SENSORY

ORGANS -
NOSE
JUNHEL DALANON, DMD, MAT, EdD
NOSE

Nose is the most proximal part of the
upper respiratory tract and serves as a
passage for air. It consists of external
nose and nasal cavity.
FUNCTIONS
1. The mucosa of nasal cavity is highly vascular and
this helps in air conditioning (warming/cooling) and
humidification of the inspired air.
2. Mucous secretions and hairs at the entrance of nasal
cavity help in entrapment of foreign particles,
preventing their entry into the respiratory tract.
3. Olfactory epithelium has receptors for sense of smell.
It helps in assessing palatability of food and in defense
thus aids in the survival and existence of the body.
EXTERNAL NOSE
External nose forms a pyramidal projection in the
middle of the face. It presents with the following
features:
1. Tip
2. Root
3. Nostrils
4. Lateral Surfaces
EXTERNAL NOSE
1. Tip (or apex): It is the lower free end of the nose.
2. Root: The upper narrow part attached to the
forehead is the root of nose.
3. Nostrils or anterior nares: These are two piriform
shaped apertures present at the broad, lower part
of the nose, which open on the face. These are
separated by the lower border of nasal septum.
EXTERNAL NOSE

4. Lateral surfaces: These meet
superiorly to form the dorsum of nose
which is a rounded border between the
tip and root of nose. Inferiorly, they
curve to form alae nasai and pass
medially to meet in midline below the
septum of the nose.
CUTANEOUS COVERING OF
EXTERNAL NOSE
• Skin over the nose is thin in most areas.
• It is thick and adherent to the underlying
cartilage at the apex and the alae. It has
numerous sebaceous glands in this region.
• Arterial supply is derived from branches of facial,
ophthalmic and infraorbital arteries. The veins
mainly drain into facial vein on each side. From
root of nose they pass into the ophthalmic veins.
CUTANEOUS COVERING OF
EXTERNAL NOSE
• Lymphatic drainage from external nose is
into submandibular lymph nodes. Lymphatics
from root of nose drain into parotid lymph
nodes.
• Cutaneous nerve supply is derived from
branches of nasociliary and infraorbital
nerves. Muscles of nose are supplied by buccal
branch of facial nerve.
SKELETON OF EXTERNAL NOSE

The skeleton of external nose is formed
by the following bones and cartilages:
1. Bony framework comprises of the
following:
a. Two nasal bones: They form bridge of
nose.
b. Frontal processes of maxillae
SKELETON OF EXTERNAL NOSE
2. Cartilaginous framework: It comprises of 5 main
cartilages and several additional tiny once on each side.
These are:
a. Two lateral nasal or superior nasal cartilages:
They are triangular in shape. The lateral cartilages
articulate superiorly, with the margins of nasal bone and
the frontal process of maxilla. Inferiorly, they are joined to
the major alar cartilages by fibrous tissue. Medially they
join to form a bridge over the septal cartilage.
b. A single median septal cartilage
SKELETON OF EXTERNAL NOSE
c. Two major alar or inferior nasal cartilages:
Each major alar cartilage comprises of a medial and a
lateral crus. The medial crura of two sides meet in the
midline below the septal cartilage to form the lowest part
of the nasal septum including the mobile columella. The
lateral crus is attached above to the corresponding lateral
nasal cartilage and extends into the ala of the nose but
does not reach the bony margin (nasal notch of maxilla).
The gap is filled by fibrous tissue and minor alar
cartilages.
NASAL CAVITY

Nasal cavity extends from the nostrils or
anterior nares in front to the posterior
nasal aperture or choanae behind. It is
subdivided into two parts by a nasal
septum.
NASAL CAVITY
Each half is again called as the nasal cavity.
Each nasal cavity presents with the
following boundaries:
a. Roof
b. Floor
c. Medial wall or nasal septum
d. Lateral wall
NASAL CAVITY
Roof
• It is very narrow and is mainly formed by the cribriform
plate of the ethmoid bone.
• The anterior part of roof slopes downwards and is
formed by the nasal bones.
• The posterior part is formed by the anterior and inferior
surfaces of sphenoid bone. It presents with opening of
sphenoidal air sinuses on each side of midline.
• It is lined by the olfactory epithelium.
NASAL CAVITY

Floor
It is almost horizontal and is formed by
the upper surface of hard palate
(formed by palatine processes of
maxillae and horizontal plates of
palatine bones).
NASAL CAVITY
Medial Wall or Nasal Septum
It is formed by various bones and cartilages.
The bones are:
1. Anterosuperior part of septum is formed by
perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone and adjoining
surfaces of nasal spine of frontal bone and frontal
crest of nasal bone.
2. Postero superior part is formed by sphenoidal crest.
NASAL CAVITY

3. Posteroinferior part of the septum is
formed by vomer.
4. Nasal crest lies in the lower most
part. It is formed by fusion of the two
palatine processes of maxilla and the
two horizontal plates of palatine bone.
NASAL CAVITY
The cartilages are:
1. Septal cartilage: Its forms the major
anterior part of the septum.
2. Septal processes of major alar
cartilages.
3. Jacobson’s cartilage: It lies between the
vomer and septal cartilage.
PARANASAL AIR SINUSES
Paranasal air sinuses are air filled spaces
within the bones around the nasal cavity.
They communicate with the nasal cavity
through various narrow channels. They are
lined by mucous membrane consisting of
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
which is continuous with the mucous
membrane of nasal cavity.
PARANASAL AIR SINUSES
Functions of Paranasal Sinuses
1. The mucosal lining of paranasal sinuses help
add humidity and adjust the temperature of the
inspired air thus serving as air-conditioning
chambers.
2. The air filled spaces help to make the skull
lighter.
3. They help to add resonance to the voice.
PARANASAL AIR SINUSES
All paranasal sinuses are arranged in pairs
except the ethmoidal sinuses which are
arranged in three groups. The paranasal
sinuses are named as follows:
1. Frontal
2. Ethmoidal
3. Maxillary
4. Sphenoidal