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Lecture 3

:

Attention and Comprehension

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Objectives
• Understand the concepts of exposure and attention, inference and comprehension • Identify the factors that influence these elements • Relate these concepts to marketing strategy

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Exposure to Information
• Critical for consumers’ interpretation processes • Consumers must be exposed first to information in the environment including marketing strategies for them to be able to understand information.

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Two Types of Exposure
• Intentional – consumers are exposed to some marketing information because of their own intentional, goal-oriented search behavior • Accidental – random or semi-random events that occur as consumers move through their environments and “accidentally” come into contact with marketing information

Exposure to Information
• Levels of intentional exposure to marketing information are rather low

Selective Exposure to Information
• Increased amount of marketing information in the environment
– Consumers become more adept at avoiding exposure – Selective exposure

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Exposure to Information- Marketing implications
• Strategies to enhance consumers exposure to information and products:
– Facilitate intentional exposure
• by training salespeople to provide necessary information to consumers when and where they need it; brochures; websites, etc.

– Maximize accidental exposure
• through locating in high traffic areas such as malls, busy intersections, downtown; selection of appropriate media and using alternative ways to advertise in taxicab, sports stadium, boats, buses, blimps, shopping carts, etc.
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Exposure to Information- Marketing implications
• Strategies to enhance consumers exposure to information and products:
– Create appropriate level of exposure – Maintain exposure
• by consistently placing advertisements in TV, print, radio, etc.

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Short Video
• Product Placement • Product displacement

Attention Processes
• Attention implies selectivity • Attention connotes awareness and consciousness • Consumers need to be:
– Conscious – Alert – Aroused

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Variations in Attention
• Preconscious attention
– Highly automatic, unconscious level

• Focal attention
– Controlled conscious level

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Factors Influencing Consumers’ Attention
• Affective states
– Can influence attention processes

• Involvement
– Motivational state guiding stimuli selection for focal attention and comprehension

• Environmental Prominence
– Stimuli must be a prominent feature in the environment to attract attention

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Some examples
• Jennifer Aniston on Smart Water

Attention Processes- Marketing implications
• Intrinsic self-relevance
– Why do consumers find a product to be selfrelevant?

• Situational self-relevance
– Generates higher levels of involvement and motivation to attend to marketing information

• Factors affecting environmental prominence
– Vivid pictorial images – Novel or unusual stimuli – Clutter
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Ads

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Comprehension
• Interpretation processes by which consumers understand or make sense of their own behavior

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Variations in Comprehension

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Variations in Comprehension cont.
• Automatic processing
– Unconscious – Automatic

• Level
– Shallow – Deep

• Elaboration
– Less – More

• Memorability
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Inferences During Comprehension
• Inferences- interpretations that produce knowledge or beliefs that go beyond the information given
– Large role in the construction of means-end chains – Influenced by consumers’ existing knowledge in memory – Consumers use cues in making inferences – Marketers may try to stimulate consumers to form inferences during comprehension
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Inferences about the Good Housekeeping Seal

Let’s see what we can infer from these…

Let’s see what we can infer from these…
• Woman • TVC

Factors Influencing Comprehension
• Knowledge in memory
– Expert consumers – Novice consumers – Need to understand existing knowledge structures of target audience to develop effective marketing strategies

• Involvement
– Has a major influence on consumers’ motivation to comprehend marketing information at the time of exposure
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Factors Influencing Comprehension cont.
• Exposure environment
– Can affect consumers’ opportunity to comprehend marketing information – Factors influencing consumer comprehension:
• Time pressure • Consumers’ affective states • Distractions

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Comprehension- Marketing implications
• Marketers need to understand consumers comprehension processes to design effective marketing strategies
– Knowledge and involvement – Remembering – Miscomprehension of marketing information – Exposure environment

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Summary
• Discussed behavioral process of exposure, by which consumers come into contact with marketing information • Emphasized the interrelated cognitive process of attention and comprehension • Learned that exposure to marketing information can occur by accident or as a result of an intentional search for information

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Summary cont.
• Noted that once exposure has occurred the interpretation processes of attention and comprehension begin • Considered that attention and comprehension are strongly influenced by two internal factors – the knowledge structures activated in the exposure situation and the level of consumers’ involvement
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Summary cont.
• Noted that designing and implementing successful marketing strategies require that marketers consider three issues associated with three processes

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End of Lesson 3
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