resources.“The harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities. National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health (1999) “The adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on them”. needs of the worker”. .

” Mosby’s dictionary .“Burnout is a popular term for the condition of having mental or physical energy depletion after a period of chronic unrelieved job- related stress characterized sometimes by physical illness.

emotional & intellectual exhaustion syndrome manifested by adverse attitude to professional life and other people with the development of a negative self- esteem in the individual experiencing chronic fatigue and .Maslach (1981) defined Burnout as “physical .

anxiety –type disorders. Burnout is a defense characterized by dis- engagement engagement. In stress the physical damage is In burnout the emotional damage is primary. Stress Burnout Stress is characterized by over. the emotions become In Burnout the emotions become blunted over-reactive. In stress. primary The exhaustion of stress affects The exhaustion of burnout affects physical energy motivation & drive. Stress produces panic. phobic and Burnout produces paranoia. Stress produces dis-integration Burnout produces de-moralization Stress can be best understood as a Burnout can be best understood as a loss loss of fuel and energy. depersonalization & detachment . of ideals and hope The depression of stress is The depression of burnout is caused by the produced by the body’s need to grief endangered by the loss of ideals of protect itself and conserve energy hope.


Daylight exposure Lack of support Long working hours Work overload Low wages Lack of incentives and rewards Shift duties . Stressful & Dangerous work environment.

Resource inadequacy Inadequacy of equipment & materials Role conflict Lack of recognition Lack of respect .

Giving care to patients with - Debilitating diseases Urinary incontinence Cognitive deficits. Behavioral disturbances. Communication & Speech deficits Poor prognosis Dying and dead patients Pressure of providing quality care over long periods of time .

Socio-demographic variable Age Sex Marital status Number of children & other domestic load Educational Status Job title Type of institution Experience .

Personality Factors Hardy personality Personal coping strategies Other Sleep & other disorders Occupational Diseases Poor self concept .

Quitting one’s job Job dissatisfaction Lack of marital and familial harmony Decrease in self-esteem Difficulty in concentrating Social isolation Fatigue .

Loss of libido Headache Cold Gastro-intestinal problems Sleep disorders Alcohol & drug abuse Financial losses Decreased quality service .

Organizatio Safe working environment nal Peer group and social Changes support Distribution of work Adequate nurse: patient ratio Clear job descriptions Formal and informal recognition .

Individual •Effective coping strategies changes •Opportunities for higher education •In-service education •Social support •Assistance in family chores •Stress management strategies .