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AC Power and

Power Triangle

Learning Objectives

Define real (active) power, reactive power, average, and

apparent power.

Calculate the real, reactive, and apparent power in AC

series parallel networks.

Graph the real and reactive power of purely resistive,

inductive, or capacitive loads in AC series parallel networks

as a function of time.

Determine when power is dissipated, stored, or released in

purely resistive, inductive, or capacitive loads in AC series

parallel networks.

Use the power triangle determine relationships between

real, reactive and apparent power.

u v reactive power: Z R jX ( ) AC Apparent Power is a complex quantity made up of real active power and imaginary v S P jQ (VA) .AC Power AC Impedance is a complex quantity made up of real resistance and imaginary reactance.

W] R WARNING! #1 mistake with AC power calculations! The Voltage in the above equation is the Voltage drop across the resistor. not the phasors): 2 V PI R 2 [watts.AC Real (Active) Power (P) The Active power is the power that is dissipated in the resistance of the load. not IMPEDANCE (Z)! . It uses the same formula used for DC (V & I are the magnitudes. not across the entire circuit! CAUTION! REAL value of resistance (R) is used in REAL power calculations.

but use reactance instead of resistances. 2 V Just like X is negative for a capacitor! (-Xcj) QI X 2 [VAR] X WARNING! #1 mistake with AC power calculations! The Voltage in the above equation is the Voltage drop across the reactance. Units: Volts-Amps-Reactive (VAR) Q is negative for a capacitor by convention and positive for inductor.AC Imaginary (Reactive) Power (Q) The reactive power is the power that is exchanged between reactive components (inductors and capacitors) The formulas look similar to those used by the active power. not across the entire circuit! .

not the phasors 2 V S VI I Z 2 [VA] Z .AC Apparent Power (S) The apparent power is the power that is “appears” to flow to the load. The magnitude of apparent power can be calculated using similar formulas to those for active or reactive power: Units: Volts-Amps (VA) V & I are the magnitudes.

Apparent power calculated with Z v uv AC Power Real power calculated with R ZR j X Reactive power calculated with X SP j Q ( ) (VA) Notice the relationship between Z and S: .

reactive (Q) and apparent power (S). S P2 Q2 v S P jQL v S S .Power Triangle The power triangle graphically shows the relationship between real (P).

. Determine the apparent power delivered by the source.Example Problem 1 Determine the real and reactive power of each component.

Real and Reactive Power The power triangle also shows that we can find real (P) and reactive (Q) power. S IV (VA) P S cos (W) Q S sin (VAR) NOTE: The impedance angle and the “power factor angle” are the same value! .

Example Problem 2 Determine the apparent power. total real and reactive power using the following equations: S VI (VA) P S cos (W) Q S sin (VAR) .

Total Power in AC Circuits The total power real (PT) and reactive power (QT) is simply the sum of the real and reactive power for each individual circuit elements. How elements are connected does not matter for computation of total power. PT P1 P2 P3 P4 QT Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 .

Total Power in AC Circuits Sometimes it is useful to redraw the circuit to symbolically express the real and reactive power loads .

Is the unknown element in Load #3 an inductor or capacitor? . Determine total apparent power c. Draw the power triangle d. Determine the unknown real (P2) and reactive powers (Q3) in the circuit below.Example Problem 3 a. b.

PT and QT b.Example Problem 4 a. . Determine the value of R. Draw the power triangle and determine S.

WARNING… Proofs for Real and reactive Power calculations follow… .

voltage and current are functions of time.AC Power to a Resistive Load In ac circuits. Power at a particular instant in time is given Vm I m p vi (Vm sin t )( I m sin t ) Vm I m sin t 2 1 cos 2t 2 This is called instantaneous power. .

Average Power to a Resistive Load p is always positive All of the power delivered by the source is absorbed by the load. Average power P = VmIm / 2 .

.Average Power to a Resistive Load Using RMS values V and I Vm VRMS rms value of voltage 2 Im I RMS rms value of current 2 Vm I m Vm I m P VRMS I RMS (watts) 2 2 2 Active power is the average value of instantaneous power.

Power to an Inductive Load Consider the following circuit where i = Im sin t . Can we write an expression instantaneous power or pL(t) ? .

Power to an Inductive Load i I m sin t v Vm sin(t 90) p vi (Vm sin t 90o)( I m sin t ) Vm I m cos t sin t Vm I m Vm I m sin 2t sin 2t VRMS I RMS sin 2 t 2 2 2 .

All of the power delivered by the source is returned.Power to an Inductive Load p is equally positive and negative. Average power PL = 0 W .

It contributes nothing to average power. The power that flows into and out of a pure inductor is reactive power only. .Reactive Power Reactive power is the portion of power that flows into load and then back out.

Can we write an expression instantaneous power or pC(t) ? .Power to a Capacitive Load Consider the following circuit where i = Im sin t .

Power to a Capacitive Load i I m sin t v Vm sin( t 90) p vi (Vm sin t 90o)( I m sin t ) Vm I m cos t sin t Vm I m Vm I m sin 2t sin 2t VRMS I RMS sin 2t 2 2 2 .

Average power PC = 0 W .Power to a Capacitive Load p is equally positive and negative All of the power delivered by the source is returned (no power losses with a pure reactive load).

AC Power to a Resistive Load AC Power to a Inductive Load AC Power to a Capacitive Load .

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