Porphyry Deposits

The Importance of Porphyry Deposits
as a Copper and Gold Resource

Gold Resources Copper Resources

A Geological Cross Section through the Batu
Hijau Porphyry Deposit, Indonesia
(920 million tons of ore grading 0.55 wt.% Cu, 0.42 g/t Au)

Batu Hijau Porphyry Cu-Au Deposit, Indonesia

Batu Hijau Porphyry Cu-Au Ores Hypogene Supergene Malachite Bornite Chalcopyrite .

Spatial Distribution of Porphyry Deposits .

The Origin of Porphyry Cu-Au-Mo Magmas Hydration Melting .

overview .Porphyry-epithermal-skarn system .

Idealized Porphyry Alteration/Mineralization (Lowell and Gilbert. 1970) .

Schematic Porphyry-Epithermal Alteration Sillitoe (2010) .

Porphyry Ore and Alteration Textures Potassic Alteration Bornite Chalcopyrite High Grade Ore Phyllic Alteration .

Potassic Alteration Revealed by Staining .

Hydrothermal Alteration – Chemical Controls 3KAlSi3O8 + 2H+ = KAl3Si3O10(OH)2 + 6SiO2 + 2K+ K-feldspar Muscovite Quartz 2KAl3Si3O10(OH)2 + 2H+ + 3H2O = 3Al2Si2O5(OH)4 + 2K+ Muscovite Kaolinite .

Metal Zonation in Porphyry Systems Bingham Mineral Park .

Tectonic Setting of Porphyry Deposits .

Porphyry metal associations as a function of intrusive composition .

Fluid Overpressure and Porphyry Ore Formation .

Porphyry-Epithermal System Evolution .

Fluid Inclusions in Porphyry Ore Depositing Systems LV inclusions VL inclusions LVHS inclusions Aqueous-carbonic Fluid inclusion .

Pseudosecondary and Secondary Fluid Inclusions 100 m Primary and pseudosecondary fluid inclusions in dolomite . Primary.

Fluid Inclusion Microthermometry .

Salinity Determination from Ice Melting .

Microthermometry of Aqueous Fluid Inclusions .

Salinity Determination from Halite Dissolution .

Isochores for Fluid Inclusions in the System H 2O .

Isochores for Halite-bearing inclusions .

Isochores for the System NaCl-H2O .

P-T-X Relationships in the System NaCl-H 2O .

Salinity-Temperature Relationships in Porphyry Systems Note existence of high temperature VL and LVS inclusions. Iran (Hezarkhani and Williams-Jones. Evidence of boiling or condensation? Data from the Sungun Cu-Mo porphyry. 1997) .

Laser Ablation ICP-MS and Fluid inclusions .

Stable Isotope Data for Porphyry Deposits .

an increase in f H2S and an increase in pH What about temperature? . Chemical Controls on Ore Formation Deposition of Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) CuClo +FeCl2o + 2H2S + 0.5H2O Deposition favoured by an increase in f O2.5O2= CuFeS2 + 3H+ + 3Cl.+ 0.

Decreasing Temperature – the Main Control on Porphyry Copper Ore Formation (Hezarkhani and Williams-Jones. 1998) .

Cu-Mo Zoning in Porphyry Systems Porphyry Cu-Mo deposits are commonly zoned with a deeper. lower temperature chalcopyrite-rich zone. muscovite and quartz. higher temperature molybdenite-rich zone and a shallower. Cooling of an aqueous fluid initially containing 2 m NaCl. .5 m KCl. 4000 ppm Cu and 1000 ppm Mo in equilibrium with K-feldspar. 0.

N a C l 0 .0 10 100 N a C l (w t% ) . and the Nature of the Exsolved Fluid 0 0 F u m a r o le s V o lc a n ic H a lite a e r o s o ls 500 L iq u id P re s s u re (b a r) Vapour 1 .5 D e p th (k m ) o 600 C 1000 s 3 v l P a r titio n in g o 800 C 1500 l v 4 .1 1 .0 1 0 .Magma Emplacement.5 M a g m a tic b F lu id x s P o r p h y r y flu id in c lu s io n s H 2O .

Indonesia Transport of Metals by Vapour? Fumarole emitting magmatic Extinct fumarole gases at 600 oC Ilsemanite Mo3O8. Summit of Merapi volcano.nH2O .

0 Sedimentary Roc ks 2.0 < 1 vol % quartz veins < 0. 2005) .35% C u 5-10 vol.ri ch i n cl u s io n s monzonite Quartz c halc opyrite c ri tic a l -ty p e i n cl u s io n s monzonite 10  m porphyry (Williams-Jones and Heinrich.The Bingham Porphyry Deposit .A Case for the Vapour Transport of Copper sylvite SSE NNW hema tite liq uid op aq ue halite 10  m va por va por 2.5 v a p o r.5 liq uid 10  m Paleo-depth upper lim it of (km) va por c ritic al-type inc lusions 3. % liq uid quartz veins va por b ri n e i n cl u s io n s Equigranular 3.

(2014) . Migdisov et al.The Solubility of Chalcopyrite in Water Vapour Increasing PH2O promotes hydration (and solubility) and increasing temperature inhibits hydration.

A Model for the Formation of Porphyry Deposits .

From Hypogene to Supergene Hypogene Supergene Malachite Bornite Chalcopyrite .

acidity creation 2Fe2+ + 2H2O + 1/2O2 = Fe2O3 + 4H+.+ 2H+ CuFeS2 + 4O2= Fe2+ + Cu2+ + 2SO42- Oxidised zone – Fe and Cu oxides.= Cu2S + 4O2 . Supergene enrichment Leached zone Mineralized gravel Oxidised zone Barren gravel Enriched zone Primary zone Mineralized bedrock Leached zone – acidity creation FeS2 + H2O + 7/2O2= Fe2+ + 2SO42. 2Cu+ + H2O = Cu2O + 2H+ Enriched zone – reduction and sulphide deposition 2Cu+ + SO42.

Supergene enrichment O 2 H Cu 2+ O 2 Malachite Cu2(OH)2CO3 Co Cu ve pri ll ite te Cu Eh 2 O Na t iv eC H u 2O Ch H a lc 2 oc it e pH .

p.J. 2005. Geol.H.E.. A. Ore geology and industrial minerals. J. Stavast.T. 100. Chapter 5. 2009. and Heinrich. Chapter 14...H. Seedorff. (eds) Economic Geology One Hundreth Anniversary Volume. Vapor transport of metals and the formation of magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposits: Econ. p. .1287-1312.. R. 2010. Einaudi.251-298. 195. 3-41..H. Dilles. Springer. M. J. W. Porphyry Deposits: Characteristics and origin of hypogene features in Hedenquist et Al. 1993. L.A. References Evans.. Pirajno. Zurcher.. an introduction: Blackwell Science. Porphyry copper systems: Econ..M.M. 2006. Sillitoe. Hydrothermal processes and mineral systems. Geol. Proffett Jr. F. C. Williams-Jones.. A. E..