# Finite Control Volume Analysis

Application of Reynolds Transport Theorem

CEE 331
March 14, 2017

School of Civil and
Monroe L. Weber-Shirk Environmental Engineering

Moving from a System to a
Control Volume

Mass
Linear Momentum
Moment of Momentum
Energy
Putting it all together!

Conservation of Mass

B = Total amount of ____
mass in the system
b = ____ 1
mass per unit mass = __

DBsys 
Dt

t   bdV
cv
   bV n
cs
ˆ dA cv equation

DM sys 
Dt

t   dV
cv
   V n
cs
ˆ dA But DMsys/Dt = 0!

cs  V nˆ dA  t   dV
cv
Continuity Equation

mass leaving - mass entering = - rate of increase of mass in cv

Conservation of Mass  If mass in cv 2 cs  V ˆ n dA   t   dV is constant 1 cv nˆ V1 òr cs1 1 V1 × nˆ 1dA + òr 2 V2 × cs2 nˆ 2 dA =0 A1 Unit vector nˆ is ______ normal   V nˆ dA cs m [M/T] ±r VA = ±& to surface and pointed ____ out of cv  on We assumed uniform ___  V nˆ dA the control surface V  cs A V is the spatially averaged velocity normal to the cs .

Continuity Equation for Constant Density and Uniform Velocity V cs1 1 1 ˆ 1dA    2 V2  n cs2 ˆ 2 dA n 0 Density is constant across cs  1V 1 A1   2 V 2 A2  0 Density is the same at cs1 and cs2 V 1 A1  V 2 A2  Q [L3/T] V1 A1  V2 A2  Q Simple version of the continuity equation for conditions of constant density. averaged . It is understood that the velocities are either ________ uniform or _______ spatially ________.

How fast is the reservoir surface h dropping?  cs  V  ˆ n dA    t cv  dV V cs V nˆ dA   t Constant density dV Qout  Qin   Velocity of the reservoir surface dt Ares dh dh Q Qout    dt dt Ares Example . The reservoir surface is 5 m x 5 m. Example: Conservation of Mass? The flow out of a reservoir is 2 L/s.

Linear Momentum Equation DBsys  F  0 Dt  t   bdV cv    bV nˆ dA cs cv equation mV B  mV momentum b momentum/unit mass m Vectors! DmV  Dt  t   VdV cv   V V n cs ˆ dA DmV Steady state Dt   V V nˆ dA cs This is the “ma” side of the F = ma equation! .

Linear Momentum Equation DmV Dt   V V nˆ dA cs DmV Dt  VV cs1 1 1 1 ˆ 1dA   V2  2 V2  n cs2 ˆ 2 dA n Assumptions DmV    1V1 A1  V1    2V2 A2  V2 Uniform density Dt Uniform velocity M1   1V1 A1  V1   Q  V1 V  A M 2    2V2 A2  V2   Q  V2 Steady  V fluid velocity Vectors!!! relative to cv .

Steady Control Volume Form of Newton’s Second Law D  mV  F  Dt  M1  M 2  What are the forces acting on the fluid in the control volume? Gravity Shear at the solid surfaces F  M 1  M2 Pressure at the solid surfaces Pressure on the flow surfaces  F  W F p1  Fp2  Fpwall  F wall Why no shear on control surfaces? No _______________________________ velocity tangent to control surface .

Fss  Fp  F  F  W F p1  Fp2  Fss wall wall =force applied by solid surfaces .. Resultant Force on the Solid Surfaces  The shear forces on the walls and the pressure forces on the walls are generally the unknowns  Often the problem is to calculate the total force exerted by the fluid on the solid surfaces  The magnitude and direction of the force determines thrust blocks size of _____________needed to keep pipe in place force on the vane of a pump or turbine..

Linear Momentum Equation  F  W F p1  Fp2  Fss Fp 2 ma  M1  M 2 M2 M1  M 2  W Fp1  Fp2  Fss Fss x Forces by solid surfaces on fluid The momentum vectors have the same direction as the velocity vectors M1 M1     Q  V1 Fss Fp1 W y M 2    Q  V2 .

071 30 cmm2 1. The volume of water in the elbow is 200 1m L.400 N ↑ M ____________ ?← ____________ . the force of the elbow M1  M 2  W Fp  Fp  Fss 1 2 W = ________________________ section 1 section 2 z D 0. Example: Reducing Elbow 2 Reducing elbow in vertical plane with water flow of 300 L/s.53 m/s ↑ A ____________ 4.23 m/s → ____________ V ____________ ____________ ? x p -459 150NkPa↑ 1270 N → ____________ Direction of V vectors 29. 1 Energy loss is negligible.196 m2 50 cm 0. g*volume=-1961 Calculate N ↑on the fluid.

Example: What is p2? p1 V12 p2 V22  z1    z2  1 2g 2 2g  V12 V22 p2  p1    z1  z2     2 g 2 g   1.53 m/s    4.8 m/s 2  P2 = 132 kPa Fp2 = 9400 N .23 m/s   2 2 p2   150 x 103 Pa    9810 N/m 3   0 1 m    2  9.

7kN Force of pipe on fluid x Fluid is pushing the pipe to the ______ left . Example: Reducing Elbow Horizontal Forces M1  M 2  W  Fp1  Fp2  Fss 2 Fp 2 Fss  M1  M 2  W  Fp1  Fp2 M2 Fssx  M 1x  M 2 x  Wx  Fp1x  Fp2 x 1 Fss  M 2  Fp x x 2x z Fssx   1270 N    -9400 N  Fssx  10.

Example: Reducing Elbow Vertical Forces Fssz  M 1z  M 2 z  Wz  Fp1z  Fp2 z 2 Fssz  M 1z  Wz  Fp1z W 1 Fp M1 Fssz  459N   1.961N    29.400N  1 z Fssz  27.9kN 28 kN acting downward on fluid up Pipe wants to move _________ x .

Ignore frictional losses in the nozzle. Example: Fire nozzle A small fire nozzle is used to create a powerful jet to reach far into a blaze. Estimate the force that the water exerts on the fire nozzle. The pressure at section 1 is 1000 kPa (gage).5 cm . 8 cm 2.

M2. V1. Q. Fss Determine what equations you will use Bernoulli.5 cm 1000 kPa . V2. Fire nozzle: Solution Identify what you need to know P2. momentum 8 cm 2. M1. continuity.

Find the Velocities p1 V12 p2 V22  z1    z2   2g  2g p1 V12 V22   continuity→ V1 D12  V2 D22  2g 2g 4  D2 p1 V V 2 2 V 2   V 2   2 1 2 D  1 1  2g 2g  2 p1  D2  4 V 2 V2  p1   2  1      D2  4 2   D1    1        D1  .

Fire nozzle: Solution 2.5 cm 8 cm 1000 kPa Which direction does the nozzle want to go? ______ Is Fssx the force that the firefighters need to brace ____ Moments! against? NO! __________ force applied by nozzle on water Fssx  M 1x  M 2 x  Wx  Fp1x  Fp2 x .

Example: Momentum with Complex Geometry Find Q2. V3. Q3. cs2 Q1  10 L/s V1  20 m/s y Fy  0  1  10  2  130  3  50 x cs1   1000 kg / m3 cs3 1 3 Q2. Q3 and force on the 2 wedge in a horizontal plane. Fx Unknown: ________________ . V2.

Fx Continuity Q1  Q2  Q3 Bernoulli (2x) p1 V12 p2 V22  z1    z2  2 1 2g  2 2g cs2 y V1  V2 x V1  V3 cs1 Momentum (in x and y) 1 cs3 3 M1  M 2  M 3  W  Fp1  Fp2  Fp3  Fss . 5 Unknowns: Need 5 Equations Identify the 5 equations! Unknowns: Q2. Q3. V2. V3.

Solve for Q2 and Q3 M1  M 2  M 3  W  Fp1  Fp2  Fp3  Fss atmospheric pressure Fssy  0  M 1 y  M 2 y  M 3 y M1     Q  V1 0   Q1V1 sin  1  Q2V2 sin  2  Q3V3 sin  3 V sin   Component of velocity in y direction y Q1  Q2  Q3 Mass conservation  x V1  V2  V3 Negligible losses – apply Bernoulli .

133 L / s Q Q a sin   sin f 1 3 2 1 2 3  sinaf10  sina 50f  sina130f sina50f Q Q 2 1 Why is Q2 greater than Q3? + m&1V1 y + -  m&V  m&V Q3  3.867 L / s 2 2y 3 3y . Solve for Q2 and Q3 0   Q1V1 sin  1  Q2V2 sin  2  Q3V3 sin  3 Eliminate Q3 0   Q1 sin  1  Q2 sin  2  Q3 sin  3 Q3  Q1  Q2 a sin   sin f Q2  6.

006133 m3 /s  cos  130       0. Solve for Fssx Fssx  M 1x  M 2 x  M 3 x Fssx    Q1V1 cos 1   Q2V1 cos  2   Q3V1 cos 3 Fssx  V1  Q1 cos 1  Q2 cos  2  Q3 cos 3     0.003867 m3 /s  cos  50    Fssx  226 N Force of wedge on fluid .01 m3 /s  cos  10     Fssx   1000 kg/m3   20 m/s     0.

66N M 3  Q3V3  77. Vector solution M 1  M 2  M 3  Fss M1   Q1V1  200N M 2  Q2V2  122.867 L / s .34N Q2  10 L / s Q2  6.133L / s Q3  3.

Vector Addition M 1  M 2  M 3  Fss 2 Fss cs2 M3 y M2 M1 x cs1 cs3 1 3 Where is the line of action of Fss? .

Moment of Momentum Equation DBsys  Dt  t   bdV cv    bV n cs ˆ dA cv equation B  mr × V Moment of momentum mr × V b Moment of momentum/unit mass m D  mr × V      r × VdV     r × V   V n ˆ  dA Dt t cv cs T     r × V   V nˆ  dA Steady state cs .

Application to Turbomachinery rVt Vn T     r × V   V n ˆ  dA    V nˆ  dA cs  Q cs Vn Vt r2 cs1 cs2 r1 Tz   Q   r2 × V2    r1 × V1  .

2 0. . Jet diameter is 0. 2 d 2 Find the speed of rotation.1 2   Qr2Vt2 10 cm Q jet Vθ t2   r sin   2 A jet Total flow is 1 L/s.1   Qr2    Q rθ 2 2 2 sin  0  = 30º. Example: Sprinkler vt  cs2 T   Q  z   r2 × V2    r1 × V1   0.1 N-m-s2 2.1 2   Qrθ 4Q r /2 sin    2  2 Friction exerts a torque of   d 2  0. 0. Vt and Vn are defined relative to control surfaces.5 cm.

5/s  What is Vt if there is no friction ?__________ = 34 rpm T   Qr2Vt2 Reflections .14/(0.001 m3/s) (0.27 Nm = 127/s What is  if there is no friction? ___________ = 3.1 m) 2 = 0.001 m3/s)2(0.1 2  Qr22  Q 2 r2 sin θ  0 d 2 b b 2  4ac a = 0.1Nms2  2a b   Qr22 b = (1000 kg/m3)(0.1m)(2sin30)/3.005 m)2 c = -1. Example: Sprinkler 2 0.01 Nms 2 c    Q rθ 2 sin 2 d 2 c = -(1000 kg/m3)(0.

&   pV n Qnet  Wnet  E2  E1 W pr  cs ˆ dA in in DE & W &  pV n Wnet  Wpr  Wshaft in Dt Qnet in shaft  cs ˆ dA . Energy Equation DBsys  Dt  t   bdV cv    bV n cs ˆ dA cv equation DE  Dt  t   edV cv    eV n cs ˆ dA What is DE/Dt for a system? First law of thermodynamics: The heat QH added to a system plus the work W done on the system equals the change in total energy E of the system.

dE/dt for our System? p  h F  pA W &   FV pr W& pr   pVA Pressure work DE DE & W &  pV n    pV n ˆ dA Dt Qnet in shaft  cs ˆ dA Dt cs Shaft work DE & W shaft Dt DE & Heat transfer Qnet Dt in .

General Energy Equation 1st Law of Thermo cv equation DE & &   Qnet  Wshaft   pV n ˆ dA    edV   eV  ˆ dA n Dt in cs t cv cs   p  & & Qnet  Wshaft  in  t cv e d     cs   e  V n   ˆ dA z V2 ( e  gz  u 2 Total Potential Kinetic Internal (molecular spacing and forces) .

.. Simplify the Energy Equation q net m& wshaft m& in 0 Steady & &   p  Qnet  Wshaft  in t cv e d   cs    e  V nˆ dA V2 ( e  gz  u 2    p V 2  (  q net  wshaft m &    gz   u  V n ˆ dA  in  cs   2  Assume. p  gz  c Hydrostatic pressure distribution at cs  ŭ is uniform over cs not uniform over control surface! But V is often ____________ .

Energy Equation: Kinetic Energy 3  V 2 V A V = point velocity cs  2   V nˆ dA  2 V = average velocity over cs  V 3 If V tangent to n cs  2   dA   3 V A 2 1  V 3  = kinetic energy correction term _________________________     3 A cs  V  dA  =___ 1 for uniform velocity .

constant density    p V2 (  q net &    wshaft m  gz   u  V n ˆ dA  in  cs   2    V nˆ dA cs m & mass flux rate     pout 2 Vout (   pin Vin2  (   q net  wshaft m &    gzout    uout   gzin    uin  & m  in     2    2   pin Vin2 ( pout 2 Vout (  gzin   in  uin  q net  wshaft   gzout   out  uout  2 in  2 . one- dimensional. Energy Equation: steady.

one- dimensional. constant density pin Vin2 ( pout 2 Vout (  gzin   in  uin  q net  wshaft   gzout   out  uout  2 in  2 divide by g ( ( uout  uin  q net pin Vin2 wshaft pout 2 Vout  zin   in    zout   out  in  2g g  2g g mechanical thermal ( ( wshaft uout  uin  q net  hhPP  hT Lost mechanical g in  hL g energy pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout  zin   in  hP   zout   out  hT  hL  2g  2g . Energy Equation: steady.

Thermal Components of the Energy Equation V2 ( e  gz  u 2 ( u  cvT  c pT For incompressible liquids ( ( uout  uin  q net Water specific heat = 4184 J/(kg*K) in  hL g Change in temperature c p  Tout  Tin   q net Heat transferred to fluid in  hL g Example .

The pump supplies a total head of 10 m. Example: Energy Equation (energy loss) An irrigation pump lifts 50 L/s of water from a reservoir and discharges it into a farmer’s irrigation channel. How much mechanical energy is lost? What is hL? cs2 4m 2.4 m .4 m 2m cs1 datum Why can’t I draw the cs at the end of the pipe? pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout  zin   in  hP   zout   out  hT  hL  2g  2g h p  zout  hL hL  hp  zout hL = 10 m .

What is the pressure in the pipe at the pump outlet? You may assume (for now) that the only losses are frictional losses in the pipeline. and ____ ____.4 m 2m cs1 0 0 0 datum 0 / / / / pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout  zin   in  hP   zout   out  hT  hL  2g  2g We need _______ in the pipe. 50 L/s hP = 10 m cs2 4m 2. velocity  head loss . . Example: Energy Equation (pressure at pump outlet) The total pipe length is 50 m and is 20 cm in diameter. The pipe length to the pump is 12 m.

44 m  What about ? .6 m/s  How do we get the frictional losses? Expect losses to be proportional to length of the pipe hl = (6 m)(12 m)/(50 m) = 1. Example: Energy Equation (pressure at pump outlet)  How do we get the velocity in the pipe? Q = VA A = d2/4 V = 4Q/( d2) V = 4(0.2 m)2] = 1.05 m3/s)/[ 0.

 For a uniform velocity distribution  ____ is 1  For laminar flow ______  is 2 1.10  For turbulent flow _____________ Often neglected in calculations because it is so close to 1 .01 <  < 1.Kinetic Energy Correction Term: 1  V  3      A  V   dA cs 3   is a function of the velocity distribution in the pipe.

1 kPa  2(9.81 m/s )  .4 m 2m datum  2 Vout  pout    hP  zout   out  hL  2g   (1.44 m) = 59. Example: Energy Equation (pressure at pump outlet) V = 1.05 hP   zout   out  hL  2g hL = 1.6 m/s) 2  p2  (9810 N/m )  (10 m)  (2.6 m/s pout 2 Vout  = 1.44 m 50 L/s hP = 10 m 4m 2.4 m)  (1.05) 3 2  (1.

Example: Energy Equation (Hydraulic Grade Line .  Plot the pressure as piezometric head (height water would rise to in a piezometer)  How? .cavitation).HGL)  We would like to know if there are any places in the pipeline where the pressure is too high (_________) pipe burst or too low (water might boil .

Example: Energy Equation (Energy Grade Line .4 m 2m datum What is the pressure at the pump intake? pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout  zin   in  hP   zout   out  hT  hL  2g  2g .EGL) Loss due to shear HP = 10 m 2 Exit loss p V Entrance loss   2g 50 L/s p = 59 kPa 4m 2.

t. reference pressure) What is the difference between EGL defined by Bernoulli and EGL defined here? . Energy Grade Line Hydraulic Grade Line EGL (or TEL) and HGL p V2 p EGL   z  HGL  z  2g  Piezometric Elevation head (w.r.r.t.velocity head datum) head Pressure head (w.

EGL (or TEL) and HGL  The energy grade line may never slope upward (in pump direction of flow) unless energy is added (______)  The decrease in total energy represents the head loss or energy dissipation per unit weight coincident  EGL and HGL are ____________and lie at the free surface for water at rest (reservoir)  Whenever the HGL falls below the point in the system for which it is plotted. the local pressures reference pressure are lower than the __________________ .

Example HGL and EGL V2 velocity head  2g p pressure head  energy grade line hydraulic grade line z elevation pump z=0 datum 2 2 pin V p V  zin   in in  hP  out  zout   out out  hT  hL  2g  2g .

Bernoulli vs. Control Volume Conservation of Energy Find the velocity and flow. How would you solve these two problems? pipe Free jet .

Control Volume Conservation of Energy p1 v12 p2 v22 Vin2 2  z1    z2  pin  zin   in  hP  pout  zout   out Vout  hT  hL  2g  2g  2g  2g Point to point along streamline Control surface to control surface No frictional losses Has a term for frictional losses Based on point velocity Based on average velocity Requires kinetic energy correction factor Includes shaft work Has direction! . Bernoulli vs.

Power and Efficiencies P = FV  Electrical power Motor losses Pelectric  EI bearing losses  Shaft power Pshaft  T  Impeller power pump losses Pimpeller  T  Fluid power Pwater  QHp Prove this! .

857 efficiency of turbine = 0.45 MW Overall efficiency = 0.893 efficiency of generator = 0.96 Reservoir 50 m Powerhouse 2100 kW Q = 5 m3 Pens /s tock 116 kN·m River 180 rpm solution . Example: Hydroplant Water power = 2.

pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout  zin   in  hP   zout   out  hT  hL  2g  2g Energy Equation Review  Control Volume equation  Simplifications  steady  constant density  hydrostatic pressure distribution across control surface (streamlines parallel)  Direction of flow matters (in vs. out)  We don’t know how to predict head loss .

Conservation of Energy. and Mass  Most problems in fluids require the use of more than one conservation law to obtain a solution  Often a simplifying assumption is required to obtain a solution mechanical to heat over a short neglect energy losses (_______) distance with no flow expansion neglect shear forces on the solid surface over a short distance . Momentum.

bends. KE  thermal  Losses can be minimized by gradual transitions V2  Losses are expressed in the form hL  K L 2 g where KL is the loss coefficient . elbows. inlets. pipe size changes greater than  Losses due to expansions are ________ losses due to contractions When V. valves.pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout  zin   in  hP   zout   out  hT  hL  2g  2g Head Loss: Minor Losses  Head (or energy) loss due to: outlets.

Head Loss due to Sudden Expansion: Conservation of Energy z x in out At centroid of control surface Where is p measured?___________________________ pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout  zin   in  hP   zout   out  hT  hL  2g  2g pin  pout 2 Vout  Vin2   hL zin = zout  2g pin  pout Vin2  Vout 2 Relate Vin and Vout? Mass hL    2g Relate pin and pout? Momentum .

 Vin2 Ain  Vout 2 Aout  pin Aout  pout Aout Momentum is transferred over area corresponding to upstream Ain pipe diameter. 2 Vout  Vin2 Vin is velocity upstream. Head Loss due to Sudden Expansion: Conservation of Momentum A2 A1 x 1 2 M1  M 2  W  Fp  Fp  Fss Apply in direction of flow 1 2 M 1 x  M 2 x  Fp  Fp 1x 2x Neglect surface shear M 1x   Vin2 Ain M 2 x  Vout 2 Aout Pressure is applied over all of section 1. pin  pout Aout  Divide by (Aout )  g .

Head Loss due to Sudden Expansion pin  pout Vin2  Vout 2 Ain Vout Energy hL   Mass A  V  2g out in 2 Ain Vout  Vin 2 Momentum pin  pout  Aout  g 2 Vout 2  2 out 2 in V V 2 Vout  2VinVout  Vin2 Vin Vin2  Vout 2 hL  hL   2g 2g 2g 2 2 V 2  Ain   Ain   Vin  Vout  2 hl  in  1  KL   1  hl  2g A  Aout 2g  out KL=1 Discharge into a reservoir?_________ .

71m / s Solution .01m  2 Use the momentum equation…  4 V2  0.0005m / s V1   6.5 L/s directly into the air.4m / s  0. Calculate the pressure immediately upstream from the expansion 1 cm 3 cm We can solve this using either the momentum equation or the energy equation (with the appropriate term for 3 the energy losses)! 0. Example: Losses due to Sudden Expansion in a Pipe (Teams!)  A flow expansion discharges 0.

(V scoop = 7. The scoop pipe is 10 cm in diameter and elevates the water 3 m. Scoop  A scoop attached to a locomotive is used to lift water from a stationary water tank next to the train tracks into a water tank on the train.  Draw several streamlines in the left half of the stationary water tank (use the scoop as your frame of reference) including the streamlines that attach to the submerged horizontal section of the scoop.  Use the streamlines to help you draw a control volume and clearly label the control surfaces.  How fast must the locomotive be moving (V scoop) to get a flow of 4 L/s if the frictional losses in the pipe are equal to 1.7 m/s) .8 V 2/2g where V is the average velocity of the water in the pipe.

Scoop Q = 4 L/s d = 10 cm 3m Vscoop stationary water tank .

Scoop Problem: ‘The Real Scoop’ pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout  zin   in  hP   zout   out  hT  hL Energy  2g  2g p1 V12 p2 V22  z1    z2  Bernoulli  2g  2g moving water tank .

 In order to solve a problem the flow surfaces need to be at locations where all but 1 or 2 of the energy terms are known  When possible choose a frame of reference so the flows are steady . Summary  Control volumes should be drawn so that the surfaces are either tangent (no flow) or normal (flow) to streamlines.

momentum. concentrations of species  Many problems require the use of several conservation laws to obtain a solution end . energy. Summary  Control volume equation: Required to make the switch from Lagrangian to Eulerian  Any conservative property can be evaluated using the control volume equation mass.

Scoop Problem

stationary water tank

Scoop Problem:

moving water tank

Scoop Problem:
Be an Extremist!
Very long riser tube

Very short riser tube

The orifice coefficient is 0.  Draw CV. label CS.  CV with constant or changing mass. solve using variables starting with  to integration step  cs  V nˆ dA   t  dV cv . Example: Conservation of Mass (Team Work)  The flow through the orifice is a function of the depth of water in the reservoir Q  CAor 2gh  Find the time for the reservoir level to drop from 10 cm to 5 cm. The orifice is 2 mm in diameter and is 2 cm off the bottom of the reservoir. The reservoir surface is 15 cm x 15 cm.6.

Example Conservation of Mass Constant Volume    V nˆ dA   cs t   dV cv cs1 h V cs1 1 1 ˆ 1dA    2 V2  n cs2 ˆ 2 dA n 0 cs2  Vres Ares  Vor Aor  0 Vor Aor  Qor  dh Vres  dt dh Ares  CAor 2 gh  0 dt .

Example Conservation of Mass Changing Volume    V nˆ dA   cs t   dV cv cs1 h  Vor Aor  t  dV cv cs2 dV Ares dh Vor Aor   dt dt Vor Aor  Qor dh Ares  CAor 2 gh  0 dt .

Example Conservation of Mass h t  Ares dh CAor 2g  h0 h   dt 0  Ares  2 h1 / 2  h01 / 2  t  CAor 2g 2  0.6    2  9.15m  2    0.002m  2    0.03m  1/ 2   0.8m / s 2  4    t  591s .08m  1/ 2  t  0.

Pump Head 2 Vout pin Vin2  out  zin   in  hP  2g  2g 2 pout Vout  zout   out  hT  hL  2g hp Vin2  in 2g .

Example: Venturi .

You may assume the head loss is negligible. h 1 2 . Draw an appropriate control volume. Draw the EGL and the HGL. Example: Venturi Find the flow (Q) given the pressure drop between section 1 and 2 and the diameters of the two sections.

Example Venturi pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout  zin   in  hP   zout   out  hT  hL  2g  2g pin pout 2 Vout Vin2 Q  VA      2g 2g Vin Ain  Vout Aout pin pout V 2   d out 4   d in2  d out 2 Vin  Vout    1  out  4 4   2g   d in    Vin d in2  Vout d out 2 2 g ( pin  pout ) Vout  2 d out   1   d out d in   Vin  Vout 4   d in2 2 g ( pin  pout ) Q  Cv Aout   1   d out din   4   .

 The velocities in the linear momentum equation are relative to …?  When is “ma” non-zero for a fixed control volume?  Under what conditions could you generate power from a rotating sprinkler?  What questions do you have about application of the linear momentum and momentum of momentum equations? . Reflections  What is the name of the equation that we used to move from a system (Lagrangian) view to the control volume (Eulerian) view?  Explain the analogy to your checking account.

117 K .8 m/s  50 m  2 g  J   4184   Kg  K  ghL  q net  T  in cp T  0. Temperature Rise over Taughanock Falls  Drop of 50 meters  Find the temperature rise  Ignore kinetic energy c p  Tout  Tin   q net in  hL T  9.

116 MNm   180   2.96 2.45MW 2.893 2.100 MW egenerator   0.45MW 2.187 MW .857 2.45MW  rev 2 rad 1min Pturbine   0.100 MW etotal   0.187 MW  min rev 60 s  2. Hydropower P   QH p Pwater   9806 N / m 3   5m 3 / s   50m   2.187 MW eturbine   0.

Solution: Losses due to Sudden Expansion in a Pipe  A flow expansion discharges 0.71m / s   2 1 p1  4kPa Carburetors and water powered vacuums .71m / s p   1000kg / s    0.5 L/s directly into the air.4m / s   0. Calculate the pressure immediately upstream from the expansion A 1 cm V22  V12 1 p1  p2 A2  3 cm  g 3 0.4m / s  0.71m / s    6.0005m / s V   6.01m  1 p1 V2  V1V2 2 A1 V2 2     g A2 V1 4 c p1   V22  V1V2 h V2  0.