Using RMAN to Create Backups

5

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Objectives
After completing this lesson, you should be able to: • Create image file backups • Create a whole database backup • Create a full database backup • Enable fast incremental backup • Create duplex backup sets • Back up a backup set • Create an archival backup for long-term retention • Create a multisection backup • Create a compressed backup • Create an encrypted backup • Report on and maintain backups
5-2 Copyright © 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Creating Backup Sets

RMAN> BACKUP AS BACKUPSET 2> FORMAT '/BACKUP/df_%d_%s_%p.bus' 3> TABLESPACE hr_data;
Datafile 1 Datafile 2 Datafile 3 Datafile 1 Datafile 2 Datafile 3

Tablespace HR_DATA

Backup set

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Creating Image Copies

RMAN> BACKUP AS COPY DATAFILE '/ORADATA/users_01_db01.dbf'; RMAN> BACKUP AS COPY ARCHIVELOG LIKE '/arch%';

Copy of data file 3
Data file 3 Data file 3

Copy of archived log
Archived log file Archived log file
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Creating Image Copies Full Notes Page

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Creating a Whole Database Backup

RMAN> BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG;

Archived log file copies

Data file copies

Control file

SPFILE

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Creating a Whole Database Backup Full Notes Page

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Saving Backup Space with Unused Block Compression
The following blocks may be skipped during certain types of backup operations: • Unallocated blocks: These are above the data file’s high-water mark (HWM). • Unused blocks: These are blocks that have been allocated but no longer belong to a segment.

Unused

Allocated HWM Unallocated

Data file

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RMAN Backup Types
• A full backup contains all used data file blocks. • A level 0 incremental backup is equivalent to a full backup that has been marked as level 0. • A cumulative level 1 incremental backup contains only blocks modified since the last level 0 incremental backup. • A differential level 1 incremental backup contains only blocks modified since the last incremental backup.
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Full, or "level 0 incremental backup"

Cumulative incremental backup

Differential incremental backup

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RMAN Backup Types Full Notes Page

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Fast Incremental Backup
Implemented by block change tracking, which: • Maintains a record of what blocks have changed since the last backup • Writes this record to a file, as redo is generated • Is automatically accessed when a backup is done, making the backup run faster
List of changed blocks Redo generation

CTWR

1011001010110 0001110100101 1010101110011

Change tracking file Redo log

SGA

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Enabling Fast Incremental Backup

ALTER DATABASE {ENABLE|DISABLE} BLOCK CHANGE TRACKING [USING FILE '...']

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Monitoring Block Change Tracking

SQL> SELECT filename, status, bytes 2 FROM v$block_change_tracking; SQL> 2 3 4 5 5 6 7 8
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SELECT file#, avg(datafile_blocks), avg(blocks_read), avg(blocks_read/datafile_blocks) * 100 AS PCT_READ_FOR_BACKUP, avg(blocks) FROM v$backup_datafile WHERE used_change_tracking = 'YES' AND incremental_level > 0 GROUP BY file#;
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Creating Duplexed Backup Sets
To create a duplexed backup set, use: • CONFIGURE ... BACKUP COPIES • BACKUP...COPIES
Data file 1 Data file 2 Data file 3

Data file 1 Data file 2 Data file 3

Data file 1 Data file 2 Data file 3

Tablespace HR_DATA

Backup set Backup set copy 1 copy 2

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Creating Duplexed Backup Sets Using CONFIGURE BACKUP COPIES
Two copies of the backup are made to two different tapes.

RMAN> CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG BACKUP COPIES 2> FOR DEVICE TYPE sbt TO 2; RMAN> CONFIGURE DATAFILE BACKUP COPIES 2> FOR DEVICE TYPE sbt TO 2; RMAN> BACKUP DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG; RMAN> BACKUP DEVICE TYPE DISK AS COPY DATABASE;
Not affected by the COPIES configuration setting. Only one copy is made on disk.

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Creating Duplexed Backup Sets Using BACKUP COPIES

RMAN> BACKUP AS BACKUPSET DEVICE TYPE sbt 2> COPIES 2 3> INCREMENTAL LEVEL 0 4> DATABASE;

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Creating Backups of Backup Sets

RMAN> BACKUP DEVICE TYPE DISK AS BACKUPSET 2> DATABASE PLUS ARCHIVELOG; RMAN> BACKUP DEVICE TYPE sbt BACKUPSET ALL;
Datafile 1 Datafile 2 Datafile 3 Archived redo logs Datafile 1 Datafile 2 Datafile 3 Archived redo logs

Backup sets

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Backing Up Read-Only Tablespaces
Considerations for backing up read-only tablespaces: • Backup optimization causes RMAN to back up read-only tablespaces only when there does not exist a backup that satisfies the retention policy. • If you change the tablespace to read/write, back it up immediately. • You can use the SKIP READONLY option of the RMAN BACKUP command to skip read-only tablespaces or data files.

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Archival Backups: Concepts
Archival backup

Log 250

Log 900 Backup S

Backup A

Backup B

Now

End of Q1

Recovery window of 7 days

Log nnn

and

Backup Backup

Not needed for retention policy Needed for retention policy

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Archival Backups: Concepts Full Notes Page

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Creating Archival Backups with EM

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Creating Archival Backups with RMAN
When the database is in the OPEN state, specifying the KEEP clause causes both data file and archive log backup sets to be included.
KEEP {FOREVER | UNTIL TIME [=] ' date_string '} [RESTORE POINT rsname]

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Managing Archival Database Backups

1

Archiving a database backup:

RMAN> CONNECT TARGET / RMAN> CONNECT CATALOG rman/rman@catdb RMAN> CHANGE BACKUP TAG 'consistent_db_bkup' 2> KEEP FOREVER;

2

Changing the status of a database copy:

RMAN> CHANGE COPY OF DATABASE CONTROLFILE NOKEEP;

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Multisection Backups: Overview
Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4 Channel 5 Channel 6 One large data file
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Section 1 Section 2 Section 3

Section 4 Section 5 Section 6

Creating RMAN Multisection Backups

BACKUP <options> SECTION SIZE <integer> [M | K | G] VALIDATE DATAFILE <options> SECTION SIZE <integer> [M | K | G]

Example:
RMAN> BACKUP DATAFILE 5 SECTION SIZE = 25M TAG 'section25mb'; backing up blocks 1 through 3200 piece handle=/u01/.../o1_mf_nnndf_SECTION25MB_382dryt4_.bkp tag=SECTION25MB comment=NONE ... backing up blocks 9601 through 12800 piece handle=/u01/.../o1_mf_nnndf_SECTION25MB_382dsto8_.bkp tag=SECTION25MB comment=NONE
5 - 25 Copyright © 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Compressing Backups
RMAN can perform binary compression on any backup generated. • It can be performed in addition to unused block compression. • By default, RMAN uses the ZLIB compression algorithm. • BZIP2 is an alternative algorithm, and generally differs from ZLIB in the following respects:
– It has a better compression ratio. – It is slower.

• No extra steps are required by the DBA to restore a compressed backup.

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Encrypting Backups
Password: **********

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Encrypting Backups
Password: **********

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Backing Up Recovery Files
• Back up only the files in the Flash Recovery Area:
RMAN> BACKUP RECOVERY AREA

• Back up all recovery files:
RMAN> BACKUP RECOVERY FILES

Flash Recovery Area

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Using a Media Manager
Server session (channel)

Recovery Manager

Oracle Secure Backup with built-in MML

Or

Media Management Library Media management server software

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Using a Media Manager Full Notes Page

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Performing Proxy Copies
Recovery Manager Server session (channel)

Media Management Library

Media management server software

Storage Area Network (SAN)

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Creating an Oracle-Suggested Backup

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Managing Backups: Reporting
Use the following RMAN commands to obtain information about your backups: • LIST: Displays information about backup sets, proxy copies, and image copies recorded in the repository • REPORT: Produces a detailed analysis of the repository • REPORT NEED BACKUP: Lists all data files that require a backup • REPORT OBSOLETE: Identifies files that are no longer needed to satisfy backup retention policies

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Managing Backups: Reporting Full Notes Page

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Managing Backups: Dynamic Performance Views
Query the following dynamic performance views in the target database to obtain information about your backups: • V$BACKUP_SET: Backup sets created • V$BACKUP_PIECE: Backup pieces that exist • V$DATAFILE_COPY: Copies of data files on disk • V$BACKUP_FILES: Information about all files created when creating backups

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Using Enterprise Manager to View Backup Reports

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Managing Backups: Cross-Checking and Deleting
Use the following RMAN commands to manage your backups: • CROSSCHECK: Verifies the status of backups and copies recorded in the RMAN repository against media such as disk or tape • DELETE EXPIRED: Removes only files whose status in the repository is EXPIRED • DELETE OBSOLETE: Deletes backups that are no longer needed

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Summary
In this lesson, you should have learned how to: • Create image file backups • Create a whole database backup • Create a full database backup • Enable fast incremental backup • Create duplex backup sets • Back up a backup set • Create an archival backup for long-term retention • Create a multisection backup • Create a compressed backup • Create an encrypted backup • Report on and maintain backups
5 - 39 Copyright © 2007, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Practice 5 Overview: Creating Backups
This practice covers the following topics: • Taking an archival backup • Enabling block change tracking • Recovering from a damaged block • Reporting on existing backups • Backing up the control file • Creating an encrypted backup • Creating a compressed backup • Using the Media Management Library to take backups

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