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Thermodynamics-I

Lecture 2

Fall 2016

System

• A system is defined as a

quantity of matter or a

region in space chosen for

study.

**• The mass or region
**

outside the system is

called surroundings.

**• The real or imaginary
**

surface that separates the

system from its

surroundings is called the 2

Types of System

System classification depends on either fixed mass or

fixed volume is chosen for study.

System

Closed Open

System System

(Control (Control

mass) volume)

**An isolated system does not allow mass and
**

energy to transfer across the boundary.

3

Closed System

• A closed system consists

of a fixed amount of mass,

and no mass can cross

boundary but the energy

can cross it.

**• The volume of a closed
**

system does not have to

be fixed.

4

Open System

• An open system, is a

selected region in space

with the ability of having a

variable mass.

**• It usually encloses a device
**

that involves mass flow such

as a compressor, turbine, or

nozzle.

**• Both mass and energy can
**

cross the boundary of a

control volume. 5

Open System (2)

6

Properties of a

System

Any characteristics of a system is called its

property.

For example, mass, volume, temperature, pressure.

Properties of

System

Intensive Extensive

Properties Properties

(Independent of (Depends on

mass) mass)

Pressure, mass, volume,

Temperature momentum

7

Specific Volume

• Extensive properties are made intensive by

dividing them with mass. For example,

**Q: Why CNG is filled in kilograms and not
**

in liters or cubic meters?

8

State

• The condition of a system

described by its properties is

called state of the system.

**• A state can be specified by
**

providing the property

numerical values.

**• At a given state, all the
**

properties of system have a

fixed value.

**• If one of the property is 9
**

State Postulate

• How many properties are required to

describe a state?

Example

• Two independent, intensive

properties are required to

describe the state of a

simple compressible system.

**Simple system: No electrical, magnetic,
**

gravitational, motion, and surface tension effects.

10

Equilibrium state

• If there is no unbalanced potentials (i.e.

driving force) in a system, the state of

the system is in equilibrium.

• Thermal

equilibrium

• Mechanical

equilibrium

• Phase

11

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