D EVELOPMENT OF DISTANCE

LEARNING
: Demystifying online
education so to use it in assisting
the learning process
NUTS & BOLTS
MY DEFINITION OF SOME TERMS
• Classroom
• A room with chairs in which students sit and
participate in an interactive learning forum.
• Online Education
• A class that may meet once in person in the
start of the term and once at the end, but
which is structured and used online.
• Hybrid Classrooms
• A class that occurs within a classroom some
days and or hours, and online some days and
or hours.
Those are my definitions,
but do you have your
own?

-Classroom
-Online Education
-Hybrid Classroom
OXFORD
Classroom-
• A room in which a class of pupils or students is
taught.
Online Education-
• A system of learning which uses electronic media,
typically over the Internet.
Hybrid Classrooms-
• A way of studying a subject that combines being
taught in class with the use of different
technologies, including learning over the Internet.
ONLINE EDUCATION

• At a worldwide level, online education is
becoming a viable alternative to
traditional classroom instruction, and is
currently the dominant form of distance
education.

• But what other forms of distance
education have there been?
SHORT HISTORY OF DISTANCE
EDUCATION
• Distance education programs utilized print-
based correspondence, radio, telephone,
videoconferencing and the Internet.
PRINT
• Print-based mail education began in Boston
U.S.A in 1728 for learning shorthand.
• The U.S. Postal Service was establish in 1775, so mail was privately
delivered for these correspondence based educational programs.

• In 1840, shorthand was taught in Great
Britain, and at the University of London in ’58.
PRINT
• The first full distance education program,
Society to Encourage Studies at Home, began
in Boston 1873.
• Next is our first example of perfect timing for
technology to elevate distance education.
PRINT

• In 1816, the first working electronic
telegraph was developed by Francis
Ronalds. However, it wasn’t until 1836
with Samuel Morse’s version that such
machines were widely used to transmit
information over wires.
From History.com
[http://www.history.com/topics/inventions/telegraph]
INTERESTING HISTORY…

So as technology was advancing,
new avenues of education were
becoming available.
RADIO AND TELEPHONE
• Radio was first used by Penn State in 1922
and by ‘25, Universities received
broadcasting licenses to educate the
masses via radio.

• In 1965, even the telephone was used by
the University of Wisconsin for their
distance education programs.
TELEVISION AND THE INTERNET
• In 1968, we had the Stanford Instructional
Television Network, developed for part-time
engineering students.
• Next is our second example of perfect timing
for technology to elevate distance education.
THE INTERNET
• The concept of the Internet dates back to scientist Nikola Tesla,
within his notion of a “world wireless system” in the early 1900s.
Other visionaries conceived of more mechanized, searchable
systems for books and media in the 1940s.
• Internet would not be developed until the early 1960s, when
J.C.R. Licklider, from MIT, published his “Intergalactic Network” of
computers.
• And so began “packet switching,” a method for transmitting
electronic data, a major aspect of the Internet.
• The Internet prototype was already being tested by the 1960s via
the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET),
originally funded by the U.S. Department of Defense.
From History of the Internet
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Internet
THE INTERNET AND EDUCATORS
• In 1969 the Internet was developed
by the U.S. Department of Defense.
• Famous educational theorists such
as Ivan Illich (Deschooling Society
1971) wrote about these new
trends in distance education.
THE INTERNET AND EDUCATORS

• In 1976 the University of Phoenix
established their distance
education program online for
working adults.
From A Brief History of Online Learning
http://www.straighterline.com/wp/wp-
content/uploads/2014/07/OnlineLearningInfographic2.jpg
ADULT EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES
You alone have an answer for these. Read both,
pick one that best represents you, but keep
your answer to yourself.

• A. I believe online education may utilize adult
educational practices, because……………..
• B. I believe the online component of learning
excludes some or all adult educational
practices, because……………
EDUCATIONAL PRACTICES ARE
ALWAYS REPURPOSED
*Online education is only a place and
method, nothing less than a classroom.

Online education can:
• help recognize learners as unique by
lending to differentiation.
• have learners debate issues with other
learners who have different worldviews.
WHAT ELSE?
Work with a partner

• From the previous statement, please infer how
one educational practice can lend itself well to
online education just as it does in the typical
in-class setting.
• Please tell us what that educational practice
looks like within an online educational course.
HOW ABOUT THESE?
• Pick some from this short list that you both think are correct:

• Differentiation occurs online as learners
access materials at their own pace.
• Supplemental material can be provided
online to foster more self-directive learners.
• Self-study is available online for learners to
try things without being scored, motivating
them to learn topics ahead of time.
• Learning styles can be defined within online
classroom settings, and used to develop
materials for specific kinesthetic, auditory,
and visual learners.
DON’T FORGET!
All educational practices are
used in online education!

Online education is only a
place and method, nothing
less than a classroom.
NOW FOR THE
PRACTICAL
BITS
?
Do I need to use the Internet in class
WILL THE ACTIVITY RAISE INTEREST IN THE NEW TOPIC AREA?
IS IT MORE EFFECTIVE TO GO ONLINE TO STIMULATE INTEREST IN THE SUBJECT, OR DO WE WANT IN-
CLASS ACTIVITIES THAT INCORPORATE AN INTERACTIVE, KINESTHETIC ELEMENT WITH THE USE OF CUE
CARDS OR PICTURES TO ENCOURAGE STUDENTS TO BRAINSTORM ACTIVITIES INTERACTIVELY?
DO WE WANT TO GO ONLINE TO DO A READING OR LISTENING EXERCISE, OR A VOCABULARY LEARNING
ACTIVITY FOR INPUT? CAN THIS BE DONE MORE EFFECTIVELY ONLINE, OR ARE YOUR STUDENTS IN
NEED OF MORE FACE-TO-FACE SCAFFOLDING OF CONTENT AND LANGUAGE BEFORE YOU GO ONLINE?
ARE WE ENCOURAGING STUDENTS TO DEVELOP THEIR AUTONOMY BY GOING ONLINE TO DO SOME
RESEARCH ON AN ESSAY OR PRESENTATION TOPIC? DO THE STUDENTS HAVE ACCESS TO A LIBRARY
FROM WHICH TO BORROW BOOKS OR DOWNLOAD RELIABLE MATERIALS? WHICH IS THE BETTER OPTION
FOR THEM, TO GO ONLINE OR TO USE PAPER-BASED PUBLICATIONS, SUCH AS BOOKS?
“A HERMENEUTICAL PROCESS IS
ALL ABOUT BEING A GOOD
LISTENER AND OBSERVER OF
STUDENT PROGRESS OVER TIME”
(Young and Collin, 1988:154)

What do you think this quote means in terms of
choosing to use or not use the Internet as a part of
your class?
From November | 2014 | Oxford University Press, ‘English Language Teaching Global’
ASK YOURSELF

1.Will the activity raise interest
in the new topic area by going
online?
Is it more effective to go online or
do we want in-class activities for a
kinesthetic element ?

From November | 2014 | Oxford University Press, ‘English Language Teaching Global’
ASK YOURSELF

2. Do we want to go online to do
a reading or listening exercise?
Can this be done more effectively
online, or are your students in
need of face-to-face
scaffolding ?

From November | 2014 | Oxford University Press, ‘English Language Teaching Global’
ASK YOURSELF

3. Are we encouraging students
to develop their autonomy by
going online to do some research?
Do the students have access to a
library? Which is the better option
for them, to go online or to use
paper-based publications, such as
books?

From November | 2014 | Oxford University Press, ‘English Language Teaching Global’
IS IT POPULAR?
Who is online?
• From the Pew Internet Use Survey results of
2013 we know 86% of all adults (18+ years of
age) in the United States are connected to the
Internet.
• The Miniwatts Marketing Group, which maintains
global Internet usage statistics, stated in 2012
that 63.2% of adults are online in England, and
40.2% of adults are online in the
Middle East.
Numbers from the Pew Internet Use Survey of 2013 and Miniwatts Marketing Group Survey of
2012
SO IT’S POPULAR, BUT WHO SAYS
THE INTERNET IS EDUCATIONAL?

• In a 2012 global Internet user
survey by the Internet Society, we
finally learned that 98% of the
participants agreed the Internet is
essential for access to education.
Numbers from the Internet Society survey of 2012
SO IT’S EDUCATIONAL, BUT DO WE HAVE
ONLINE EDUCATION PROGRAMS?

• An August 2011 Pew Research Center
survey called, The Digital Revolution
and Higher Education, found that, in
America, 77% of colleges and 89% of
four-year universities offer online
courses.
Numbers from the Pew article, Digital Revolution and Higher Education
SO WE HAVE ONLINE EDUCATION
PROGRAMS. ARE LEARNERS USING THEM?
• 12.5% of all U.S. postsecondary learners are
exclusively in distance learning
• 13.3% are taking at least one online class
Numbers from U.S. Department of Education

• According to a survey done by the Babson Survey
Research Group and the College Board in 2013, more
than 7.1 million students are taking at least
one college course online.
Numbers from the College Board
DEDUCTION?

So some advantages are clear:
• A. most postsecondary learners today
don’t feel alone in taking classes
online.
• B. online education is a growing trend
within educational programs.
THE ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES
• With a partner, please think of some
advantages and disadvantages of online
education.
THE ADVANTAGES

• Save money on typical college costs
(like room and board)
• Have a flexible schedule
• Work at your own pace
• Take classes that you cannot physically
attend
THE DISADVANTAGES

• Can feel segregated from others
• Looking at a computer screen
• Easily miss lectures
• Public scrutiny of university and or online
course
• Technological difficulties
OKAY, BUT HOW DOES ALL THIS
REALLY HAPPEN?
• Registration for credentials
• License of educational program online
• Registration of teachers and students

• Virtual communication avenues such as webcams, discussion boards
and email are used.

• The virtualization and migration of material is necessary to access the
material online.

• Lots of careful planning on the layout and of what materials to use for
inducing a developmental logic of the material for the learning process.

-30 min-
OKAY, BUT WHAT DOES ALL THIS
REALLY LOOK LIKE? PART ONE.
• Online education can look like a simple blog teaching one
course or a fully developed university offering many programs.
• Here are just a few universities offering programs and or
courses online:
Phoenix University

*Kaplan University

*Southern New Hampshire University

*Ashford University
Take a look at:
Harvard University
Johns Hopkins
*Baker College Online
University
Keiser University University of • Mission statements
Pennsylvania •
*Norwich University Duke University
Values
University of Notre • Vision
*Grantham University Dame
Georgetown University
• Goals
*Strayer University Vanderbilt University • Outcomes
University of Florida •
*Penn Foster High School
Cornell University
Resources
Stanford University
--SOUTH NEW HAMPSHIRE UNIVERSITY
• Mission (From the SNSU
website)
• Southern New Hampshire University transforms the lives of students. Our
success is defined by our students' success.
• Values
• Integrity, inclusiveness, and self empowerment.
• Vision
• Relentlessly challenging the status quo.
• Goals
• Providing the best support in higher education
• Expand access to education by creating high quality, affordable and innovative
pathways to meet the unique needs of each and every student.
• Outcomes
• Self empowerment is fostered at Southern New Hampshire University,
and it will lead to empowerment in the workforce.
• Resources
• Southern New Hampshire University has excellent computer labs, so we
teamed up with The Boston Celtics and helped make wishes come true with the
opening of a state-of-the-art technology lab at Cheshire Elementary School.
--ASHFORD UNIVERSITY
• Mission (FROM THE AU WEBSITE)
• The mission of Ashford University is to provide high-quality, accessible, affordable, innovative,
educational programs that meet the diverse needs of individuals pursuing advancement in
their lives, professions, and communities.

• Values
• Empowerment
• Ingenuity
• Guidance
• Quality

• Vision
Ashford University is a place to learn where higher education meets technology. Ashford students can earn
their degree online while accessing information and interacting with fellow students.

• Goals
To provide students the opportunity to achieve their higher education goals.
To empower students to reach high paying work in competitive fields.

• Outcomes
Earn a Bachelor’s Degree while in the comfort of your home.
• Resources
Ashford University gives online support 20 hours a day including weekends to help you to
succeed.
--BAKER COLLEGE ONLINE (FROM THE BCO WEBSITE)

• Mission
Baker College provides quality higher education and training which enable
our graduates to be successful through challenging and rewarding careers.

• Values
• Empowerment, Guidance, Quality

• Vision
• Baker Online invests in our students instead of focusing on
shareholders.

• Goals
• When Baker fully embraces the concept of online learning. Our first goals thus, is
to continue to path of online instruction.

• At Baker, another goal of ours is for students to get to know each other. Our online
platform allows students to remain in direct virtual contact with each other
throughout the learning experience.

• Outcomes
• At Baker Online, 76% of our students that come here find employment after.

• Resources
• We provide an Online Orientation Course to help our students succeed in an online
environment, and every Baker graduate receives Lifetime Employment Assistance—free
--PENN FOSTER HIGH SCHOOL
• Mission Statement (From the PFHS
Penn Foster's mission is to enhance the lives of our studentswebsite)
and clients through the acquisition of
knowledge, skills, and credentials that can help them work toward their goals of advancing in
their chosen field, starting a new career, or pursuing lifelong learning.
• Values
In keeping with our core company values of integrity, inclusiveness and compliance, we are committed to
providing an accessible, high quality online experience for all students.
 Vision
Provide educational programs that enable self-motivated, independent learners to acquire core
competencies in their chosen technical and professional fields.
• Goals
•Employ contemporary learning strategies based on academic standards of good practice in
distance education
•Develop and maintain systems that optimize student opportunities for broadly participative, interactive
learning
•Establish and communicate high standards of academic performance for students and the institution
•Assess student learning and institutional effectiveness systematically in order to improve student
performance
•Conduct fiscally responsible planning that balances the institution's commitment to academic excellence
with its concern for profitable financial performance
• Outcomes
The school regularly assesses fulfillment of its mission and achievement of its institutional goals through
ongoing studies of student learning, measurement of student satisfaction, and evaluation of career
outcomes of graduates.
 Resources
Commitment to serving students with visual, auditory, and other physical disabilities.
Provide an extensive suite of student support services based on student needs and interests.
--KAPLAN UNIVERSITY
•Mission (From the KU website)
Our programs foster student learning with opportunities to launch, enhance, or
change careers in today’s diverse global society. The University is committed to
general education, a student-centered service.
•Values
Integrity-We hold ourselves to the highest ethical standards in everything we do.
•Vision
We are a lifelong partner for career improvement by delivering a best-in-class
educational experience with an unmatched commitment to student success.
•Goals
•Provide academic programs that have been developed and assessed by faculty, staff, and
members of educational, professional, and business communities.
•Provide intensive and comprehensive instruction using both onsite and online
learning modes of delivery that strengthens student academic achievement.
•Plan and provide facilities and resources that respond to the needs of students,
faculty, and staff.
•Assist students in developing professional attitudes, values, skills, and strategies that will
foster success in their careers and in life.
•Outcomes
•We open doors and broaden access to education to get you into the workplace.
•We're dedicated to helping you achieve your goals-we succeed when you succeed.
•Resources
•We offer expert resources to help you achieve your academic and career best.
•We give you the tools you need to succeed in our state-of-the-art computer labs.
--GRANTHAM UNIVERSITY
(FROM THE GU WEBSITE)
• Mission
To provide quality, accessible, affordable, professionally relevant programs in a continuously
changing global society.

• Values
• We uphold the highest standards of integrity, honesty and personal responsibility.

• Vision
Grantham University is committed to being a globally recognized innovator in higher
education, serving those who serve and serving those who strive to make a
difference in their professional lives and community.

• Goals
• Grantham University affirms its commitment to an inclusive community by
making its academic programs, educational services and employment
opportunities available.

• Outcomes
• Grantham University places the academic and personal success of its students at
the center of all University functions, services, activities and academic
programs, in the success of your degree completion.

• Resources
Grantham University provides workplace building skills, topline computer labs, and
faculty who are from the industries we teach here at Grantham University.
WHAT WOULD YOU TEACH
ONLINE?
• By yourself or with a partner, think of one thing to teach online.
• You need to have:
• A subject to teach
• Mission statement
• Values
• Vision
• Goals
• Outcomes
• Resources
YOU SAW EXAMPLES, HERE’S ONE MORE…
• My Class: Web Design
• Mission statement
• To supply learners with professionalism and skills needed to push the boundaries
of web design into tomorrows marketplace.
• Values
• Ethics is key for us, too many designers steal the work of others.
• Timeliness is also a value for us, as it is in this industry.
• Vision
• To have all graduates excel in web design and change the world of design online.
• Goals
• Employ contemporary learning strategies based on academic standards of good
practice in distance education.
• Develop and maintain systems that optimize student opportunities for
interactive online education.
• Outcomes
• On average, we receive 3,500 applications each year. We have a 56 percent
acceptance rate, with 82 percent of graduates finding jobs in under six months.
• Resources
• We do have state-of-the-art computer labs, but more importantly, our instructors
are professional web designers who currently are employed as such.
OKAY, BUT WHAT DOES ALL THIS REALLY LOOK
LIKE? PART TWO: QASSIM PYP

• Public Web Blog/s
• Examples
• http://esppypqassim.blogspot.com/
• http://englishteachersqassimpyp.bl
ogspot.com/
• http://englishstudentsqassimpyp.bl
ogspot.com/
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WHAT DID WE DO?

• Defined classroom, online
education, and hybrid
classroom.
• Short history on distance
education.
WHAT DID WE DO?
• Learned that educational
practices are used in online
education just as they are in
the classroom.
• Learned to listen and observe
students, and ask ourselves if
an online component is
WHAT DID WE DO?
• Learned there are adults
online who would be happy to
have an online class at some
point in their lives.
• Discussed advantages and
disadvantages of online
education.
WHAT DID WE DO?

• Learned of the requirements
of online education.
• Studied online educational
programs to develop our
own concept for a course to
teach online.
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

?
Do you have
any questions
THANKS AND HAVE FUN!

By, andreicdavis@gmail.com