# ME 231

Thermodynamics-I

Lecture 2
Fall 2016
System
• A system is defined as a
quantity of matter or a
region in space chosen for
study.

• The mass or region
outside the system is
called surroundings.

• The real or imaginary
surface that separates the
system from its
surroundings is called the 2
Types of System
System classification depends on either fixed mass or
fixed volume is chosen for study.

System

Closed Open
System System
(Control (Control
mass) volume)

An isolated system does not allow mass and
energy to transfer across the boundary.

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Closed System
• A closed system consists
of a fixed amount of mass,
and no mass can cross
boundary but the energy
can cross it.

• The volume of a closed
system does not have to
be fixed.

4
Open System
• An open system, is a
selected region in space
with the ability of having a
variable mass.

• It usually encloses a device
that involves mass flow such
as a compressor, turbine, or
nozzle.

• Both mass and energy can
cross the boundary of a
control volume. 5
Open System (2)

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Properties of a
System
Any characteristics of a system is called its
property.
For example, mass, volume, temperature, pressure.
Properties of
System

Intensive Extensive
Properties Properties
(Independent of (Depends on
mass) mass)
Pressure, mass, volume,
Temperature momentum

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Specific Volume
• Extensive properties are made intensive by
dividing them with mass. For example,

Q: Why CNG is filled in kilograms and not
in liters or cubic meters?

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State
• The condition of a system
described by its properties is
called state of the system.

• A state can be specified by
providing the property
numerical values.

• At a given state, all the
properties of system have a
fixed value.

• If one of the property is 9
State Postulate
• How many properties are required to
describe a state?

Example
• Two independent, intensive
properties are required to
describe the state of a
simple compressible system.

Simple system: No electrical, magnetic,
gravitational, motion, and surface tension effects.
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Equilibrium state
• If there is no unbalanced potentials (i.e.
driving force) in a system, the state of
the system is in equilibrium.
• Thermal

equilibrium

• Mechanical

equilibrium

• Phase
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