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• To help the quadriplegic patients to move
independently from one place to another with the help
of wheelchair by tilt movement of their head.
• To alert family members in time of emergencies.

• Avoiding obstacles like edges or staircase.

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paralysis and birth defects. 3/14/17 4 . • This may be due to age. high blood pressure. • The patients with such disabilities are not able to perform their everyday actions such as feeding. arthritis. INTRODUCTION • Quadriplegics are persons who are not able to move any of the body parts. toilette usage and movement through space. stroke.

DISADVANTAGES • 100% efficiency cannot be provided in dim environment. Figure1: Eye movement tracking by • Itching or irritations. EYE MOVEMENT BASED WHEEL CHAIR • Eye ball is sensed. EXISTING SYSTEMS 1. camera 3/14/17 5 .

6 . • Magnetic tracer should be removed if the user is undergoing Figure 2:Tongue Drive System MRI.2. TONGUE CONTROLLED WHEEL CHAIR • Tongue is used as the medium. • Users should avoid inserting Ferro magnetic objects into their mouth. DISADVANTAGES • Tongue needs to be pierced.

Figure3: Voice Recognizing System 3/14/17 7 . VOICE RECOGNITION SYSTEM • Controlled by human voice.3. DISADVANTAGES • 5% error. • Not suitable in noisy environment. • Dumps cannot use. • Individual needs to be trained.

Figure4: Brain Controlled Wheelchair 3/14/17 8 . BRAIN CONTROLLED WHEELCHAIR • Brain controls the mechanical device. DISADVANTAGES • Brain impulse varies from person to person.4.

right. forward and backward direction with respect to the motion of head. PROPOSED SYSTEM • Proposes a system in which the wheelchair move towards left. 3/14/17 9 .

Supply 12V Supply 5V. BLOCK DIAGRAM Accelerometer Mechanical Accelerometer (attached to the head Microcontroller Mechanical Wheelchair of the patient) (attached to the head Microcontroller actuator Wheelchair of the patient) actuator ( To microcontroller and other chipsets) ( To motor control unit and motors) Obstacle Obstacle Sensor Sensor Regulated Regulated Power Power Power Power Supply 12V Supply 5V. Figure 5 : Block Diagram 10 .

+y and –y axis). •) Right and forward are the positive motions. •) X axis for left and right motion. -x.BLOCK DIAGRAM EXPLANATION 1) ACCELEROMETER Figure 6: Accelerometer •) An accelerometer is needed to sense the head motion. •) Y axis for forward and backward motions. 3/14/17 11 . •) 2 axis sensing (+x.

Figure7: Internal block diagram 3/14/17 12 .

• The output signals are analog • The demodulated output is voltages.• 3 axis sensing is possible. measurement resolution and helps prevent aliasing. • The analog output is signal conditioned and given to ac • This filtering improves amplifier. acceleration. • Z axis can be combined with both • Phase sensitive modulation of the tilting axis to improve techniques are used to determine angle/ tilt sense precision and the magnitude and direction of accuracy. amplified and brought through a resistor of 32Kohms. 3/14/17 13 .

• 2KB SRAM.2) MICRO CONTROLLER (ATmega8) FEATURES • 8 bit RISC architecture.5V. • 20 MIPS. • 1. • 0-20MHz. • 131 instructions. • Low power consumption.8-5. Figure8:ATmega328 3/14/17 14 . • 1KB EEPROM.

it develops a torque which in turn produces mechanical rotation. • When it is supplied by an electric current.3) MECHANICAL ACTUATOR DC MOTOR • An electric motor is a machine which converts electrical energy to mechanical energy • It is based on the principle of Flemings Left Hand Rule. Figure9: DC Motor • Direction of rotation changed by changing the direction of current. 3/14/17 15 .

• Pins 10 and 15 are the inputs for right motor. • Left motor connected to output pins 3 and 6 . • Pins 1 and 9 need to be high for driving the motor. Figure 10: Pin diagram of L293D 3/14/17 16 . and right motor to output pins 11 and 14.• Pins 1 and 9 are the enable pins. • Pins 2 and 7 are the inputs for left motor.

PIN 2/10 PIN 7/15 DIRECTION LOGIC 1 LOGIC 0 CLOCKWISE LOGIC 0 LOGIC 1 ANTICLOCKWISE LOGIC 1 LOGIC 1 IDLE LOGIC 0 LOGIC 0 IDLE Figure11: L293D Logic table for left and right motor 3/14/17 17 .

• Interfacing between microcontroller and GSM modem is possible by using RS232 serial port. • It requires a SIM(Subscriber Identity Module) card to activate communication with the network. • AT commands are sent to interact microcontroller / processor with GSM network.4) GSM • Wireless MODEM device. Figure12: Block Diagram 3/14/17 18 .

• GSM operates in either 900MHz or 1800MHz. • Both TDMA and FDMA are used. further divided in time using TDMA into 8 time slots. • ARFCN is the unique number given to each radio channel in GSM. 3/14/17 19 . • In FDMA the total 25MHz bandwidth is divided into 124 carrier frequencies of 200KHz bandwidth. • Within GSM900 band ARFCN 1 • Each of these carrier frequency is to 124 is used.

• IR beams are produced from the obstacle sensor. incase of any obstacle. Figure 13Obstacle sensor placed in wheelchair 3/14/17 20 . • It is placed at the bottom of the wheelchair.5) OBSTACLE SENSOR • Obstacle sensor is used to stop the wheelchair. • Intensity of reflected beam is proportional to distance.

6) PULSE-OXIMETER • The sensor unit consists of IR led and photodiode. • The intensity of reflected light Figure14: Pulse-oximeter placed at finger tip depends on the blood volume inside the finger tip. • The IR led transmits light into finger tip. • Finger tip placed over the sensor assembly. 3/14/17 21 . • The photodiode senses the portion of light reflected back.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Figure15: Circuit diagram 3/14/17 22 .

1) FLOWCHART FOR ACCELEROMETER AND MOTOR Start Read the voltages on x and y axis If Vx > Yes 2.5V Move forward No If Vx < Yes 2.5V Move backward 3/14/17 23 .

5V Stop 3/14/17 24 .5V No If Yes Stop the Vx=Vy= wheelchair 2.5V Move right No Yes If Vy< Move left 2. No If Vy > Yes 2.

3)FLOWCHART FOR COLLISION DETECTION Start If obstacle is Yes Stop the detected wheelchair No 3/14/17 25 .

 Accelerometer.  Mechanical Actuator.  Obstacle sensor. SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS:  Embedded C programming.IMPLEMENTATION PLATFORM HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS:  ATmega8 microcontroller. 3/14/17 26 .

• Increase the number of disabled people in employment. ADVANTAGES • Enable young disabled children and their families to enjoy ordinary lives. 3/14/17 27 .

3/14/17 28 . 3. Paralyzed children. 2. APPLICATIONS • This automated wheelchair is valuable for the people who could not move independently like: 1. People with weak or no upper body movement.missing legs and/or arms. Amputees .

CONCLUSION • Automated wheelchair can be used to help handicapped people. especially those who are not able to move. • The low cost of the assembly of this intelligent robotic wheelchair is really a boon for the general public. • The intelligent wheelchair helps the severely disabled people to lead their life in an uncomplicated way. 3/14/17 29 .

3/14/17 30 . pp.443-451.A.2008 [3] Manju Davy. Issue 2. 10. 5(1). Branko Dokic: Wheelchair Control by Head Motion. 2014. IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering. pp. 7(4) pp. Ritula Thakur: A Novel Head Gesture Recognition Based Control for Intelligent Wheelchairs . Y. Levine. Jaros.A. 3. . Bell.Deepa : Hardware Implementation Based On Head Movement Using Accelerometer Sensor . Vol.S. 1. [4] Preeti Srivastava. Dr.C. REFERENCES [1] Aleksandar Pajkanovic. No. R. Koren & J. R. International Journal of Research in Electrical & Electronics Engineering Volume 2. D. Int.391-397.P. 2014.Shaheen & A. Issue 1. April-June. 10-17 [5] S. Journal of Applied Sciences and Engineering Research. International Journal of Engineering and Technology (IJET).Vol. Serbian Journal of Electrical Engineering . 135-151. Simpson. L.2013. Borenstein: The NavChair assistive wheelchair navigation system. [2] S. Chatterjee. February 2013.Umamakeswari: Intelligent Wheelchair For People With Disabilities.