Дэлхийн дотоод бүтэц

24/02/17

Далай Хуурай
газар

х а рг га Эх газ
да в р ын да
н вх
Д алай ар г а

Газрын
давхарга

Crust
Ocea Land
rust
n Continen
c e a ni cC tal
O
Crust

• Thinnest layer of the Earth that ranges from only 2
miles in some areas of the ocean floor to 75 miles
deep under mountains
• Made up of large amounts of silicon and aluminum
• Two types of crust: oceanic crust and continental
crust
• Composed of plates on which the continents and
oceans rest

Turn to an elbow partner and discuss why this statement is true. Next. come up with another example.The Earth’s crust is like the skin of an apple. .

Upper Mantle Convection Middle Currents Mantle Lower Mantle Mantle .

cools. Mantl Upper Mantle Convection Middle Currents e Mantle Lower Mantle • Solid but capable of flow (like hot asphalt or fudge) • Thickest layer of the Earth (making up 70% of the Earth’s mass) • The hot material (magma) in the mantle rises to the top of the mantle. then sinks. reheats. These convection currents cause changes in the Earth’s surface . and rises again.

Oute r Core Inne r Core Core .

Outer
Core
• Molten (liquid) metal that is about
4,700°C (8,500°F)
• Located about 1,800 miles beneath the
crust and is about 1,400 miles thick
• Composed of the melted metals nickel
and iron

Inner
Core
• Solid sphere composed mostly of iron
• It is believed to be as hot as 6,650°C (12,000°F)
• Heat in the core is probably generated by the
radioactive decay of uranium and other elements
• It is solid because of the pressure from the outer
core, mantle, and crust compressing it tremendously

The Earth is like a peach or a boiled egg.
Turn to a seat partner and discuss these
analogies. Come up with another analogy
and be prepared to share.

Crust Mantle Lithosphere – Crust and Outer Core Upper Layer of the Liquid Mantle Layer of the Mantle (asthenosphere) that consists of hot rock of tar-like consistency. which slowly moves Inner Core Solid .

.

The lithosphere (crust and upper mantle) is divided into separate plates which move very slowly in response to the “convecting” part of the mantle. .

What do these two images tell us about the layers of the Earth? .

Temperature increases as depth increases .

Look at the information in the graph and table below. What’s the relationship between depth and density/pressure? .

Density and Pressure increase as depth increases .

Temperature. Density and Pressure increases as depth increases Add this statement to the arrow going down on your foldable. .

Which layer of the Earth has the greatest temperature. and density? Core . pressure.

and a dense metallic core. Summary The earth is layered with a lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle). Pressure.ves/dynamicearth/structure. convecting mantle.learner. temperature.org/interacti as depth increases. and density increases http://www.html .

Lee’s Layers of the Earth Rap .Mr.

Layers of the Earth Review .

Summarizin g Strategy .

in what is known as the crust D) Energy waves allow us to see precisely what is deep inside the Earth.Which of the following statements regarding what we know about Earth’s interior is most accurate? A) We have been able to drill into the earth’s core B) Much about what we know about Earth’s mantle and core comes from caves and mines C) We know only about what is on the very surface of the earth. like a “tricorder” or scanner from Star Trek .

so how do we know what it’s like? Seismic waves! . Earth’s diameter is approximately 12.natural and man-made .500 miles).6 km (~5 mi). -the deepest hole we have ever drilled into the Earth is only 9. Earth’s Interior What we know about Earth’s interior comes from indirect avenues of investigation.756 km (~ 7.

changing the direction the wave is traveling called refraction some energy is absorbed as it encounters materials called attenuation Allow us to model what waves show up at given locations. and when they arrive at given locations. .Earthquakes seismic (energy) waves travel through the earth some energy bounces off harder layers called reflection some energy travels through but gets bent.

Shallow high frequency seismic waves allow us to see reflectors and refractors at depth .

temperature.Wave paths are influenced by density. and the angles at which they strike boundaries as they travel through and around the Earth .

Factors affect seismic waves distance: farther = more attenuation density: higher = faster temperature: colder = faster liquid vs solid .liquid = slower.controls how much is reflected and how much is absorbed vertical arrangement of layers . no s-waves angle of incidence.controls the resultant direction of travel . p-waves and s-waves .solid = faster.

caused by transmissive and refractive properties of the waves interacting with rock and liquid .P-wave and S-wave shadow zones .

Zones of material with distinctive characteristics make up each layer in the Earth Greatly simplified it looks like concentric spheres .

consists of rock formed from felsic and intermediate magma. thick-30 to 85 km thick . consists of rocks formed from mafic magma.10 km thick Continental.most abundant.the rigid outer shell of the Earth.Crust.underlies continents. less dense than oceanic crust. composed of solid rock.averages only 20 km thick (the crust is part of the Lithosphere) two kinds of crust Oceanic. very dense. very thin. very thin.

What will happen as different kinds of crust interact with each other? A) Oceanic and Continental .? .? C) Continental and continental .? B) Old Oceanic and Younger Oceanic .

Model of Lithosphere and Aesthenosphere showing thickness of Oceanic vs Continental crust Oceanic crust Continental crust Uppermost mantle.Aesthenosphere Mohorovicic Discontinuity “The Moho” .

Isopach contour lines = lines of equal thickness of the crust .

The boundary zone between the crust and the mantle is called the Mohorovicic Discontinuity or the “Moho” . Extends down to about 3000 km depth The uppermost part of the mantle is called the Aesthenosphere.a zone of low velocity transmission of seismic waves Mantle.the semi-solid (jello-like) material underlying the crust. mostly molten material .

the mantle material liquefies (due to pressure and temp relationships) It also begins to cool. and slowly starts to sink back into the core This creates a Convection current .The mantle is heated closer to the core Heated mantle material rises upward very slowly millions of years to move upward As it near the earth’s surface.

Two highly schematic models of mantle convection currents .

3D models of mantle convection currents Heated rising material Cooled sinking material .

3D maps of the earth’s convection currents based on seismic wave analysis-complicated looking! .

based on speed of P-wave travel composed of same materials as outer core Important for generating Earth’s magnetic field . along with some other elements (S or N.Earth’s core Divided into an inner and outer zone Outer zone is liquid. some heavier radioactive elements.doesn’t transmit s-waves Probably composed of Nickel (Ni) and Iron (Fe).Sulfur or Nitrogen) Inner core is solid.

Similar to a bar magnet with a positive and negative end .Earth’s magnetic field is created by the rotation of the outer fluid core around the solid inner core This creates an electrical current Generates an electromagnetic Field.

.Earth’s magnetic field fluctuates over time due to the unsteady nature of the geodynamo that is the the outer and inner core QuickTime™ and a YUV420 codec decompressor are needed to see this picture.

creating the Aurora Borealis . forcing them to the north or south pole.Earth’s magnetic field interacts with solar particles.

.Earth’s magnetic field plays a vital role in the development of Plate tectonics theory Identification of a process that allows for Sea Floor Spreading.

Earth’s Layered Structure • Earth’s interior consists of layers • Layers are arranged according to density • Most dense material is at the center – core • Density decreases outward • Density layering includes the hydrosphere (oceans) and atmosphere .

Thickness and Composition of Earth’s Layers .

Earth’s Temperature Structure .

How Do We Know? .

Refraction of Seismic Waves .

. Seismic Waves • Refraction – change in speed and direction when passing through a material of different density.

Other Evidence • Refraction of seismic waves • Density of the entire planet • Gravity (mass) of entire planet • Composition of meteorites • Existence of magnetic field .

Earth’s Magnetic Dynamo .

Earth’s Magnetic Field .

Was it always this way? • Accretion of the protoplanet • Homogeneous structure • Density differentiation .

Density Differentiation • Gravitational effects vary with density of material • Materials must be free to move • Requires plastic flow or fluid flow • Requires heat .

Earth: The Unfinished Planet • Earth continues to lose heat • Volcanism brings material to Earth’s surface • Other processes (subduction) return more dense material to interior • Conclusion: Earth is still under construction! .

Implications of an Unfinished Planet • Volcanism • Earthquakes • Atmospheric and climate change • Effects on life .

Theory of Plate Tectonics • Earth’s lithosphere (crust +uppermost mantle) is divided into plates • Plates move as a result of heat inside the Earth • Plates interact to cause: – Earthquakes – Volcanos – Mountain systems .

more dense Lithosphere to sink back into the asthenosphere • This Convection drives the motion of the plates .What makes the plates move? • Uneven distribution of heat in the upper mantle (Asthenosphere) causes heat to rise in some places • Differences in density cause colder.

Interactions between Plates cause: • Earthquakes • Volcanos • Formation of mountains • Formation of ocean basins • Increase amount of continental lithosphere .

Major Element Composition. – So: Control them and measure desired property in the laboratory! Or compute theoretically • Non-equilibrium properties – Some also depend on minor element composition. Temperature. and history – These are more difficult to control and replicate . How do we find out? • How does interior differ from laboratory? – The significance of the differences depends on the property to be probed • Equilibrium thermodynamic properties – Depend on Pressure.

V/V 0 1. • Probing of sample in 1.04 Bouhifd et al.01 Forsterite 0 GPa 1.00 400 800 1200 1600 2000 Temperature (K) .06 Relative Volume.07 q0±1 0±0. How do we find out? • Experiment 1.05 temperature 1.03 (1996) situ 1.1 pressure and/or 1.02 1.08 • Production of high 1.

15 (2004) S~q 10 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Pressure (GPa) . -dG/dT (MPa K ) -1 • Solve Kohn-Sham 30 MgSiO3 Perovskite 2500 K Equations (QM) Oganov et al. How do we find out? • Theory 35 Temperature Derivative of G. 25 (2002) • Approximations S=S0 Marton & Cohen (2002) S~ 20 S~q Wentzcovitch et al.