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Motion And Its

By.harsh kuchiya
9th A
Measuring Motion

Average Speed = distance covered / time taken
v = d/t
metric unit of speed: m/s
English unit of speed: ft/s
Constant speed:
moving equal distances in equal time periods
an object covering 5 feet each second has a constant
speed of 5ft/s
If speed changes:
Average speed: average over all speeds
Instantaneous speed: speed at any given instant
Constant speed:
this car is moving in a straight line
covering a distance of 1 mi each minute.
The car, therefore, has a constant speed
of 60 mi per each 60 min, or 60 mi/hr.
Speed is the slope of the straight line graph of
distance (on the y-axis) versus time (on the x-
shows how fast and in what
direction an object moves
Velocity: speed + direction of
it is a vector quantity
vector: a quantity that has both
magnitude (size) and direction
ex.: velocity, acceleration, force, etc.
scalar: a quantity without direction
(has only magnitude)
ex.: speed, time, distance, volume,
surface area, etc.
Velocity is a vector that we can represent
graphically with arrows. Here are three different
velocities represented by three different arrows.
The length of each arrow is proportional to the
speed and the arrowhead shows the direction of
Three ways to change motion:
change speed
change direction
change both speed and direction at the same time
Average acceleration: change in velocity over the
time taken to make the change
v f vi vi = initial velocity
a= t vf = final velocity
t = time
Metric unit for acceleration:
unit of velocity = m/s
= m/s2
unit of time s
English unit for acceleration: ft/s2
30 mi/hr 60
60 mi/hr
mi/hr 60 mi/hr 30 mi/hr

Four different ways (A-D) to accelerate a

(A) This graph shows how the speed changes per
unit of time while driving at a constant 30 mi/hr
in a straight line. As you can see, the speed is
constant, and for straight-line motion, the
acceleration is 0.
(B) This graph shows the speed increasing to 50
mi/hr when moving in a straight line for 5 s. The
acceleration is the slope of the straight line
graph of speed (on the y-axis) versus time (on
the x-axis).

result from two kinds of interactions:

contact interactions
interaction at a distance (ex.: gravitational force)
force: a push or a pull
changes the motion of an object
it is a vector: has both magnitude and direction
Graphical Representation of
a Force
represented by an arrow
the tail of a force arrow is placed on the
object that feels the force
the arrowhead points in the direction of
the applied force
the length of the arrow is proportional to
the magnitude of the applied force

Falling Objects
free fall : due to force of gravity on the
the velocity of a falling object does not
depend on its mass
in the absence of air resistance (in a
vacuum) all objects fall at the same
differences in the velocities of falling objects are
due to air resistance
widespread story,
Galileo dropped two
objects with different
weights from the
Leaning Tower of
Pisa. They were
supposed to have hit
the ground at about
the same time,
Aristotle's view that
the speed during the
fall is proportional to
The actual
leaning tower
of Pisa taken
by my friend
Larry Heath,
Professor of
on his recent
trip to Rome
Acceleration Due to
g = 9.8 m/s = 32 ft/s
2 2

Free Fall:
at a constant acceleration caused by
the force of gravity
all objects experience this constant
this acceleration is 9.8 m/s2 or 32 ft/s2
This means that the velocity of a free
falling object increases at a constant rate
(i.e., by 9.8 m/s every one second, or by
32 ft/s every one second)
The velocity
of a falling
increases at
a constant
rate (i.e., by
32 ft/s each
remember the equation for velocity:
v = d/ t
can be rearranged to incorporate acceleration,
distance, and time.
solve for distance:
d = vt
an object in free fall has uniform (constant)
acceleration, so we can calculate the average
velocity as:

v =vi + vf
substitute this equation into d = vt to get

d (v
=i + vf) (t)
vi = 0 (for a free falling object)

d (v
= f) (t)
use the acceleration equation:
v f - vi
= t
but vi = 0 , which gives a = vf /t
Solve for vf :
vf = at
Substituting vf in the equation for d above, we get:
(at) (t)

with every
second of
falling. The
covered is
to the square
of the time
(d t2).
The Equations of Motion

There are three equations

which together are known
as the equations of motion.
When can I use
The Equations of
when acceleration is constant
(uniform) and motion is in a straight
Do I have to learn
The Equations of
You need to be able to:
select the correct formula
identify symbols and units
carry out calculations to
solve the problems of real-life
Do I have to learn
The Equations of

You need to be able to:

carry out experiments to verify

the equations of motion
To do this fully, you might find
it an interesting challenge

understand where the

equations come from.
The Equations of
Equation 1

v = u + at
Label the formula using correct symbols and units
Equation 3
Start with Equation 1

v = u + at
Equation 3
and square it

v2 = (u + at) 2
Equation 3
v2 = u + 2uat + a t
2 2 2

v2 = u2 + 2a(ut+ at2)

Equation 2!
Equation 3

v2 = u + 2as
Using the
Equations of Motion

What do we need to think about

when using the equations of
Using the
Equations of Motion
What do the following quantities
have in common?

velocity displacement

Using the Equations of Motion
Step 1: Write down the sign convention.
Step 2: Write down what you know (think
s displacement
u initial velocity
v final velocity
a acceleration
t time

Step 3: Any other information,

eg acceleration due to force of gravity?
Using the Equations of Motion

Step 4: Select formula use data sheet.

Step 5: Substitute values then rearrange

Step 6: Write the answer clearly, including

magnitude and direction, and units.