FUNDAMENTAL OF

COMPUTING -2
Course Name: Concepts in Computing
Course No. : BIF506

INFORMATION
PROCESSING CYCLE

COMPUTER SYSTEMS
 Includes computer hardware and software
 Hardware refers to the physical components of a computer
 Software refers to the intangible components of a
computer system, particularly the programs, or lists of
instructions, the computer needs to perform a specific task

 The design and construction of the hardware of a
particular computer is referred to as its
architecture or configuration

 The technical details about each component are
called specifications 3

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PROCESSING HARDWARE motherboard is the  The main electronic component of the computer  Circuit board  Themicroprocessor is one of the most important pieces of processing hardware on the motherboard  Cards are removable circuit boards 5 .

.HARDWARE  The physical. touchable parts of the computer.

 Software allows you to:  Process words  Calculate numbers  Send an e-mail  Browse the Internet  And many more… . everything in the computer that is not hardware is software.SOFTWARE  A term that is used in contrast to hardware.

INPUT AND OUTPUT  The data or instructions you type into the computer are called input  The result of the computer processing your input is referred to as output  Peripheral devices accomplish input and output functions 8 .

.  Example: The payroll clerk collects workers' timecards so she knows how many hours each person worked and then types the hours from the timecards into a spreadsheet.INPUT  A collection of raw data from the outside world that is put into the computer.

italicize.PROCESSING  Manipulating data  Bold. underline. double space in a word processor  Enter formulas and calculate totals in a spreadsheet  Edit a picture .

DVD  Flash Drive .STORAGE  The place where data is held when it is not needed for processing  Storage Devices are computer components capable of storing digital data  Examples of Storage Devices:  Floppy Disk (almost obsolete)  Hard Drive  CD.

OUTPUT  The results of processed data  Examples of output: A printed paper  A presentation  Audio  Video  Data is entered through various forms (input) into a computer. and then information is presented to a human (output). . the data is manipulated (processing).

such as a keyboard or a mouse. INPUT DEVICES  Youuse an input device. to input data and issue commands  Keyboard  Ergonomic  Pointing device  Controls the pointer  Mouse  Scroll wheel  Trackball  Touch pad  Pointing stick  Scanner 13 .

INPUT DEVICES  Keyboard  Scanner  Digital Camera  Bar code reader  Graphic tablets  And many more… .

OUTPUT DEVICES  Output devices show you the results of processing data  Monitor  Flat panel  LCD  CRT  Printer  Laser  Inkjet  Dot matrix 15 .

PERIPHERALS  AKA—Peripheral Devices  Any hardware device connected to the computer that expands the computer’s input. output and storage capabilities .

you will review several different input and output devices. .INPUT AND OUTPUT DEVICES  As you continue. tell if it is an input or output device and indicate what the devices are used for.  You need to be able to identify each device.

KEYBOARD  The most commonly used input device  It is made up of :  AlphabeticKeys  Numeric Keys  Function Keys  Command Keys  Connected to the computer through a USB connection or wirelessly .

. then you are using an optical mouse. Do you see a red light? If you do.MOUSE  A hand-operated input device that controls the cursor on the screen as you move it around on a desktop  Older = ball style mouse  Newer = “optical” technology  Turn over your mouse.

direction and speed  Useful when carrying a mouse is not practical . sensors underneath detect the movement.TOUCHPAD  An input device used to move the cursor on a laptop computer  As you slide your finger over the surface.

including your lap.TRACKBALL  A pointing device that works like a mouse turned upside down. . the ball in on top of the device  Advantages:  TrackBall is stationary so it does not require much space.  You can place a trackball on any type of surface.

JOYSTICK  Joysticks are input devices. that allow you to move the cursor in any direction  Joysticks were originally used by pilots as part of an airplane's controls. Technology developed to let gamers experience a more realistic game environment . similar to a mouse.

.MICROPHONE  A microphone is used to input sound  The sound is detected by the microphone and an electronic signal is transmitted to the computer  Special hardware is used to convert the analog data (sound) into digital data so it an be stored and manipulated on the computer.

.bmp.gif. .jpeg)  Scanners with optical character recognition can convert text on paper into text that can be edited in a word processor . SCANNER  Scanners are used to convert images or text on paper into a digital image format (.

security and tourism (i. WEB CAM  Web cam is short for ‘web camera’  It is an input device that captures a video or image of the scene in front of it  Some are built into the computer (i. view your favorite animal at the zoo online) .e. others are connected via USB cable  Used for chatting online.e. Laptop).

GRAPHICS TABLET  Graphics tables are used by graphics designers and illustrators to input data  Create accurate drawings on a screen that could not be produced with a mouse or stylus  Usually consists of a tablet that you draw on and a pen that has pressure sensitive tips allowing the artist to draw heavier and lighter lines .

BIOMETRIC DEVICES  AKA—Access Control Devices  Uses a body feature of a person seeking access to identify and authorize that person  Fingerprint scanner  Irisscan  Access card (can be scanned like a credit card or contain a radio frequency transmitter used to identify the card holder)  Britain and Germany have included a microchip in their passport. The microchip contains electronic data unique to each user .

MONITOR  Most commonly used output device  The picture on a monitor is made up of tiny colored dots called pixels  The quality and detail of the picture depends on the number of pixels that the monitor can display .

INK JET PRINTER  An output device that produces a hard copy by spraying ink on paper  Relatively cheap to buy  Can print it both black and white or color  Limitations:  Slow  Not designed for high-volume printing  Ink cartridges are expensive .

LASER JET PRINTER  A output device that prints similar to a photo copy machine  Uses powdered ink called ‘toner’ to fuse onto the paper by heat and pressure  Black and white versions are relatively cheap to purchase  Capable of quick high-volume printing .

SPEAKERS  Most computers have a small internal speaker that produces beeping sounds when you make an error  Computers can be fitted with a sound card which enables sound (audio) to be output through external speakers .

DIGITAL CAMERA  An input device that takes photographs and stores them as digital files on a computer .

PROJECTOR  A device which connects to a computer and is used to project the output from the computer onto a wall or screen. .

TOUCH SCREEN  The only device that serves as both an input and output device  You view the options available to you on the screen (output) and then use your finger to touch the option you have chosen (input) .

PLOTTER  A large document printer which is able to draw high quality images on very large pieces of paper (example: 3 feet wide by 10 feet long)  Used by:  Engineers  Architects  Map makers .

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