Accuracy to 0.05 mm. VIW . or about 4 mils • Can estimate to nearest 0. or about 2 mils Education Services .

VIW .Metric Dial Caliper Education Services .

Metric Dial Caliper Education Services .VIW .

Metric Dial Caliper Education Services .VIW .

VIW .Palmgren Gage Education Services .

• Rotate ‘legs’ of gage to just touch toes of weld for best accuracy Education Services .Palmgren Gage • Only use to measure height of groove weld reinforcement. • Don’t use for measuring fillet weld sizes since plastic welds are too small to measure accurately. VIW .

VIW V-WAC Undercut Gage • Accuracy is 1/64 inch (0. smooth surface • Position on weld. rotate sharp point into undercut. but not diameter Education Services . read scale at other end • Can measure porosity depth. or about 15 mils • Calibrate on flat.015”).

VIW V-WAC Undercut Gage Education Services .

VIW V-WAC Undercut Gage • Measures undercut up to 1/4 inch depth in 64ths of an inch • Also can be used to measure weld reinforcement height up to 1/4 inch in 64ths of an inch Education Services .

VIW .Magnifying Glass Education Services .

VIW .Fillet Weld Gages Education Services .

VIW .2 types • Scribed lines on gages for estimating size of adjacent leg • Measure smallest weld size location • Measure both legs for convex welds • Gages from 1/8” to 1/2” in 1/16” increments • Gages from 1/2” to 1” in 1/8” increments Education Services .Fillet Weld Gage Use • Determine if weld is concave or convex • Pick appropriate gage type .

VIW .either gage type will give accurate result Education Services .minimum leg size • Concave .use concave gage only .throat size • Flat .use convex gage only .Fillet Weld Shapes Three weld shape options: • Convex .

or: • Measure both legs • Select minimum leg as size Education Services . VIW .Convex Fillet Weld Gage Use • Determine shape of fillet weld and select convex gage • Use scribed lines on gage for estimating size of second leg.

Convex Fillet Weld Gage Use • Measure both legs • Weld size is the lesser of the two legs for convex welds • Weld size shown is 3/8. VIW . not 1/2 3/8" 1/2" Education Services .

VIW .Convex Fillet Weld Gage Use Use Correct Size Gage 5/8" Too Large 7/16" Too Small 1/2" Correct Gage Education Services .

VIW . insure 3-point contact between gage and weld Education Services .Concave Fillet Weld Gage Use • Determine type of fillet weld. select concave gage • Use scribed lines on gage for estimating size of weld legs if needed • On concave welds.

VIW .Concave Fillet Weld Gage Use Use Correct Size Gage 7/16" Too Large 3/16" Too Small 5/16" Correct – 3 point contact Education Services .