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Module 1: Work Zone Traffic

Control
Overview of Module 1
Underlying principles of work zone traffic
control
Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Device
(MUTCD)
Features of work zone traffic control
Hazards associated with work zone traffic
control
Injury prevention techniques
Summary
Work Zone Traffic Control
Influences drivers perception of risk
Provides information on potential hazards
Minimizes aggressive behavior
Assists in navigation
Engineering concerns for work zones
Primary focus: Safe and efficient movement
of vehicles through work zone
Relatively less emphasis on safety of
construction workers
Type of Barrier
Rigid Barriers
Provide separation between
Opposing traffic lanes Concrete barrier
Traffic lanes and work area separating traffic
Cause damage to motorists if struck lanes and work area

Concrete barrier
separating
opposing traffic
Type of Barrier
Flexible barriers (channelizing devices)
Provide nominal protection for workers
Flexible and deformable, do not cause damage if struck
Concrete barriers to
separate work area

Flexible barrier
separating traffic Channelizing devices
lanes and work area for delineation
Sample Road Projects and
Potential Hazards

Vehicles parked within work


area

Passing traffic in close proximity


to the on-foot worker with minimal
protection from flexible barrier
Flashing arrow board is not
operating
Components of Temporary Traffic
Control Zones (Source: MUTCD 2003)

Advanced Warning Area


Transition Area Downstream Taper

Buffer space
(longitudinal)
Termination Area:
lets traffic resume
normal operations

Activity Area
Traffic Space
allows traffic to
pass through Work space is set
the activity aside for workers,
equipment, and

Work space
area
material storage
Activity Area: where
Buffer Space work takes place

Traffic space
(Lateral)
provides Buffer Space (longitudinal)
protection from provides protection for
traffic and traffic and workers

Buffer space
workers

Termination Area
Transition Area:
moves traffic out of its
normal path
Work Space

Shoulder Taper

Advance Warning Area:


Work zone tells traffic what to
expect ahead
Worker Safety Considerations in
Work Zone Traffic Control
Modifying traffic control strategies to influence
drivers perception of risk
Leads to more careful and slower driving
Improves safety for the workers
Examples:
Providing active warning devices
Illuminated arrow boards
Reliable advisory speed limit
Active message with flashers
Narrower lane widths
Longer and/or wider buffer zones
Rigid barriers to separate workers from travel lanes
Positive Guidance Approach
May be used to improve safety in work zones
Combines highway/traffic engineering features
with what rational drivers expect
Considers:
Various age groups of drivers
Complexity of work zone information handling
Limited capability of humans for detecting, processing,
and remembering information
MUTCD Manual on
Uniform Traffic Control Devices
Recognized as the national standard
Enforcement agencies often adopt it by
reference
Provides guidance, options and
supporting materials
To assist professionals in making
decisions regarding the use of traffic
control on streets and highways
MUTCD- Part 6:
Temporary Traffic Control
Primary function of
temporary traffic control:
To provide for reasonably safe and
efficient movement of road users
through or around temporary traffic
control zones while reasonably
protecting workers, responders to
traffic incidents, and equipment
Temporary Traffic Control
Work zones present constantly
changing conditions
Unexpected by the road user
Creates higher degree of vulnerability for
workers
Temporary Traffic Control
Devices
Temporary traffic control (TTC)
devices include
Signs
Signals
Markings
Other devices
Used to regulate, warn, or guide
road users
Types of TTC Applications
Each TTC zone is different
Many variables affect the needs of each zone:
Location of work
Duration of work
Highway type
Geometrics
Vertical and horizontal alignment, intersections,
interchanges, etc.
Road user volumes
Road vehicle mix (buses, trucks, and cars) and
road user speeds
Work Duration
Major factor in determining the number and types of devices
used in TTC zones
As per the MUTCD, five categories of work duration are
defined:
Long-term stationary is work that occupies a location more
than 3 days
Intermediate-term stationary is work that occupies a location
more than one daylight period up to 3 days, or nighttime work
lasting more than 1 hour
Short-term stationary is daytime work that occupies a location
for more than 1 hour within a single daylight period
Short duration is work that occupies a location up to 1 hour
Mobile is work that moves intermittently or continuously.
Long Term Stationary Work
(more than 3 days)

Typically utilize a full range of TTC


procedures and devices
Project duration far exceeds installation
time of TTC
TTC elements may include:
Larger channelizing devices, temporary
roadways, and temporary traffic barriers
Retroreflective and/or illuminated devices
Intermediate-Term Stationary Work
(up to 3 days, or nighttime work lasting more than 1 hour)

May not be practical to use the same


procedures or devices for long-term
stationary TTC zones
Such as altered pavement markings, temporary
traffic barriers, and temporary roadways
Increased time to place and remove these
devices could significantly lengthen the
project, thus increasing exposure time
Short-Term Stationary Work
(more than 1 hour within a single daylight period)

Most maintenance and utility operations are short-


term stationary work
Include activities that might involve different
treatments
Devices having greater mobility might be necessary
Signs mounted on trucks
Appropriately colored or marked vehicles with
rotating/strobe lights may be used in place of signs
and channelizing devices
May be augmented with signs or arrow panels
Short Duration Work
(up to 1 hour)

Often takes longer to set up and remove the TTC


zone than to perform the work
Workers face hazards in setting up and taking down the
TTC zone
Delays affecting road users are significantly increased
when additional devices are installed and removed
Simplified control procedures may be warranted for
short-duration work
Reduction in the number of devices
Use of high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or
strobe lights on work vehicles
Mobile Work
Often involve frequent short stops for activities
Such as litter cleanup, pothole patching, or utility operations,
and are similar to short-duration operations
TTC zones may includes:
Warning signs, high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or
strobe lights on a vehicle, flags, and/or channelizing devices
Flaggers
A shadow vehicle equipped with an arrow panel or a sign
following the work vehicle
Appropriately colored and marked vehicles with signs, flags,
high-intensity rotating, flashing, oscillating, or strobe lights,
truck-mounted attenuators, and arrow panels or portable
changeable message signs may follow a train of moving
work vehicles
Worker Safety Considerations
Key elements that SHOULD be
considered to improve worker
safety:
Training
Worker safety apparel
Temporary traffic barriers
Speed reduction measures
Planning of activity area
Planning for worker safety
Worker safety apparel
Worker Safety Consideration -
TRAINING
All workers should be trained on:
Working safely adjacent to vehicular traffic
Work zone traffic control techniques
Device Usage
Safety devices
Traffic control devices
Placement of traffic control devices
Relevant OSHA Regulation
29 CFR 1926.21, Safety Training and Education
Worker Safety Consideration-
WORKER SAFETY APPAREL
Workers near motor vehicle traffic should wear
bright, visible clothing
Relevant OSHA Regulation
29 CFR 1926.95, Criteria for Personal Protective
Equipment
Worker Safety Consideration -
TEMPORARY TRAFFIC BARRIERS
Barriers shall be placed along the
work zone depending on:
Lateral clearance of workers from
adjacent traffic
Speed of traffic
Duration and type of operations
Time of day
Volume of traffic
Relevant OSHA Regulations
29 CFR 1926.200(g), Traffic Signs
29 CFR 1926.201, Signaling
29 CFR 1926.202, Barricades
Concrete Barriers
Worker Safety Consideration
SPEED REDUCTION MEASURES
Speed of passing motorists may
be influenced by:
Regulatory speed zoning
Funneling
Use of law enforcement
Lane reduction
Presence of flaggers
Worker Safety Consideration
PLANNING THE ACTIVITY AREA
Plan internal work space and activities
Minimize the use of backing maneuvers of
construction vehicles
Minimize interactions between on-foot workers,
equipment and trucks
Minimize worker exposure to risk
Develop internal traffic control plan and
operations
Refer to Module 2: Safe Operations and Internal
Traffic Control in the Work Space
Worker Safety Consideration
PLANNING FOR WORKER SAFETY
Hazard assessment should be conducted based
on:
Characteristics of work site
Job classifications required in the work area
Must comply with all relevant OSHA regulations
Assess worker risk exposures for each job site and
job classification
29 CFR 1926.20, General Safety and Health
Provisions
29 CFR 1926.20 (b) (2)
Optional Worker Safety Elements
Shadow Vehicle with Impact Attenuator
Road Closure
Police enforcement
Additional Lighting
Special Devices
Rumble strips
Changeable message signs
Hazard identification beacons
Flags
Warning lights
Intrusion warning devices
Rumble strips
Optional Worker Safety Elements -
SHADOW VEHICLE
Common for mobile and constantly moving
operations
Should be equipped
with:
Appropriate lights
Warning signs
Shadow vehicle with rear
Rear-mounted impact
attenuator mounted crash attenuator
Truck Mounted Attenuator

Crash with a truck


with a truck mounted
impact attenuator

Crash with a
truck without an
impact attenuator
Optional Worker Safety Elements -
ROAD CLOSURE
Reduce worker vulnerability to risk of injury
Provide more spacious areas to conduct work
activities
Eliminate threat of intruding vehicles from
passing traffic
Aid in faster project
completion

Freeway closure for one


direction of traffic
Optional Worker Safety Elements -
USE OF POLICE ENFORCEMENT
Police units may be
stationed in a work zone to:
Heighten awareness of
passing motorists
Improve safety through work
zone by enforcing speed limits
Optional Worker Safety Elements -
LIGHTING
Additional lighting should
be provided at work
zones that operate
during the night
Nighttime work requires
extra caution due to:
Poor night time visibility
Nighttime work is
Impairment of workers related common in highway/street
to fatigue construction projects
Impairment of drivers
Sample Work Zone Traffic Control
Layout
For a Single Lane Closure as per MUTCD
Pre-construction speed limit is 70 mph

Media
REDUCED
SPEED
SPEED
XX LIMIT
AHEAD XX

n
REDUCED SPEED
SPEED LIMIT
XX
AHEAD XX Flashing
W21-4 W20-5 R2-5b W4-2R R2-1 Arrow Panel G20-2

1400 700 700 700 700 700 600

KEY Note: Distance in feet,


Channelizing Devices
Sign Location drawing not to scale
Work Zone Traffic Control
MUTCD provides minimum requirements
Various demanding situations may warrant
enhanced safety precautions, such as:
Nighttime work
Inclement weather conditions
Unusual roadway geometry and environment
Combinations of the above
Going beyond existing standards/guidelines may
be necessary to ensure highest levels of traffic
and worker safety
Work Zone Traffic Control Hazards
and
Injury Prevention Techniques
Hazards of Work Zone Traffic
Control
Common Hazards
Passing motorist intruding into the work space
Hazards related to flagging
Nighttime hazards
Hazards of Work Zone Traffic
Control
Causal Factors
Conditions unexpected by the moving traffic
Violation of driver expectancy
Conditions unexpected by the workers
Aggressive drivers
Unplanned work zone/activity
Injuries can occur due to
Motorists mistakes
Workers mistakes
Deficiencies in the work zone environment
General Preventive Measures
Traffic Control On-foot workers
Use additional Flaggers Use portable radio
warning devices Use a flashing communication
slow/stop paddle equipment
Maintain signs
properly
Use Proper lane
markings

Law enforcement
Use officers and radar
surveillance for traffic speed
control
Hazard: Passing Motorists
Intruding Into Work Space
Causes of Hazards
High approach speed
Improper geometry of the
lane shift
Improper traffic control
Inadequate information No physical separation between
system
work space and traffic lane
Hazard mitigation measures
Use of proper speed reduction methods
Proper design of the wok zone
Provide effective traffic control measures
Hazard: Passing Motorists
Intruding Into Work Space
Preventive Measures:
Exceed minimum standards/guidelines
for traffic control
Rumble strips
Lane drop arrows
Lighted raised pavement markers
Radar triggered speed display
Safety warning system
Truck may intrude into
Combinations of the above the work zone
Sample Work Zone Traffic Control
Layout With Additional Safety
Features
For a Single Lane Closure
Retroreflective Raised
Pavement Markers

Temporary RumbleWhite Pavement


Your
Radar Triggered
Increase BufferSpeed is

Strips Markings Symbol XX Speed Display


Area

REDUCED SPEED
SPEED LIMIT
XX
AHEAD XX
Flashing
W21-4 W20-5 R2-5b W4-2R R2-1 G20-2
Arrow Panel

D D D D D L D

KEY : Truck Mounted


Channelizing Devices Attenuator
Sign Location
D Distance Between Traffic Control Devices

L Length of Longitudinal Buffer Space


Innovative Technologies for
Hazard Control
Vertical safetycade
CB wizard alert system
Radar triggered speed display
White lane drop arrows
Lightguard lighted raised pavement
markers
Removable orange strips
Flashing slow/stop paddle
Vertical Safetycade
Designed to replace standard channelizing
devices
Benefits:
Better visibility
More positive guidance
Greater portability
Improved recoverability
Collapsible frame
Vertical Safetycades
CB Wizard Alert System
Trailer-mounted system
Broadcasts a recorded CB Wizard
message to all CB- Advanced
Warning Unit
equipped motorists
Notify drivers of
downstream work zones CB Wizard Unit
Allows truck drivers to
lower their speeds in
advance of work zone
Radar-Triggered Speed Display
Back-lit dynamic speed
display
Standard speed limit sign
Strobe flash (optional)
Strobe will flash when a vehicle
exceeds a certain speed
Trailer mounted
Lane Drop Arrows
Alert driver in
advance of lane
closure
Encourage drivers to
reduce speed and
move to the open
lane
Lightguard Lighted Raised Pavement
Markers
Provide greater visibility in work zones
Can be:
Flashing lights
Racing lights
Steady-burn lights

Without Lightguard
With Lightguard Lighted Raised
Lighted Raised Pavement Markers
Pavement Markers
Removable Orange Rumble Strips
Alert motorists of a work
zone
Benefits:
Highly visible
Repeating rumble sound
Vibration of the steering
wheel
Easy to install and
remove
Reduce approach speed
Flashing Slow/Stop Paddle
Consists of a standard
paddle with a strobe
light mounted on its
face
Increases flagger
visibility to passing
motorists
Hazard: Flagging Operation
20 flaggers die each year from being Nonstandard
paddle
struck by a motorist height
Flagging can be hazardous as a result of:
High speed of passing traffic
Aggressive drivers in traffic stream
Insufficient stopping sight distance for motorists
Improper procedures used by flaggers
Not wearing personal protective equipment
Inattention
Use of nonstandard equipment
Improper flagging techniques
Hazardous environmental conditions
Fog, obstructions, wet pavements Paddle
inclined
Injury Prevention
Techniques for Flaggers
Wear high visibility clothing
Appropriate for expected weather
(rain gear, warm coat, etc.)
High visibility hard hat
Use a standard SLOW/STOP
paddle or flag
Flags are for emergency purposes
only
Injury Prevention
Techniques for Flaggers
STAY ALERT, keep focused on
your work
Stand alone on shoulder in clear
view, not in the open traffic lane
Plan an escape route for
emergencies
Stay in communication with the
other flaggers
Treat motorists with respect
Obtain proper training for flaggers,
including safety training
Injury Prevention
Techniques for Flaggers
Flaggers must avoid
Standing where the flagger can be hit
by a vehicle
Standing in the shade, around a sharp
curve
Standing in a group
Standing near equipment
Making unnecessary conversation
Reading or day dreaming
Listening to music or using ear phones
Turning their back to approaching
traffic
Hazard: Nighttime Traffic Control
Nighttime traffic control is more
challenging
Poor visibility for drivers
Poor visibility for workers
Impaired or drowsy drivers
Sleep deprived workers
Nighttime Traffic Control
Injury Prevention
Use special precautions for
nighttime traffic control
Retro-reflective clothing
Flashing lights on body/clothing
Retro-reflective tape on equipment
Good work area lighting
Summary of the Module
Work zone traffic creates serious hazards for
motorists and workers
Provisions of MUTCD may not be sufficient for
preventing injuries/fatalities of on-foot workers
Additional injury prevention techniques should
be implemented to prevent injuries to on-foot
workers
Positively guiding traffic through the complex
work zone is the key to safety