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You are on page 1of 27

Lecture #03

By: Pn. Dalila Binti Mohd Harun

Faculty of Engineering Technology, FTK

Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)

2

EQUILIBRIUM OF A PARTICLE IN 2-D

Todays Objectives:

Students will be able to :

a) Draw a free body diagram (FBD), and,

b) Apply equations of equilibrium to solve

a 2-D problem.

Learning Topics:

What, why and how of a

FBD

Equations of equilibrium

Analysis of spring and

pulleys

3

READING QUIZ

1) When a particle is in equilibrium, the sum of forces acting

on it equals ___ . (Choose the most appropriate answer)

A) a constant B) a positive number C) zero

D) a negative number E) an integer.

(T1 and T2) are related as _____ .

A) T1 > T2

B) T1 = T2

C) T1 < T2

D) T1 = T2 sin

4

APPLICATIONS

weight, what are the

forces in cables AB

and AC ?

5

APPLICATIONS (continued)

strength, what is the

maximum weight

that can be lifted ?

6

EQUILIBRIUM OF PARTICLE IN 2-D (Section 3.3)

coplanar force system. If the

whole assembly is in

equilibrium, then particle A is

also in equilibrium.

To determine the tensions in

the cables for a given weight

of the engine, we need to

learn how to draw a free body

diagram and apply equations

of equilibrium.

7

THE WHAT, WHY AND HOW OF A FREE BODY

DIAGRAM (FBD)

Free Body Diagrams are one of the most important things for

you to know how to draw and use.

all external forces acting on the

particle.

equations of equilibrium used to

solve for the unknowns (usually

forces or angles).

8

How ?

1. Imagine the particle to be isolated or cut free from its

surroundings.

2. Show all the forces that act on the particle.

Active forces: They want to move the particle.

Reactive forces: They tend to resist the motion.

3. Identify each force and show all known magnitudes

and directions. Show all unknown magnitudes and /

or directions as variables .

9

Note : Engine mass = 250 Kg FBD at A

EQUATIONS OF 2-D EQUILIBRIUM

force at A is zero.

So FAB + FAD + FAC = 0

or F = 0

Fx i + Fy j = 0 = 0 i + 0 j (A vector equation)

Or, written in a scalar form,

Fx = 0 and Fy = 0

These are two scalar equations of equilibrium (EofE). They

can be used to solve for up to two unknowns.

10

EXAMPLE

+ Fx = TB cos 30 TD = 0

+ Fy = TB sin 30 2.452 kN = 0

Solving the second equation gives: TB = 4.90 kN

SPRINGS, CABLES, AND PULLEYS

deformation, or frictionless

F=k* S pulley, T1 = T2.

12

EXAMPLE

and geometry is as

shown.

Find: Forces in the cables and

weight of sack B.

Plan:

2. Apply EofE at Point E to solve

for the unknowns (TEG & TEC).

3. Repeat this process at C.

13

EXAMPLE (continued)

to the left. Note the assumed

directions for the two cable tensions.

+ Fx = TEG sin 30 TEC cos 45 = 0

+ Fy = TEG cos 30 TEC sin 45 20 N = 0

Solving these two simultaneous equations for the

two unknowns yields:

TEC = 38.6 N

TEG = 54.6 N

14

EXAMPLE (continued)

A FBD for C should look

like the one to the left.

Fx = 38.64 cos 45 (4/5) TCD = 0

Fy = (3/5) TCD + 38.64 sin 45 WB = 0

TCD = 34.2 N and WB = 47.8 N .

15

CONCEPT QUESTIONS

1000 N

1000 N 1000 N

( A) (B) (C)

1) Assuming you know the geometry of the ropes, you cannot

determine the forces in the cables in which system above?

2) Why?

A) The weight is too heavy.

B) The cables are too thin.

C) There are more unknowns than equations.

D) There are too few cables for a 1000 N

weight.

16

IN CLASS TUTORIAL (GROUP PROBLEM

SOLVING)

Given: The car is towed at constant

speed by the 600 N force

and the angle is 25.

Find: The forces in the ropes AB

and AC.

Plan:

2. Apply the EofE to solve for the forces in ropes AB and AC.

17

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued)

600 N

FBD at point A

A

25 30

FAB FAC

+ Fx = FAC cos 30 FAB cos 25 = 0

+ Fy = -FAC sin 30 FAB sin 25 + 600 = 0

Solving the above equations, we get;

FAB = 634 N

18 FAC = 664 N

ATTENTION QUIZ

30 A 40

100 N

F1 F2

A

A) B)

30 40

100 N

A

F F1 F2

C) 30 D) 30 40

A

A

100 N 100 N

19

ATTENTION QUIZ

forces in the x-direction ( FX) is ___ .

Use a sign convention of + . 20 N 50

A) F2 sin 50 20 = 0 C

F1

B) F2 cos 50 20 = 0

C) F2 sin 50 F1 = 0

D) F2 cos 50 + 20 = 0

20

HOMEWORK TUTORIAL

Q1 (2.44) :

Knowing that = 25, determine the tension

(a) in cable AC,

(b) in rope BC.

21

HOMEWORK TUTORIAL (continued)

Q2 (2.46) :

Two cables are tied together at C and are loaded as shown.

Knowing that = 30, determine the tension (a) in cable AC, (b) in

cable BC.

22

HOMEWORK TUTORIAL (continued)

Q3 (2.51) :

Two forces P and Q are applied as shown to an aircraft connection.

Knowing that the connection is in equilibrium and the P = 1.8kN and

Q = 2.3 kN, determine the magnitudes of the forces exerted on the

rods A and B.

23

HOMEWORK TUTORIAL (continued)

Q4 (2.67) :

A 280-kg crate is supported by several rope-and-pulley

arrangements as shown. Determine for each arrangement the

tension in the rope.

(Hint: The tension in the rope is the same on each side of a simple

pulley.)

T T

T

T T

24

HOMEWORK TUTORIAL (continued)

Q5 (3-13) :

Determine the stretch in each spring for equilibrium of the block of

mass M. The springs are shown in the equilibrium position.

Given:

M = 2kg

a = 3m

b = 3m

c = 4m

kAB=30Nm

kAC = 20Nm

kAD = 40Nm

g = 9.81ms

25

HOMEWORK TUTORIAL (continued)

Q6 (3-17) :

Determine the force in each cable and the force F needed to hold

the lamp of mass M in the position shown.

Hint: First analyze the equilibrium at B; then, using the result for

the force in BC, analyze the equilibrium at C.

Given:

M := 4kg

1 := 30

2 := 60

3 := 30

26

27

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