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Application of Reynolds Transport Theorem

CEE 331

March 14, 2017

**School of Civil and
**

Monroe L. Weber-Shirk Environmental Engineering

**Moving from a System to a
**

Control Volume

Mass

Linear Momentum

Moment of Momentum

Energy

Putting it all together!

Conservation of Mass

**B = Total amount of ____
**

mass in the system

b = ____ 1

mass per unit mass = __

DBsys

Dt

t bdV

cv

bV n

cs

ˆ dA cv equation

DM sys

Dt

t dV

cv

V n

cs

ˆ dA But DMsys/Dt = 0!

cs V nˆ dA t dV

cv

Continuity Equation

mass leaving - mass entering = - rate of increase of mass in cv

Conservation of Mass If mass in cv 2 cs V ˆ n dA t dV is constant 1 cv nˆ V1 òr cs1 1 V1 × nˆ 1dA + òr 2 V2 × cs2 nˆ 2 dA =0 A1 Unit vector nˆ is ______ normal V nˆ dA cs m [M/T] ±r VA = ±& to surface and pointed ____ out of cv on We assumed uniform ___ V nˆ dA the control surface V cs A V is the spatially averaged velocity normal to the cs .

Continuity Equation for Constant Density and Uniform Velocity V cs1 1 1 ˆ 1dA 2 V2 n cs2 ˆ 2 dA n 0 Density is constant across cs 1V 1 A1 2 V 2 A2 0 Density is the same at cs1 and cs2 V 1 A1 V 2 A2 Q [L3/T] V1 A1 V2 A2 Q Simple version of the continuity equation for conditions of constant density. averaged . It is understood that the velocities are either ________ uniform or _______ spatially ________.

How fast is the reservoir surface h dropping? cs V ˆ n dA t cv dV V cs V nˆ dA t Constant density dV Qout Qin Velocity of the reservoir surface dt Ares dh dh Q Qout dt dt Ares Example . The reservoir surface is 5 m x 5 m. Example: Conservation of Mass? The flow out of a reservoir is 2 L/s.

Linear Momentum Equation DBsys F 0 Dt t bdV cv bV nˆ dA cs cv equation mV B mV momentum b momentum/unit mass m Vectors! DmV Dt t VdV cv V V n cs ˆ dA DmV Steady state Dt V V nˆ dA cs This is the “ma” side of the F = ma equation! .

Linear Momentum Equation DmV Dt V V nˆ dA cs DmV Dt VV cs1 1 1 1 ˆ 1dA V2 2 V2 n cs2 ˆ 2 dA n Assumptions DmV 1V1 A1 V1 2V2 A2 V2 Uniform density Dt Uniform velocity M1 1V1 A1 V1 Q V1 V A M 2 2V2 A2 V2 Q V2 Steady V fluid velocity Vectors!!! relative to cv .

Steady Control Volume Form of Newton’s Second Law D mV F Dt M1 M 2 What are the forces acting on the fluid in the control volume? Gravity Shear at the solid surfaces F M 1 M2 Pressure at the solid surfaces Pressure on the flow surfaces F W F p1 Fp2 Fpwall F wall Why no shear on control surfaces? No _______________________________ velocity tangent to control surface .

Fss Fp F F W F p1 Fp2 Fss wall wall =force applied by solid surfaces .. Resultant Force on the Solid Surfaces The shear forces on the walls and the pressure forces on the walls are generally the unknowns Often the problem is to calculate the total force exerted by the fluid on the solid surfaces The magnitude and direction of the force determines thrust blocks size of _____________needed to keep pipe in place force on the vane of a pump or turbine..

Linear Momentum Equation F W F p1 Fp2 Fss Fp 2 ma M1 M 2 M2 M1 M 2 W Fp1 Fp2 Fss Fss x Forces by solid surfaces on fluid The momentum vectors have the same direction as the velocity vectors M1 M1 Q V1 Fss Fp1 W y M 2 Q V2 .

071 30 cmm2 1. The volume of water in the elbow is 200 1m L.400 N ↑ M ____________ ?← ____________ . the force of the elbow M1 M 2 W Fp Fp Fss 1 2 W = ________________________ section 1 section 2 z D 0. Example: Reducing Elbow 2 Reducing elbow in vertical plane with water flow of 300 L/s.53 m/s ↑ A ____________ 4.23 m/s → ____________ V ____________ ____________ ? x p -459 150NkPa↑ 1270 N → ____________ Direction of V vectors 29. 1 Energy loss is negligible.196 m2 50 cm 0. g*volume=-1961 Calculate N ↑on the fluid.

Example: What is p2? p1 V12 p2 V22 z1 z2 1 2g 2 2g V12 V22 p2 p1 z1 z2 2 g 2 g 1.53 m/s 4.8 m/s 2 P2 = 132 kPa Fp2 = 9400 N .23 m/s 2 2 p2 150 x 103 Pa 9810 N/m 3 0 1 m 2 9.

7kN Force of pipe on fluid x Fluid is pushing the pipe to the ______ left . Example: Reducing Elbow Horizontal Forces M1 M 2 W Fp1 Fp2 Fss 2 Fp 2 Fss M1 M 2 W Fp1 Fp2 M2 Fssx M 1x M 2 x Wx Fp1x Fp2 x 1 Fss M 2 Fp x x 2x z Fssx 1270 N -9400 N Fssx 10.

Example: Reducing Elbow Vertical Forces Fssz M 1z M 2 z Wz Fp1z Fp2 z 2 Fssz M 1z Wz Fp1z W 1 Fp M1 Fssz 459N 1.961N 29.400N 1 z Fssz 27.9kN 28 kN acting downward on fluid up Pipe wants to move _________ x .

Ignore frictional losses in the nozzle. Example: Fire nozzle A small fire nozzle is used to create a powerful jet to reach far into a blaze. Estimate the force that the water exerts on the fire nozzle. The pressure at section 1 is 1000 kPa (gage).5 cm . 8 cm 2.

M2. V1. Q. Fss Determine what equations you will use Bernoulli.5 cm 1000 kPa . V2. Fire nozzle: Solution Identify what you need to know P2. momentum 8 cm 2. M1. continuity.

Find the Velocities p1 V12 p2 V22 z1 z2 2g 2g p1 V12 V22 continuity→ V1 D12 V2 D22 2g 2g 4 D2 p1 V V 2 2 V 2 V 2 2 1 2 D 1 1 2g 2g 2 p1 D2 4 V 2 V2 p1 2 1 D2 4 2 D1 1 D1 .

Fire nozzle: Solution 2.5 cm 8 cm 1000 kPa Which direction does the nozzle want to go? ______ Is Fssx the force that the firefighters need to brace ____ Moments! against? NO! __________ force applied by nozzle on water Fssx M 1x M 2 x Wx Fp1x Fp2 x .

Example: Momentum with Complex Geometry Find Q2. V3. Q3. cs2 Q1 10 L/s V1 20 m/s y Fy 0 1 10 2 130 3 50 x cs1 1000 kg / m3 cs3 1 3 Q2. Q3 and force on the 2 wedge in a horizontal plane. Fx Unknown: ________________ . V2.

Fx Continuity Q1 Q2 Q3 Bernoulli (2x) p1 V12 p2 V22 z1 z2 2 1 2g 2 2g cs2 y V1 V2 x V1 V3 cs1 Momentum (in x and y) 1 cs3 3 M1 M 2 M 3 W Fp1 Fp2 Fp3 Fss . 5 Unknowns: Need 5 Equations Identify the 5 equations! Unknowns: Q2. Q3. V2. V3.

Solve for Q2 and Q3 M1 M 2 M 3 W Fp1 Fp2 Fp3 Fss atmospheric pressure Fssy 0 M 1 y M 2 y M 3 y M1 Q V1 0 Q1V1 sin 1 Q2V2 sin 2 Q3V3 sin 3 V sin Component of velocity in y direction y Q1 Q2 Q3 Mass conservation x V1 V2 V3 Negligible losses – apply Bernoulli .

133 L / s Q Q a sin sin f 1 3 2 1 2 3 sinaf10 sina 50f sina130f sina50f Q Q 2 1 Why is Q2 greater than Q3? + m&1V1 y + - m&V m&V Q3 3.867 L / s 2 2y 3 3y . Solve for Q2 and Q3 0 Q1V1 sin 1 Q2V2 sin 2 Q3V3 sin 3 Eliminate Q3 0 Q1 sin 1 Q2 sin 2 Q3 sin 3 Q3 Q1 Q2 a sin sin f Q2 6.

006133 m3 /s cos 130 0. Solve for Fssx Fssx M 1x M 2 x M 3 x Fssx Q1V1 cos 1 Q2V1 cos 2 Q3V1 cos 3 Fssx V1 Q1 cos 1 Q2 cos 2 Q3 cos 3 0.003867 m3 /s cos 50 Fssx 226 N Force of wedge on fluid .01 m3 /s cos 10 Fssx 1000 kg/m3 20 m/s 0.

66N M 3 Q3V3 77. Vector solution M 1 M 2 M 3 Fss M1 Q1V1 200N M 2 Q2V2 122.867 L / s .34N Q2 10 L / s Q2 6.133L / s Q3 3.

Vector Addition M 1 M 2 M 3 Fss 2 Fss cs2 M3 y M2 M1 x cs1 cs3 1 3 Where is the line of action of Fss? .

Moment of Momentum Equation DBsys Dt t bdV cv bV n cs ˆ dA cv equation B mr × V Moment of momentum mr × V b Moment of momentum/unit mass m D mr × V r × VdV r × V V n ˆ dA Dt t cv cs T r × V V nˆ dA Steady state cs .

Application to Turbomachinery rVt Vn T r × V V n ˆ dA V nˆ dA cs Q cs Vn Vt r2 cs1 cs2 r1 Tz Q r2 × V2 r1 × V1 .

2 0. . Jet diameter is 0. 2 d 2 Find the speed of rotation.1 2 Qr2Vt2 10 cm Q jet Vθ t2 r sin 2 A jet Total flow is 1 L/s.1 Qr2 Q rθ 2 2 2 sin 0 = 30º. Example: Sprinkler vt cs2 T Q z r2 × V2 r1 × V1 0.1 N-m-s2 2.1 2 Qrθ 4Q r /2 sin 2 2 Friction exerts a torque of d 2 0. 0. Vt and Vn are defined relative to control surfaces.5 cm.

5/s What is Vt if there is no friction ?__________ = 34 rpm T Qr2Vt2 Reflections .14/(0.001 m3/s) (0.27 Nm = 127/s What is if there is no friction? ___________ = 3.1 m) 2 = 0.001 m3/s)2(0.1 2 Qr22 Q 2 r2 sin θ 0 d 2 b b 2 4ac a = 0.1Nms2 2a b Qr22 b = (1000 kg/m3)(0.1m)(2sin30)/3.005 m)2 c = -1. Example: Sprinkler 2 0.01 Nms 2 c Q rθ 2 sin 2 d 2 c = -(1000 kg/m3)(0.

& pV n Qnet Wnet E2 E1 W pr cs ˆ dA in in DE & W & pV n Wnet Wpr Wshaft in Dt Qnet in shaft cs ˆ dA . Energy Equation DBsys Dt t bdV cv bV n cs ˆ dA cv equation DE Dt t edV cv eV n cs ˆ dA What is DE/Dt for a system? First law of thermodynamics: The heat QH added to a system plus the work W done on the system equals the change in total energy E of the system.

dE/dt for our System? p h F pA W & FV pr W& pr pVA Pressure work DE DE & W & pV n pV n ˆ dA Dt Qnet in shaft cs ˆ dA Dt cs Shaft work DE & W shaft Dt DE & Heat transfer Qnet Dt in .

General Energy Equation 1st Law of Thermo cv equation DE & & Qnet Wshaft pV n ˆ dA edV eV ˆ dA n Dt in cs t cv cs p & & Qnet Wshaft in t cv e d cs e V n ˆ dA z V2 ( e gz u 2 Total Potential Kinetic Internal (molecular spacing and forces) .

.. Simplify the Energy Equation q net m& wshaft m& in 0 Steady & & p Qnet Wshaft in t cv e d cs e V nˆ dA V2 ( e gz u 2 p V 2 ( q net wshaft m & gz u V n ˆ dA in cs 2 Assume. p gz c Hydrostatic pressure distribution at cs ŭ is uniform over cs not uniform over control surface! But V is often ____________ .

Energy Equation: Kinetic Energy 3 V 2 V A V = point velocity cs 2 V nˆ dA 2 V = average velocity over cs V 3 If V tangent to n cs 2 dA 3 V A 2 1 V 3 = kinetic energy correction term _________________________ 3 A cs V dA =___ 1 for uniform velocity .

constant density p V2 ( q net & wshaft m gz u V n ˆ dA in cs 2 V nˆ dA cs m & mass flux rate pout 2 Vout ( pin Vin2 ( q net wshaft m & gzout uout gzin uin & m in 2 2 pin Vin2 ( pout 2 Vout ( gzin in uin q net wshaft gzout out uout 2 in 2 . one- dimensional. Energy Equation: steady.

one- dimensional. constant density pin Vin2 ( pout 2 Vout ( gzin in uin q net wshaft gzout out uout 2 in 2 divide by g ( ( uout uin q net pin Vin2 wshaft pout 2 Vout zin in zout out in 2g g 2g g mechanical thermal ( ( wshaft uout uin q net hhPP hT Lost mechanical g in hL g energy pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout zin in hP zout out hT hL 2g 2g . Energy Equation: steady.

Thermal Components of the Energy Equation V2 ( e gz u 2 ( u cvT c pT For incompressible liquids ( ( uout uin q net Water specific heat = 4184 J/(kg*K) in hL g Change in temperature c p Tout Tin q net Heat transferred to fluid in hL g Example .

The pump supplies a total head of 10 m. Example: Energy Equation (energy loss) An irrigation pump lifts 50 L/s of water from a reservoir and discharges it into a farmer’s irrigation channel. How much mechanical energy is lost? What is hL? cs2 4m 2.4 m .4 m 2m cs1 datum Why can’t I draw the cs at the end of the pipe? pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout zin in hP zout out hT hL 2g 2g h p zout hL hL hp zout hL = 10 m .

What is the pressure in the pipe at the pump outlet? You may assume (for now) that the only losses are frictional losses in the pipeline. and ____ ____.4 m 2m cs1 0 0 0 datum 0 / / / / pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout zin in hP zout out hT hL 2g 2g We need _______ in the pipe. 50 L/s hP = 10 m cs2 4m 2. velocity head loss . . Example: Energy Equation (pressure at pump outlet) The total pipe length is 50 m and is 20 cm in diameter. The pipe length to the pump is 12 m.

44 m What about ? .6 m/s How do we get the frictional losses? Expect losses to be proportional to length of the pipe hl = (6 m)(12 m)/(50 m) = 1. Example: Energy Equation (pressure at pump outlet) How do we get the velocity in the pipe? Q = VA A = d2/4 V = 4Q/( d2) V = 4(0.2 m)2] = 1.05 m3/s)/[ 0.

For a uniform velocity distribution ____ is 1 For laminar flow ______ is 2 1.10 For turbulent flow _____________ Often neglected in calculations because it is so close to 1 .01 < < 1.Kinetic Energy Correction Term: 1 V 3 A V dA cs 3 is a function of the velocity distribution in the pipe.

1 kPa 2(9.81 m/s ) .4 m 2m datum 2 Vout pout hP zout out hL 2g (1.44 m) = 59. Example: Energy Equation (pressure at pump outlet) V = 1.05 hP zout out hL 2g hL = 1.6 m/s) 2 p2 (9810 N/m ) (10 m) (2.6 m/s pout 2 Vout = 1.44 m 50 L/s hP = 10 m 4m 2.4 m) (1.05) 3 2 (1.

Example: Energy Equation (Hydraulic Grade Line . Plot the pressure as piezometric head (height water would rise to in a piezometer) How? .cavitation).HGL) We would like to know if there are any places in the pipeline where the pressure is too high (_________) pipe burst or too low (water might boil .

Example: Energy Equation (Energy Grade Line .4 m 2m datum What is the pressure at the pump intake? pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout zin in hP zout out hT hL 2g 2g .EGL) Loss due to shear HP = 10 m 2 Exit loss p V Entrance loss 2g 50 L/s p = 59 kPa 4m 2.

t. reference pressure) What is the difference between EGL defined by Bernoulli and EGL defined here? . Energy Grade Line Hydraulic Grade Line EGL (or TEL) and HGL p V2 p EGL z HGL z 2g Piezometric Elevation head (w.r.r.t.velocity head datum) head Pressure head (w.

EGL (or TEL) and HGL The energy grade line may never slope upward (in pump direction of flow) unless energy is added (______) The decrease in total energy represents the head loss or energy dissipation per unit weight coincident EGL and HGL are ____________and lie at the free surface for water at rest (reservoir) Whenever the HGL falls below the point in the system for which it is plotted. the local pressures reference pressure are lower than the __________________ .

Example HGL and EGL V2 velocity head 2g p pressure head energy grade line hydraulic grade line z elevation pump z=0 datum 2 2 pin V p V zin in in hP out zout out out hT hL 2g 2g .

Bernoulli vs. Control Volume Conservation of Energy Find the velocity and flow. How would you solve these two problems? pipe Free jet .

Control Volume Conservation of Energy p1 v12 p2 v22 Vin2 2 z1 z2 pin zin in hP pout zout out Vout hT hL 2g 2g 2g 2g Point to point along streamline Control surface to control surface No frictional losses Has a term for frictional losses Based on point velocity Based on average velocity Requires kinetic energy correction factor Includes shaft work Has direction! . Bernoulli vs.

Power and Efficiencies P = FV Electrical power Motor losses Pelectric EI bearing losses Shaft power Pshaft T Impeller power pump losses Pimpeller T Fluid power Pwater QHp Prove this! .

857 efficiency of turbine = 0.45 MW Overall efficiency = 0.893 efficiency of generator = 0.96 Reservoir 50 m Powerhouse 2100 kW Q = 5 m3 Pens /s tock 116 kN·m River 180 rpm solution . Example: Hydroplant Water power = 2.

pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout zin in hP zout out hT hL 2g 2g Energy Equation Review Control Volume equation Simplifications steady constant density hydrostatic pressure distribution across control surface (streamlines parallel) Direction of flow matters (in vs. out) We don’t know how to predict head loss .

Conservation of Energy. and Mass Most problems in fluids require the use of more than one conservation law to obtain a solution Often a simplifying assumption is required to obtain a solution mechanical to heat over a short neglect energy losses (_______) distance with no flow expansion neglect shear forces on the solid surface over a short distance . Momentum.

bends. KE thermal Losses can be minimized by gradual transitions V2 Losses are expressed in the form hL K L 2 g where KL is the loss coefficient . elbows. inlets. pipe size changes greater than Losses due to expansions are ________ losses due to contractions When V. valves.pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout zin in hP zout out hT hL 2g 2g Head Loss: Minor Losses Head (or energy) loss due to: outlets.

Head Loss due to Sudden Expansion: Conservation of Energy z x in out At centroid of control surface Where is p measured?___________________________ pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout zin in hP zout out hT hL 2g 2g pin pout 2 Vout Vin2 hL zin = zout 2g pin pout Vin2 Vout 2 Relate Vin and Vout? Mass hL 2g Relate pin and pout? Momentum .

Vin2 Ain Vout 2 Aout pin Aout pout Aout Momentum is transferred over area corresponding to upstream Ain pipe diameter. 2 Vout Vin2 Vin is velocity upstream. Head Loss due to Sudden Expansion: Conservation of Momentum A2 A1 x 1 2 M1 M 2 W Fp Fp Fss Apply in direction of flow 1 2 M 1 x M 2 x Fp Fp 1x 2x Neglect surface shear M 1x Vin2 Ain M 2 x Vout 2 Aout Pressure is applied over all of section 1. pin pout Aout Divide by (Aout ) g .

Head Loss due to Sudden Expansion pin pout Vin2 Vout 2 Ain Vout Energy hL Mass A V 2g out in 2 Ain Vout Vin 2 Momentum pin pout Aout g 2 Vout 2 2 out 2 in V V 2 Vout 2VinVout Vin2 Vin Vin2 Vout 2 hL hL 2g 2g 2g 2 2 V 2 Ain Ain Vin Vout 2 hl in 1 KL 1 hl 2g A Aout 2g out KL=1 Discharge into a reservoir?_________ .

71m / s Solution .01m 2 Use the momentum equation… 4 V2 0.0005m / s V1 6.5 L/s directly into the air.4m / s 0. Calculate the pressure immediately upstream from the expansion 1 cm 3 cm We can solve this using either the momentum equation or the energy equation (with the appropriate term for 3 the energy losses)! 0. Example: Losses due to Sudden Expansion in a Pipe (Teams!) A flow expansion discharges 0.

(V scoop = 7. The scoop pipe is 10 cm in diameter and elevates the water 3 m. Scoop A scoop attached to a locomotive is used to lift water from a stationary water tank next to the train tracks into a water tank on the train. Draw several streamlines in the left half of the stationary water tank (use the scoop as your frame of reference) including the streamlines that attach to the submerged horizontal section of the scoop. Use the streamlines to help you draw a control volume and clearly label the control surfaces. How fast must the locomotive be moving (V scoop) to get a flow of 4 L/s if the frictional losses in the pipe are equal to 1.7 m/s) .8 V 2/2g where V is the average velocity of the water in the pipe.

Scoop Q = 4 L/s d = 10 cm 3m Vscoop stationary water tank .

Scoop Problem: ‘The Real Scoop’ pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout zin in hP zout out hT hL Energy 2g 2g p1 V12 p2 V22 z1 z2 Bernoulli 2g 2g moving water tank .

In order to solve a problem the flow surfaces need to be at locations where all but 1 or 2 of the energy terms are known When possible choose a frame of reference so the flows are steady . Summary Control volumes should be drawn so that the surfaces are either tangent (no flow) or normal (flow) to streamlines.

momentum. concentrations of species Many problems require the use of several conservation laws to obtain a solution end . energy. Summary Control volume equation: Required to make the switch from Lagrangian to Eulerian Any conservative property can be evaluated using the control volume equation mass.

Scoop Problem

stationary water tank

Scoop Problem:

Change your Perspective

moving water tank

Scoop Problem:

Be an Extremist!

Very long riser tube

Very short riser tube

The orifice coefficient is 0. Draw CV. label CS. CV with constant or changing mass. solve using variables starting with to integration step cs V nˆ dA t dV cv . Example: Conservation of Mass (Team Work) The flow through the orifice is a function of the depth of water in the reservoir Q CAor 2gh Find the time for the reservoir level to drop from 10 cm to 5 cm. The orifice is 2 mm in diameter and is 2 cm off the bottom of the reservoir. The reservoir surface is 15 cm x 15 cm.6.

Example Conservation of Mass Constant Volume V nˆ dA cs t dV cv cs1 h V cs1 1 1 ˆ 1dA 2 V2 n cs2 ˆ 2 dA n 0 cs2 Vres Ares Vor Aor 0 Vor Aor Qor dh Vres dt dh Ares CAor 2 gh 0 dt .

Example Conservation of Mass Changing Volume V nˆ dA cs t dV cv cs1 h Vor Aor t dV cv cs2 dV Ares dh Vor Aor dt dt Vor Aor Qor dh Ares CAor 2 gh 0 dt .

Example Conservation of Mass h t Ares dh CAor 2g h0 h dt 0 Ares 2 h1 / 2 h01 / 2 t CAor 2g 2 0.6 2 9.15m 2 0.002m 2 0.03m 1/ 2 0.8m / s 2 4 t 591s .08m 1/ 2 t 0.

Pump Head 2 Vout pin Vin2 out zin in hP 2g 2g 2 pout Vout zout out hT hL 2g hp Vin2 in 2g .

Example: Venturi .

You may assume the head loss is negligible. h 1 2 . Draw an appropriate control volume. Draw the EGL and the HGL. Example: Venturi Find the flow (Q) given the pressure drop between section 1 and 2 and the diameters of the two sections.

Example Venturi pin Vin2 pout 2 Vout zin in hP zout out hT hL 2g 2g pin pout 2 Vout Vin2 Q VA 2g 2g Vin Ain Vout Aout pin pout V 2 d out 4 d in2 d out 2 Vin Vout 1 out 4 4 2g d in Vin d in2 Vout d out 2 2 g ( pin pout ) Vout 2 d out 1 d out d in Vin Vout 4 d in2 2 g ( pin pout ) Q Cv Aout 1 d out din 4 .

The velocities in the linear momentum equation are relative to …? When is “ma” non-zero for a fixed control volume? Under what conditions could you generate power from a rotating sprinkler? What questions do you have about application of the linear momentum and momentum of momentum equations? . Reflections What is the name of the equation that we used to move from a system (Lagrangian) view to the control volume (Eulerian) view? Explain the analogy to your checking account.

117 K .8 m/s 50 m 2 g J 4184 Kg K ghL q net T in cp T 0. Temperature Rise over Taughanock Falls Drop of 50 meters Find the temperature rise Ignore kinetic energy c p Tout Tin q net in hL T 9.

116 MNm 180 2.96 2.45MW 2.893 2.100 MW egenerator 0.45MW 2.187 MW .857 2.45MW rev 2 rad 1min Pturbine 0.100 MW etotal 0.187 MW min rev 60 s 2. Hydropower P QH p Pwater 9806 N / m 3 5m 3 / s 50m 2.187 MW eturbine 0.

Solution: Losses due to Sudden Expansion in a Pipe A flow expansion discharges 0.71m / s 2 1 p1 4kPa Carburetors and water powered vacuums .71m / s p 1000kg / s 0.5 L/s directly into the air.4m / s 0. Calculate the pressure immediately upstream from the expansion A 1 cm V22 V12 1 p1 p2 A2 3 cm g 3 0.4m / s 0.71m / s 6.0005m / s V 6.01m 1 p1 V2 V1V2 2 A1 V2 2 g A2 V1 4 c p1 V22 V1V2 h V2 0.

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