# Lesson 25

AC Power and
Power Triangle

Learning Objectives
 Define real (active) power, reactive power, average, and
apparent power.
 Calculate the real, reactive, and apparent power in AC
series parallel networks.
 Graph the real and reactive power of purely resistive,
inductive, or capacitive loads in AC series parallel networks
as a function of time.
 Determine when power is dissipated, stored, or released in
purely resistive, inductive, or capacitive loads in AC series
parallel networks.
 Use the power triangle determine relationships between
real, reactive and apparent power.

u v reactive power: Z  R  jX ( )  AC Apparent Power is a complex quantity made up of real active power and imaginary v S  P  jQ (VA) .AC Power  AC Impedance is a complex quantity made up of real resistance and imaginary reactance.

W] R WARNING! #1 mistake with AC power calculations! The Voltage in the above equation is the Voltage drop across the resistor. not the phasors): 2 V PI R 2 [watts.AC Real (Active) Power (P)  The Active power is the power that is dissipated in the resistance of the load. not IMPEDANCE (Z)! .  It uses the same formula used for DC (V & I are the magnitudes. not across the entire circuit! CAUTION! REAL value of resistance (R) is used in REAL power calculations.

but use reactance instead of resistances.  2  V Just like X is negative for a capacitor! (-Xcj) QI X  2 [VAR] X WARNING! #1 mistake with AC power calculations! The Voltage in the above equation is the Voltage drop across the reactance.  Units: Volts-Amps-Reactive (VAR) Q is negative for a capacitor by convention and positive for inductor.AC Imaginary (Reactive) Power (Q)  The reactive power is the power that is exchanged between reactive components (inductors and capacitors)  The formulas look similar to those used by the active power. not across the entire circuit! .

not the phasors 2 V S  VI  I Z  2 [VA] Z .AC Apparent Power (S)  The apparent power is the power that is “appears” to flow to the load.  The magnitude of apparent power can be calculated using similar formulas to those for active or reactive power:  Units: Volts-Amps (VA)  V & I are the magnitudes.

 Apparent power calculated with Z v uv AC Power Real power calculated with R ZR  j X Reactive power calculated with X SP  j Q ( ) (VA) Notice the relationship between Z and S: .

reactive (Q) and apparent power (S). S  P2  Q2 v S  P  jQL v S  S  .Power Triangle  The power triangle graphically shows the relationship between real (P).

. Determine the apparent power delivered by the source.Example Problem 1 Determine the real and reactive power of each component.

Real and Reactive Power  The power triangle also shows that we can find real (P) and reactive (Q) power. S  IV (VA) P  S cos (W) Q  S sin  (VAR) NOTE: The impedance angle and the “power factor angle” are the same value! .

Example Problem 2 Determine the apparent power. total real and reactive power using the following equations: S  VI (VA) P  S cos (W) Q  S sin  (VAR) .

Total Power in AC Circuits  The total power real (PT) and reactive power (QT) is simply the sum of the real and reactive power for each individual circuit elements.  How elements are connected does not matter for computation of total power. PT  P1  P2  P3  P4 QT  Q1  Q2  Q3  Q4 .

Total Power in AC Circuits  Sometimes it is useful to redraw the circuit to symbolically express the real and reactive power loads .

Is the unknown element in Load #3 an inductor or capacitor? . Determine total apparent power c. Draw the power triangle d. Determine the unknown real (P2) and reactive powers (Q3) in the circuit below.Example Problem 3 a. b.

PT and QT b.Example Problem 4 a. . Determine the value of R. Draw the power triangle and determine S.

WARNING… Proofs for Real and reactive Power calculations follow… .

voltage and current are functions of time.AC Power to a Resistive Load  In ac circuits.  Power at a particular instant in time is given Vm I m p  vi  (Vm sin t )( I m sin  t )  Vm I m sin t  2  1  cos 2t  2 This is called instantaneous power. .

Average Power to a Resistive Load  p is always positive  All of the power delivered by the source is absorbed by the load.  Average power P = VmIm / 2 .

.Average Power to a Resistive Load  Using RMS values V and I Vm VRMS  rms value of voltage 2 Im I RMS  rms value of current 2 Vm I m  Vm   I m P     VRMS I RMS (watts) 2  2  2  Active power is the average value of instantaneous power.

Power to an Inductive Load  Consider the following circuit where i = Im sin t .  Can we write an expression instantaneous power or pL(t) ? .

Power to an Inductive Load i  I m sin t v  Vm sin(t  90) p  vi  (Vm sin  t  90o)( I m sin t )  Vm I m cos t sin t Vm I m  Vm   I m   sin 2t       sin 2t  VRMS I RMS sin 2 t 2  2  2 .

 All of the power delivered by the source is returned.Power to an Inductive Load  p is equally positive and negative.  Average power PL = 0 W .

 It contributes nothing to average power.  The power that flows into and out of a pure inductor is reactive power only. .Reactive Power  Reactive power is the portion of power that flows into load and then back out.

 Can we write an expression instantaneous power or pC(t) ? .Power to a Capacitive Load  Consider the following circuit where i = Im sin t .

Power to a Capacitive Load i  I m sin  t v  Vm sin( t  90) p  vi  (Vm sin  t  90o)( I m sin  t )  Vm I m cos t sin  t Vm I m  Vm   I m   sin 2t       sin 2t  VRMS I RMS sin 2t 2  2   2 .

 Average power PC = 0 W .Power to a Capacitive Load  p is equally positive and negative  All of the power delivered by the source is returned (no power losses with a pure reactive load).

AC Power to a Resistive Load AC Power to a Inductive Load AC Power to a Capacitive Load .